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夏天来了,你该如何对付蚊子?

更新时间:2017-7-5 19:09:01 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

It’s Mosquito Season. Here’s How to Prepare.
夏天来了,你该如何对付蚊子?

Buzzing mosquitoes, itchy bites, and spray-on repellents are all part of outdoor summer “fun,” and for some of us, they’re unavoidable. If you feel as if you have a huge mosquito target on your back — or arm, or leg — it’s not in your head. Here’s why, and what you can do about it.

嗡嗡不绝的蚊子、令人瘙痒的叮咬和喷雾驱虫剂,这些都是夏天室外“乐趣”的一部分,对于一些人来说,这是不可避免的。你觉得自己的后背、胳膊和腿上好像有个巨大的靶子,专供蚊子叮咬——你的头上却没有。下文告诉你,你为什么容易被蚊子叮咬,以及应该怎么办。

Why Mosquitoes Prefer Some People Over Others

为什么蚊子更喜欢叮咬某些人

“The phenomenon does exist, and you can demonstrate that scientifically,” James Logan, head of the Department of Disease Control at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said of the insects’ apparent preference for some people. “You can also show that’s due to body odor.”

“这种现象确实存在,可以通过科学证实,”伦敦卫生和热带医学院(London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine)疾病控制系主任詹姆斯·洛根(James Logan)说,这种昆虫显然偏爱某些人群。“还可以看到是因为体味。”

Mosquitoes hunt using all of their senses, but smell is a predominant factor. A higher metabolism, higher body temperature and more sweat make you more likely to be bitten. But a person’s scent is just one element. Mosquitoes are attracted to the lactic acid your body produces, the carbon dioxide you exhale and the natural bacteria that live on your skin.

蚊子猎食的时候会用上所有的感官,但气味是主要因素。新陈代谢更快、体温更高、汗水更多的人更有可能被叮咬。但人体的气味只是其中的元素之一。蚊子还会被身体产生的乳酸、呼出的二氧化碳和皮肤上的天然细菌所吸引。

“The good news is that these people smell normal, so they smell like a human being,” Professor Logan said. “The bad news is that they will probably always be that level of attractiveness.”

“好消息是,这样的人闻起来很正常,他们的气味闻上去就是人类的味道,”洛根说。“坏消息是,对于蚊子来说,这些人可能会一直保持这种程度的吸引力。”

Professor Logan and his team are studying the genetic reasons for this attraction, as well as natural repellents produced by people’s bodies.

洛根及其团队正在研究这种吸引力的遗传因素,以及人体所产生的天然驱蚊剂。

“If we identify the genes that control the production of natural repellents and susceptibility to mosquitoes, we can develop a drug that would keep mosquitoes away rather than putting DEET on,” he said.

“如果我们可以确定那些能决定天然驱蚊剂的产生,以及对蚊子易感性的基因,就可以开发一种能让蚊子远离的药物,不用再喷待乙妥驱蚊剂了,”他说。

Keep Mosquitoes at Bay Before They Bite

远离蚊子的叮咬

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend using a repellent registered by the Environmental Protection Agency. The most popular and accessible form of E.P.A.-approved repellent is DEET, short for N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide.

疾病预防与控制中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)推荐使用经国家环保局(Environmental Protection Agency,简称EPA)认证的驱蚊剂。最受欢迎、也最容易买到的EPA认证驱蚊剂是待乙妥(DEET)——“N,N-二乙基间甲苯酰胺”的缩写。

You shouldn’t be fooled by higher DEET concentrations on repellent bottles, however. Unlike the SPF rating in sunscreens, higher concentrations of DEET don’t mean more protection. Instead, the higher the percentage of DEET in a repellent, the longer it will be effective before you have to reapply.

然而,不要被驱蚊剂包装上较高的待乙妥浓度迷惑。和防晒霜的SPF等级不同,浓度更高的待乙妥并不意味着更多的保护。驱蚊剂中待乙妥含量的百分比较高只是意味着使用效果可以持续更长。

Janet McAllister, a research entomologist for the C.D.C.’s division of vector-borne diseases in Fort Collins, Colo., recommends visiting the E.P.A.’s repellent-finder website to choose the right one for your needs.

科罗拉多州柯林斯堡的疾控中心媒传疾病部门昆虫学家珍妮特·麦卡利斯特(Janet McAllister)建议使用者访问EPA的驱蚊剂网站,根据自身需要选择合适的产品。

“If you’re going to be outdoors for eight hours, you might want to try a higher concentration repellent, but if you’re only outdoors gardening for maybe an hour or two, you could use a lower concentration,” Dr. McAllister said.

“如果要到户外玩八小时,可能需要更高浓度的驱蚊剂,但如果只是做一两个小时的户外园艺,就可以使用浓度较低的产品,”麦卡利斯特说。

And those citronella candles — do they work?

还有香茅蜡烛呢,它们有用吗?

“No,” Dr. McAllister said, “not unless you’re standing directly over the candle. It’s the smoke that repels them, not the citronella.”

“没用,”麦卡利斯特说。“除非你直接站在蜡烛上方。驱散蚊子的是烟雾,而不是香茅的味道。”

“They’re very hard to fool,” she added. “Even if you’re standing next to a mosquito trap, they can still tell a live animal from not.”

“它们很难被骗过去,”她补充说。“即使你站在捕蚊器旁边,它们仍然可以分辨出活物。”

Leigh Krietsch Boerner, science editor for The Wirecutter and The Sweethome, product review websites owned by The New York Times, recommends a “dry” insect repellent spray with 25 percent DEET.

《纽约时报》旗下的产品测评网站Wirecutter和The Sweethome的科学编辑利·克里奇·伯尔纳(Leigh Krietsch Boerner)推荐使用待乙妥含量为25%的一种“干性”驱虫喷雾剂。

“We don’t recommend using higher than 30 percent of DEET for anything,” Ms. Boerner said. She and The Sweethome team tested how different repellents dried, smelled and felt on the skin. They applied some to fabric to make sure it dried quickly, didn’t leave residue and didn’t stain clothing.

“我们不建议使用待乙妥含量超过30%的任何产品,”伯尔纳说。她和The Sweethome的团队测试了不同种类驱蚊剂残留在皮肤上的干燥物,以及它们的气味和感觉。他们还使用一些服装面料,测试驱虫剂是否会很快干燥、是否有残留物,是否会给衣服染色。

Dry versions typically spray on lightly and contain a small amount of cornstarch, which leaves your skin feeling dry after application and avoids that oily sensation that comes with other repellent sprays. The downside to dry sprays, however, is that cornstarch (or talc, in some sprays) can leave a white powder on clothing, but it can be easily brushed off, Ms. Boerner said.

干性驱蚊剂通常需要少量喷洒,它含有少量玉米淀粉,使用后令皮肤感觉干爽,没有其他驱蚊喷雾剂那种油腻的感觉。干性喷剂的缺点是玉米淀粉(或一些喷剂中的滑石粉)可能在衣服上留下白色粉末,但是伯尔纳说那很容易擦掉。

Dr. Mark Fradin, a clinical associate professor of dermatology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, has studied the efficacy of repellents. He recommends a three-pronged approach to prevention: avoid mosquitoes’ natural habitat, apply repellent to skin and apply repellent to clothing.

北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校皮肤科临床副教授马克·弗雷丁(Mark Fradin)博士研究了驱蚊剂的功效。他建议采取三管齐下的预防措施:避免去蚊子的自然栖息地,在皮肤上喷洒驱蚊剂,并在衣服上也喷洒驱蚊剂。

Similarly, when you’re applying repellent, don’t skimp. Many people treat it as if it has a “cloaking effect,” and that won’t protect you at all.

而且,使用驱蚊剂时不要吝啬。许多人使用驱蚊剂时就好像它有“斗篷效应”一样,但这样根本不会保护你。

“A dot behind each ear or on each wrist will not set up a force field,” Dr. Fradin said. “If you skip a one-inch swath, they’ll find it.”

“在耳朵后面或者手腕上喷洒一点,这样并不会建立一个力场,”弗雷丁说,“只要你漏喷了一英寸的地方,都会被它们找到。”

If you’re uncomfortable using DEET, Dr. Fradin recommends using two other repellents recommended by the C.D.C.: picaridin and lemon eucalyptus oil.

如果使用待乙妥让你觉得不舒服,弗雷丁建议使用疾控中心推荐的另外两种驱蚊剂:派卡瑞丁(picaridin)和柠檬桉叶油。

Treat Bites the Right Way

治疗叮咬的正确方式

Even with preparation, you’re likely to get at least a few bites over the course of the summer, especially if you’re more prone to bites than others. When it comes to treatment, Dr. Fradin recommends ice, a low-potency hydrocortisone and simple patience.

即使做足了准备,整个夏天里也难免被咬上几口,特别是如果你比别人更容易挨咬的话。在治疗方面,弗雷丁推荐使用冰、低效氢化可的松(hydrocortisone)和一点耐心。

“We try to dissuade people from using a topical Benadryl cream because of the risk of sensitivity or reaction,” he said. He also recommends staying away from caladryl and calamine lotions for the same reason. Many turn to them to alleviate itching, but these may be better options for skin irritation from something like poison ivy.

“我们会尽量建议大家不要使用目前的苯海拉明(Benadryl)软膏,因为有过敏或其他反应的风险。”出于同样的原因,他还建议远离炉甘石乳液。许多人使用它们来减轻瘙痒,但它们更适合皮肤受到毒藤等物刺激的情况。

“I don’t think caladryl does much for insect bites,” Dr. Fradin said.

“我认为炉甘石对蚊虫叮咬没有很大作用,”弗雷丁说。

Should you have an intense reaction to a mosquito (or other insect) bite, prescription-strength steroids may be needed, and you should consult your doctor. You should try not to scratch, and instead gently tap the area around the bite to alleviate itching. After that, you just have to wait it out. Dr. Fradin offered one crumb of comfort.

如果你对蚊子或其他昆虫的叮咬产生了强烈反应,可能需要处方药强度的类固醇,并且应当咨询医生。尽量避免抓挠,只是轻轻点击叮咬处周围的区域以减轻瘙痒。之后,你只需等待瘙痒过去。弗雷丁这里有一个小小的安慰。

“It will eventually stop itching,” he said.

“瘙痒最终总会停止,”他说。

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