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泄密者曼宁的孤独之旅(三):“我厌倦了伪装”

更新时间:2017-6-24 10:29:40 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Long, Lonely Road of Chelsea Manning
泄密者曼宁的孤独之旅(三):“我厌倦了伪装”

Seven years later, it remains difficult to overstate the impact of the Afghan and Iraq war logs, or the later publication of the diplomatic cables. “The material touched on virtually every relationship the United States had around the world,” Crowley, the former State Department official, says of the cables. Repercussions came swiftly: Carlos Pascual, the United States ambassador to Mexico, resigned over cables in which he cast doubt on the effectiveness of the Mexican war on drugs, a revelation that poisoned Pascual’s relationship with the Mexican president. Ambassador Gene Cretz was recalled from Libya after his cables detailed the peculiar workings of the regime of Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi, including a squad of female Ukrainian bodyguards. The release of cables regarding the Tunisian strongman Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali are often credited with helping to inspire the uprising in that country.

七年之后,无论是阿富汗和伊拉克战争日志,还是后来公开的外交电文,所产生的影响都还是无法估量的。“这些材料几乎触及了美国在世界各地的所有外交关系,”国务院前官员克劳利谈及电文时说。其后果旋即浮出水面:美国驻墨西哥大使卡洛斯·帕斯夸尔(Carlos Pascual)因为在电文中对墨西哥禁毒战的效果表示怀疑而辞职——相关电文的公布破坏了帕斯夸尔和墨西哥时任总统之间的关系。驻利比亚大使金尼·克瑞兹(Gene Cretz)被召回,因为他在电文中详细描绘了穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲(Muammar el-Qaddafi)政权怪异的行事方式,其中包括雇佣一群乌克兰女保镖。人们还常常认为,与突尼斯强人领袖宰因·阿比丁·本·阿里(Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali)有关的电文被公布,在激发该国民众起义方面发挥了作用。

The Afghan and Iraq documents brought home, in exactly the way that Manning had hoped, the messiness of the two conflicts. The Guardian wrote in an introduction that the release of the material from Afghanistan revealed a war in stark contrast with the “tidied up and sanitized ‘public’ war, as glimpsed through official communiqués as well as the necessarily limited snapshots of embedded reporting.”

与曼宁期待的情形一致,关于阿富汗和伊拉克战争的文件,向世人明明白白地展现了这两场冲突的龌龊之处。《卫报》(Guardian)在一篇介绍性文字中表示,来自阿富汗的文件所揭露的战争,截然不同于“经过倒饬和美化的‘公共’战争”,不同于人们从官方公报和必然受限的简略的嵌入式新闻报道中瞥见的那种。

American officials, caught off guard by the leaks, were furious. Elizabeth Dibble, a State Department official, later testified that the release of the cables prompted “horror and disbelief that our diplomatic communications had been released and were available on public websites for the world to see.”

猝不及防的文件外泄令美国官员极为愤怒。国务院官员伊莉莎白·迪布尔(Elizabeth Dibble)后来作证说,电文的发布令人“震惊和难以置信,我们的外交往来就这样被公之于众,全世界的人都可以在公共网站上看到”。

The issue of whether American interests had been adversely affected by the release of the cables remains a charged one. In the full text of the Afghan war logs that appeared on the WikiLeaks site, Julian Assange made only partial redactions, leaving intact the names of some of the Afghans who had collaborated with coalition forces. (He showed what CNN later described as a “much heavier hand in redacting” names from the Iraq war logs.) In 2010, Representative Mike Rogers, a Michigan Republican, said that “we know for a fact that people will likely be killed because of this information being disclosed.” Subsequent reviews by The Associated Press and McClatchy found this risk to be “overstated,” and at Manning’s sentencing, government witnesses testified that no American deaths could be attributed to the leaks. Still, Crowley said, a lack of evidence of fatalities was not the same thing as a lack of damage: “She burned a number of intelligence sources,” he said. “She placed Afghans in danger who were telling us what the Taliban was doing in their villages.”

电文的发布是否损害了美国的利益,目前仍是一个充满争议的话题。维基解密网站发布完整的阿富汗战争日志时,朱利安·阿桑奇只是涂黑了部分内容,对一些与联军串通的阿富汗人的名字未作处理。(不过,如CNN后来所言,对于伊拉克战争日志里的名字,他“涂黑时下手要重很多”。)2010年,密歇根州共和党众议员麦克·罗杰斯(Mike Rogers)表示,“可以肯定的是,一些人有可能因为这些信息遭到泄露而被杀害。”但美联社(The Associated Press)和麦克拉奇报业(McClatchy)进行的后续核查显示,这种风险被“夸大”了,而且在曼宁接受审判时,来自政府部门的证人作证说,没有任何美国人的死亡可以被归因为她的泄密之举。不过,克劳利说,缺乏与致人死亡有关的证据并不等于没有造成伤害:“她毁掉了许多情报源,”他说。“那些向我们告发塔利班在其村中所作所为的阿富汗人,因为她而置身险境。”

In her cage in Kuwait, Manning registered none of the fallout. “I was completely isolated,” she said. At a certain point, she concluded, “I’ve been forgotten about, and I’ve just disappeared.” She figured that Lamo had turned her in, but she wasn’t sure if word of her involvement in the leaks had been made public. It was the start of the hot season in Kuwait, and dust swirled in from outside, lodging in her teeth. Her only human contact was with the guards who brought her meals. “I had told the detention center when I got there that I was trans,” Manning told me. “ ‘I’m a woman,’ I said matter-of-factly. They laughed.” In utter isolation, Manning found herself consumed with rage and sadness. Officials observed what Manning’s attorney called an episode of “yelling uncontrollably, screaming, shaking, babbling, banging your head against your cell and mumbling.”

在科威特的那个钢笼里,曼宁对事情的余波一无所知。“我完全与世隔绝。”她说。在某种程度上,她下结论说,“我已经被遗忘,我根本就是消失了。”她估摸自己被拉莫出卖了,但不确定有关她参与泄密事件的消息是否已被公开。当时的科威特刚刚进入暑季,从外边刮进来的尘土粘在她的牙齿上。她唯一能接触到的人是给她送饭的警卫。“我一到拘押中心就告诉他们,我是跨性别者,”曼宁告诉我。“‘我是女人,’我坦言相告。他们笑了起来。”在完全的孤立中,曼宁发现自己正被愤怒和悲伤吞噬。官员们注意到了曼宁的律师所说的她“不受控制地呼喊、尖叫、颤抖、含糊叫嚷、用头撞向牢笼、喃喃自语”的情景。

Manning told me: “I was afraid I was going to be in that little cell or something like that little cell for the rest of my life. And that bad things were going to happen to me.” After a week, she fashioned a noose from bedclothes and made what she told me was a “halfhearted attempt” at suicide. “I kind of knew it wasn’t going to work.” It got the staff’s attention, and according to a medical evaluation later obtained by Manning’s legal team, a military doctor would diagnose anxiety, depression and “probable gender identity disorder.” She was given an antidepressant, which made her nose bleed and caused serious nausea. She couldn’t eat. Her skin eventually turned sallow. In late July, four days after the Afghan logs appeared in The Guardian and other papers, Manning was shackled and loaded onto a chartered military flight. She said that previously, guards had told her she would be “whisked away to a Navy cruiser” for months; now her escorts said she was going to Guantánamo. Halfway through the flight, the story changed a final time: She was going to the brig at the Marine base at Quantico, in Virginia.

曼宁对我说:“我担心自己后半生都会在那个小牢房里或类似的小牢房里度过。我觉得会有糟糕的事情发生在我身上。”一周后,她用铺盖做了一个套索,进行了一次她称为“半心半意的”自杀尝试。“我差不多知道,我死不了。”它引起了看管人员的注意,根据曼宁的法律团队后来获得的医疗评估,一名军医诊断她患有焦虑症、抑郁症,“很可能还有性别身分障碍”。医生给她开了抗抑郁药,导致她鼻腔出血,严重恶心。她吃不下饭。她的皮肤最终变成了蜡黄色。7月底,阿富汗日志在《卫报》等报纸上公布四天后,曼宁被戴上镣铐,送上一架军用包机。她说,之前看守对她说,她将被“送到一艘海军巡洋舰上”关几个月。现在,押送者又说要把她送往关塔那摩。在飞行途中,情况最后一次发生变化:她将被送往弗吉尼亚匡蒂科海军基地的禁闭室。

It was there, on arrival, that she learned the world knew who she was. “So you’re Manning!” a heavyset Marine said with unnerving enthusiasm. Manning was all over Fox News, he added. In transferring Manning to Quantico, the government said it was providing Manning with facilities better suited to her fractured mental state. But a 2011 military investigation, undertaken in part as a response to Manning’s treatment, would reveal the opposite: At Quantico, Manning spent 23 hours a day in a 6-by-8-foot cell, for nearly nine months, much of it on Prevention of Injury, or P.O.I., status, in conditions that a United Nations special rapporteur later said could qualify as torture. While on P.O.I. watch, Manning wore what’s known as a “suicide smock,” a white nylon garment that is all but impossible to twist or rip into a noose. She had no pillow, no sheets. She was required to give regular verbal confirmation during the day that she was O.K. (After the investigation, the military ordered that Quantico’s whole pretrial confinement area be shut down.)

到达之后,她才得知,全世界都已经知道她是谁。“所以,你就是曼宁!”一名魁梧的海军陆战队员带着令人不安的热情说。他还说,福克斯新闻天天都在说曼宁的事。在把曼宁转往匡蒂科时,政府声称会给她提供更适合她脆弱精神状况的设施。不过,2011年,部分作为对曼宁遭遇的回应而进行的一项军事调查表明,情况正相反:在匡蒂科,曼宁每天有23个小时待在6乘8英尺大的牢房里,关了近9个月,大部分时间是处于预防伤害(Prevention of Injury,简称POI)状态。联合国特别调查员后来称她的生活条件可以被称为折磨。在预防伤害期间,曼宁穿着所谓的“防自杀罩衣”,它是一种白色尼龙服装,几乎不可能扭动或撕成套索。她没有枕头,也没有床单。白天,她被要求定期口头确认自己没有问题(调查结束后,军方下令关闭匡蒂科的整个审判前监禁区)。

When I asked Manning this spring to describe those conditions, she answered in the present tense. “Emotions can be more intense,” she said. “There isn’t any release for them. A mean comment by a guard” — commonly a gibe about her gender — “can set you off. Completely off. I know I have stood in a cell at times, locked down with nowhere to go, pacing with anger and frustration. It just stews inside of you, and you’re helpless,” she went on. “I just start yelling, at no one in particular, or singing at the top of my lungs.”

今年春天,我让曼宁描述当时的生活情况时,她用现在时态给予回答。“情绪更激烈,”她说,“没有任何释放的出口。看守一句刻薄的话”——通常是对她性别的嘲弄——“会把你逼疯。彻底逼疯。有时我知道自己困在牢里,无处可去,因愤怒和沮丧而不安地踱步。内心很煎熬,特别无助,”她接着说道。“我开始喊叫,不是冲着某个人喊,或者声嘶力竭地唱歌。”

But Manning could occasionally receive outside visitors, and her aunt came to the brig. “Even though it was behind a Plexiglas window and we couldn’t talk without recording equipment around,” Manning told me, “it was one of the most powerful meetings I’d ever had.” They whispered to each other. “We love you,” her aunt told her. “We miss you.” They made plans to hire an independent attorney, eventually selecting David Coombs, a forceful lawyer in his early 40s who had served more than a decade in the Army’s Judge Advocate General’s Corps.

不过,曼宁偶尔可以会见外面的来访者,她的姑妈来到看守所。“虽然我们中间隔着树脂玻璃,周围都是录音设备,”曼宁对我说,“但对我来说,那是最有力的会面之一。”她们小声交谈。“我们爱你,”姑妈对她说,“我们想念你。”她们打算请一名独立律师,最终选择了戴维·库姆斯(David Coombs),他是一名四十出头、作风强硬的律师,曾在军法署(Army’s Judge Advocate General’s Corps)供职十多年。

Word of Manning’s treatment in Kuwait and Quantico had begun to filter out, reaching legal eminences like Laurence Tribe and Kwame Anthony Appiah, who signed an open letter criticizing what they described as “conditions that are illegal and immoral.” In the spring of 2011, the government transferred Manning again, this time to the Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility at Fort Leavenworth. In Kansas, she was released into general population; it was, Manning recalled, “an utter shock to the system, because I had been in shackles everywhere I went or in a small room or a cage.”

曼宁在科威特和匡蒂科的遭遇开始传出,传到了劳伦斯·特赖布(Laurence Tribe)和克瓦米·安东尼·阿皮亚(Kwame Anthony Appiah)等法律界名人那里,他们签署了一封公开信,批评他们所称的“非法和不道德的拘留条件”。2011年春,政府再次将曼宁转走,这一次是送往莱文沃思堡的中西部联合管教所(Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility)。在堪萨斯州,她被和其他人关押在一起。曼宁回忆说,这“彻底动摇了整个系统,因为之前不管去哪里,我都戴着镣铐,或者被关在小房间或牢笼里”。

At the facility, inmates weren’t required to work, so she spent her time in the library, helping Coombs and his assistants prepare her case. She faced a staggering number of violations, 22 in all, from circumventing security mechanisms to aiding the enemy, an offense that carried with it the possibility of life in prison. For two months that spring, with Manning moved to a civilian prison outside Fort Meade, in Maryland, Coombs sparred with government lawyers, highlighting what he termed the general “lawlessness” of Manning’s unit and the poor security protocols in place in her SCIF. He eventually argued that Manning’s gender dysphoria — and the inability of the Army to provide treatment — might have affected Manning’s mental capacity and judgment. A few days later, the judge found Manning guilty on all but two counts. Manning was spared a conviction for aiding the enemy and avoided a life sentence. Manning told me that she was relieved, and not only for the obvious reasons: She worried that an aiding-the-enemy charge would set a frightening precedent for the prosecution of whistle-blowers. “I still worry about how that charge can be misused,” Manning said.

在这个地方,囚犯不需要工作,所以她待在图书馆里,帮助库姆斯和助手们准备她的案件。她面对数量惊人的22项违规行为指控,从规避安全机制到通敌,后者有可能令她被判终身监禁。春天的两个月里,曼宁被转移到马里兰州米德尔堡之外的一座平民监狱,库姆斯与政府律师们争吵,强调了曼宁所在部队单位存在他所说的普遍的“目无法纪”状态,以及她的SCIF中的安全规章很糟糕。最后,他辩称,曼宁的性别焦虑——以及军队无法提供治疗——可能会影响到曼宁的智力和判断力。几天后,法官判决曼宁几乎犯有全部罪行,只有两项除外。她被免除了通敌罪行,避免了终身监禁。曼宁告诉我,这个判决令她如释重负,不仅仅是因为那些明显的原因:她还担心通敌指控将为起诉泄密者定下一个可怕的先例。“我现在仍然担心这种指控遭到滥用,”曼宁说。

She herself had resolved not to make her own gender identity public during the court-martial, worried that it would complicate an already unwieldy trial. But listening to the testimony of Lauren McNamara, a transgender friend who testified at the sentencing hearing, she found she had reached a breaking point. “I was tired of pretending,” she told me. She wrote a statement identifying herself as Chelsea, a name she used as a child for her handle on the Sims video game. On Aug. 22, David Coombs appeared on NBC’s “Today” show. The co-host Savannah Guthrie read from the statement: “As I transition into the next phase of my life, I want everyone to know the real me. I am Chelsea Manning. I am female.” Manning didn’t see the segment or the reaction to it. She was on a plane, on her way to the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth.

她自己决定不在法庭上公开自己的性别认同,担心这会使已经很繁琐的审判变得更加复杂化。但是,听到在判决听证会上作证的跨性别朋友劳伦·麦克纳马拉(Lauren McNamara)的证词,她发现自己已经到了崩溃的极限。“我厌倦了伪装,”她告诉我。她写了一个声明,将自己称为切尔西,这个名字是她小时候玩Sims游戏时用的。8月22日,戴维·库姆斯出现在NBC的《今日》(Today)节目上。主持人之一萨万娜·格思里(Savannah Guthrie)读了她的声明:“当我转变到人生下一个阶段的时候,我希望大家认识真正的我。我是切尔西·曼宁。我是女性。”曼宁没有看到这段节目以及人们对它的反应。她当时正在前往美国莱文沃思堡军事监狱的飞机上。

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