您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

李光耀故居争夺战演变成新加坡国家危机

更新时间:2017-7-5 11:01:15 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Dispute Over Singapore Founder’s House Becomes a National Crisis
李光耀故居争夺战演变成新加坡国家危机

Two years after his death, no memorials, statues or streets in Singapore are named after Lee Kuan Yew, who established this city-state as a modern nation and built it into a prosperous showcase for his view that limited political freedoms best suit Asian values.

去世两年来,新加坡没有为李光耀立纪念碑、雕塑,也不曾以他的名字命名街道。正是这个人将这个城市国家确立为现代国家,将它建成了一个能展现其观念的繁荣的窗口,这个观念就是有限的政治自由最适合亚洲的价值观。

Now a bitter and public family dispute over the fate of his modest house has shattered Singapore’s image as an orderly authoritarian ideal and hinted at deeper divisions about its political future.

现在,就他那朴素的住宅发生的一起充满怨恨的公开家庭纠纷,破坏了新加坡作为有序的威权主义典范的形象,同时也暗示出这个国家的政治未来存在着更深层的分歧。

Two of Mr. Lee’s three children have accused their elder brother, the prime minister, of abusing his power to preserve the house against their father’s wishes. The motive, they said, was to shore up his own political legitimacy and ultimately to establish a dynasty for which he was grooming his son.

李光耀三个子女中的弟妹指控他们的兄长、现任新加坡总理李显龙滥用职权,违背父亲的意愿,执意保存故居。他们表示,他的目的是以此支撑自己的政治合法性,并培养自己的儿子,最终建立起一个王朝。

These charges have transformed what on the surface is an ugly estate battle into a national crisis that has raised questions about how this island nation is governed, the basis of the governing party’s uninterrupted 58-year rule and how the country’s leaders are chosen.

表面看来,这是一场不堪的财产争夺战,但因为这些指控演变成了一场国家危机,令外界质疑这个岛国的治理情况,质疑执政党连续58年统治的基础,以及这个国家选择领导人的方式。

And in a place where criticizing the government can land a blogger in jail, the public airing of these grievances from within the ranks of the revered founding family is nothing short of extraordinary.

在一个博客作者会因批评政府而入狱的地方,公开传播来自备受尊敬的建国家族内部的怨愤情绪完全是非同寻常的举动。

“These are allegations of abuse of power, subversion of due process, cronyism and nepotism,” Kirsten Han, an activist and journalist, wrote in a popular blog. “If true, they upend Singapore’s carefully cultivated, squeaky-clean, corruption-free image.

“这些是关于滥用权力、不按程序办事、任人唯亲和裙带关系的指控,”活动人士及新闻工作者韩俐颖(Kirsten Han)在一个很有人气的博客上写到。“如果是真的,它们肯定会颠覆新加坡精心塑造的纯洁无暇、不存在腐败的形象。

“And, more important for the people of Singapore,” she continued, “they reveal that the ‘A Team,’ who have for decades presented themselves as the best option for the country, are actually using the power the electorate has bestowed upon them for their own personal goals.”

“此外,对新加坡人来说最重要的是,”她继续写道,“它们会揭开‘A队’的真实面目,A队成员数十年一直让民众觉得他们是治理这个国家的最佳人选,实际上却正利用选民赋予他们的权力达成自己的个人目的。”

Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, 65, has called the accusations “baseless” and in a high-stakes performance appeared before a special session of Parliament on Monday to rebut the charges.

现年65岁的李显龙(Lee Hsien Loong)总理称这些指控“毫无根据”,并于周一在国会的一场特别会议上加以驳斥,上演了一出利害攸关的大戏。

“When the dust has settled on this unhappy episode, people must know that the government operates transparently, impartially and properly,” he said. “That in Singapore, even Mr. Lee’s house and Mr. Lee’s wishes are subject to the rule of law.”

“待这起不愉快的事件尘埃落定后,人们必定知道政府的运作是透明、公正和得当的,”他说。“知道在新加坡,就连李先生的故居和他的愿望都是接受法律管辖的。”

As much as the prime minister would like to put the whole affair behind him, the crisis shows no signs of abating.

尽管李显龙希望此事尽快平息,但危机并没有任何缓解的迹象。

The prime minister’s younger brother, Lee Hsien Yang, head of the Civil Aviation Authority and a former chief executive of Singtel, a global telecom company, has said he would leave the country indefinitely because he feared government retribution.

身为新加坡民航局(Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore)董事会主席、曾任国际电信公司新电信(Singtel)首席执行官的李显龙之弟李显杨(Lee Hsien Yang)说,他将无限期离开这个国家,因为害怕遭到政府的报复。

On Saturday, he posted a statement on Facebook accusing his brother of carrying out “a vast and coordinated effort” against him and his sister, Lee Wei Ling, a prominent neurologist.

上周六,他在Facebook上发表了一份声明,指责长兄“大动干戈地协调各方力量”对付他和他姐姐、知名神经科医生李玮玲(Lee Wei Ling)。

Singapore’s remarkable rise from a sleepy, British-colonial backwater to a gleaming financial capital, whose banks now challenge Switzerland’s as a global destination for secret money, was due in no small part to the country’s unquestioned adherence to Lee Kuan Yew’s vision. Under his mix of one-party rule, draconian enforcement of public order and business-friendly policies, the country thrived economically and became a model for governments like China’s.

新加坡之所以能从一个偏僻闭塞的英属殖民地,不可思议地崛起为熠熠生辉的金融之都——其银行如今正在挑战瑞士银行作为全球秘密资金目的地的地位——在很大程度上是因为这个国家毫不迟疑地按照李光耀制定的愿景行事。他推行一党制,主张严格执法以维持治安,出台有利于商业发展的政策,所有这些让新加坡在经济上蓬勃发展,并被中国等各国政府视为楷模。

Lee Kuan Yew’s People’s Action Party has never lost its hold on power since 1959, and today it controls 83 of 89 elected seats in Parliament.

自1959年以来,李光耀的人民行动党(People's Action Party)从未丧失执政党地位,目前国会的89个民选席位当中有83个为其所控制。

One of his last wishes was that the house where he had lived for nearly 70 years be demolished after his death. He did not want it to become a museum, he said, where visitors would “trudge through” and turn the place into “a shambles.”

李光耀的一个遗愿是,他住了将近70年的房子在他死后必须拆除。他说,他不想让自己的故居变成一座博物馆,供游客穿行其中,弄得“乱七八糟”。

The house itself, a musty five-bedroom affair at 38 Oxley Road, is not grand. More than 100 years old, it lacks a foundation, and dampness creeps up the walls. It suffers from decades of deferred maintenance. Walls are stained, and some have cracks. Furnishings have not been updated in years.

这栋位于欧思礼路38号、共有五个卧室的房子本身不算太起眼。这是一座有一百多年历史的老宅,没有地基,湿气沿着墙壁向上升腾。年久失修之下,墙面斑驳,有的还有裂缝。家具也是多年前置办的。

A pair of urns containing the ashes of Mr. Lee and his wife sit side by side on a small shelf in the main room.

堂屋内的一个小架子上并排摆着两个骨灰瓮,里面装着李光耀及其妻子的骨灰。

Despite the wealth created under Mr. Lee’s leadership, who was prime minister from 1959 until 1990, the house is emblematic of his modest lifestyle and a symbol of clean government.

李光耀在1959年至1990年担任总理期间,带领新加坡创造了大量财富,而这栋房子既是他的简朴生活方式的写照,也是政府为政清廉的象征。

But the home’s historical significance is undeniable. A basement room, set up with a long table and chairs, was the meeting place in the 1950s for the independence leaders who eventually rose to power, the spot where the People’s Action Party was born.

它还有着无可否认的历史意义。摆有一张长桌和若干椅子的地下室,是最终掌权的独立运动领导人在1950年代开会的地方,是人民行动党的诞生地。

But Mr. Lee left clear instructions in his will that the house should be torn down despite its historical value. The unsentimental leader doubted anyone would care, even his children.

但李光耀在遗嘱中明确表示,这栋房子必须拆除——尽管它具有历史价值。这位很少感情用事的领导人不觉得有谁会在意,哪怕是他的子女。

“They have old photos to remind them of the past,” he scoffed in a 2011 interview.

“他们有老照片用来缅怀过去,”他在2011年的一次采访中略带嘲弄地说道。

He stipulated that his daughter, who took care of him in his last years, could live there as long as she wished. She still does. She is only 62, so the final disposition of the property might not come for decades.

他规定,照顾他晚年生活的女儿如果愿意可以一直在那里住下去。她目前还住在里面。她只有62岁,因此对这处房产的最终处置或许要再过数十年才见分晓。

But the issue burst into public view in mid-June when the two younger siblings issued a blistering statement titled “What Has Happened to Lee Kuan Yew’s Values?” They questioned their brother’s “character, conduct, motives and leadership.”

但6月中旬,李显杨和李玮玲以《李光耀的价值观哪里去了?》为题,发表了一份愤怒的声明,让这一问题猛然进入公众视野。他们质疑了兄长李显龙的“人品、行为、动机以及领导力”。

They accused him of creating a secret government committee to circumvent their father’s will for his own political benefit and of misusing his position “to drive his personal agenda.”

他们指责他为自己的政治利益计,设立了一个秘密的政府委员会,妨碍父亲遗愿的执行,还说他滥用职权去“达到个人目的”。

Singaporeans are divided. Some see the value in preserving a piece of Singapore’s history while others think that Lew Kuan Yew’s final wish should be honored. And some believe the whole affair should have been kept private.

新加坡人对此各执己见。一些人认为,保留这栋承载着新加坡一段历史的建筑自有其意义;另一些人则认为,李光耀的遗嘱应该受到尊重。还有人认为,整件事应该在私下里解决。

“This is a personal family issue, and it shouldn’t be brought to the national level because it might create a bad impression around the world,” said Tan Chuan Jin, 19, an information technology student.

“这是家事,不应该上升到国家层面,因为可能给世界各地的人留下不好的印象,”现年19岁的信息科技专业学生谭传金(音,Tan Chuan Jin)说。

But just as it was difficult to separate Mr. Lee from the country he built, it is impossible to erase the politics from the house. Preserving it would provide a physical reminder not only of Mr. Lee, analysts said, but also of the current prime minister’s connection to him.

不过,正如很难把李光耀和他缔造的这个国家区分开,这处故居的政治色彩也很难被抹去。分析人士称,保留故居不仅是对李光耀的纪念,还可以实实在在地提醒人们现任总理和他的关系。

“For the ruling party, the house is a symbol of their legacy,” said Li Shengwu, Lee Hsien Yang’s son, an economist at Harvard University. “It is a symbol uniquely associated with them and gives them legitimacy.”

“对执政党来说,这栋房子是他们的遗产的象征,”李显扬之子、哈佛大学经济学者李绳武说。“它是一个与他们有着独特联系的象征,给他们以合法性。”

But questions of legitimacy and abuse of power cut to the core weakness of a one-party state.

但对合法性以及滥用权力的质疑,直指一党制国家的核心弊端。

“The people are more aware that the key issue is the abuse of political power by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and the People’s Action Party, but there are few checks and balances to prevent such abuse,” Sinapan Samydorai, the director of Asean (for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations) affairs at Think Center, a nonprofit policy center in Singapore, said in an email.

“民众愈发意识到,关键问题在于李显龙总理和人民行动党滥用政治权力,但甚少有防止权力滥用的制衡措施,”新加坡非营利性政策研究中心思考中心(Think Center)的东盟事务总监西纳潘·萨米多拉伊(Sinapan Samydorai)在一封电子邮件中表示。

“The trust and legitimacy of the government is being eroded, and the people’s confidence in the system may slowly evaporate,” he added.

“政府的信用和合法性正受到侵蚀,民众对这一制度的信心会慢慢瓦解,”他补充道。

So more than Lee Hsien Loong’s reputation was on the line when he went before Parliament on Monday.

因此,当李显龙周一前往国会作证时,押上的不只是他个人的声誉。

On the dynasty question, he said his son, Li Hongyi, had no interest in politics, and Mr. Lee denied that he wanted to preserve the house to exploit his father’s “aura.”

谈及关于建立王朝的质疑,李显龙说他儿子李鸿毅(Li Hongyi)对政治不感兴趣,他还否认自己意图通过保存故居来利用父亲的“光环”。

“If I needed such magic properties to bolster my authority even after being your P.M. for 13 years, I must be in a pretty sad state,” he said.

“如果我在做了你们13年总理之后,还需要用这种魔法宅子来巩固我的权威,我的处境一定很可悲,”他说。

As for the no-longer-secret committee, he insisted that he had nothing to do with it and had recused himself from any government decisions relating to the house. The committee’s job, he said, was only to “list options for the house, so that when a decision does become necessary one day” the government would be prepared.

至于那个不再秘密的秘密委员会,他坚称与自己无关,还说自己回避了任何同故居有关的政府决定。他说该委员的职责只是列出处置房子的选项,以便日后需要做出决定时有这些选项可供政府考虑。

But the younger brother, Lee Hsien Yang, said Monday that the prime minister was using the committee to “attack the validity of our father’s final will.” Any such questions should be decided by a court, he said.

但他弟弟李显扬周一表示,现任总理正利用该委员会“攻击父亲遗嘱的有效性”。他说,任何此类问题都应由法院决定。

Analysts said the prime minister needed to put the issue to rest and to reassure the public that Singapore’s government was fair-minded and aboveboard.

分析人士称,总理必须平息此事,并让公众相信:新加坡政府公平持正、光明正大。

It was not clear on Monday whether the day of speeches, which included canned questions but no discussion or debate, had achieved that.

周一当天还看不出总理的演讲——允许提一些预设的问题,但没有讨论或辩论——是否实现了这种效果。

“So far it has been a tightly scripted process that seeks to show that the processes and controls in government are adequate and so the alleged abuses could not have been possible,” said Eugene Tan, an associate law professor at Singapore Management University. “But the jury is still out as to whether they have been sufficient to persuade and convince.”

“截至目前一切严格按脚本进行,旨在表明政府的流程和管控都是正当的,因此不可能存在所谓的滥用权力,”新加坡管理大学(Singapore Management University)法学副教授陈庆文(Eugene Tan)说。“但尚不清楚其说服力是否足够大。”

The hearing continues for a second and final day on Tuesday.

为期两天的听证会于周二继续。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表