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更新时间:2017-6-20 9:37:35 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Maldives, Tourist Haven, Casts Wary Eye on Growing Islamic Radicalism

MALÉ, Maldives — This island paradise made news recently for a reason other than its pristine beaches and high-end resorts: the gruesome killing of a liberal blogger, stabbed to death by multiple assailants.


The killing in April of Yameen Rasheed, 29, a strong voice against growing Islamic radicalization, has amplified safety concerns — particularly for foreign tourists, a highly vulnerable group and one that the islands’ economy depends on. It is no idle threat, in a country that by some accounts supplies the world’s highest per-capita number of foreign fighters to extremist outfits in Syria and Iraq.

29岁的亚明·拉希德(Yameen Rasheed)曾强烈批评不断增长的伊斯兰激进化,他在今年4月被杀,这件事加剧了人们对安全的担心,尤其是在外国游客中,外国游客是个极易受危害的群体,而这个岛国的经济依赖于他们。对此地来说,这不是吓唬吓唬而已,据某种估计,马尔代夫为叙利亚和伊拉克的极端主义团伙提供的外国战士人数占全国人口的比例在世界上最高。

Last summer, the government introduced the country’s first state policy on terrorism, calling for increased safety awareness at resorts and security assessments at seaports and in airports.


In January, the Republic of Maldives’ Islamic Ministry released policy recommendations that included a provision instructing tourism companies to provide visitors with written rules on how to conduct themselves in a Muslim country.


But critics say these initiatives are cosmetic, doing little to standardize safety policies, and have come only after international stakeholders pressured Maldivian authorities to acknowledge the threat extremism poses to visitors.


The Maldives’ unusual approach to tourism, in which a single island houses a single resort, has also meant that entire islands without robust security teams are vulnerable to being seized.


A collection of about 1,200 islands in the Indian Ocean, the Maldives hosted 1.2 million visitors last year, including more than 30,000 Americans.


It was governed as a moderate Islamic nation for three decades under the autocratic rule of the former president, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom. But after the country made a transition to democracy in 2008, space opened up for greater religious expression, and conservative ideologies like Salafism cropped up.

马尔代夫曾被前总统穆蒙·阿卜杜尔·加尧姆(Maumoon Abdul Gayoom)专制统治了30年,那个时期,它被视为是一个温和的伊斯兰国家。但是,该国于2008年过渡到民主制度后,为更多的宗教表达开放了空间,冒出了萨拉菲主义等保守的意识形态。

“You can’t say all of Salafism is radical Islam,” said Azra Naseem, a Maldivian researcher on extremism at Dublin City University. “But it’s a form of Islam that’s completely brought into the Maldives from Saudi Arabia and other places. Now, it’s being institutionalized, because everybody in the universities, in the Islamic Ministry, they are all spreading this form of Islam. Within that, of course, there will be jihadis.”

“你不能说萨拉菲主义全都是激进的伊斯兰教,”在都柏林城市大学研究极端主义的马尔代夫人阿兹拉·纳西姆(Azra Naseem)说。“但这是一种完全是从沙特阿拉伯和其他地方流入马尔代夫的伊斯兰教旨。如今,这种意识形态正在制度化,因为大学里的所有人、伊斯兰事务部里的所有人都在传播这种形式的伊斯兰教。这种情况下,当然会有圣战。”

Over the years, efforts to report on radical cells have been met with violent resistance. In 2014, a prominent Maldivian journalist who wrote about secularism and extremism, Ahmed Rilwan Abdulla, was abducted.

多年来,对激进小组进行报道的努力一直遇到暴力的抵抗。 2014年,写过关于世俗主义和极端主义文章的马尔代夫知名记者艾哈迈德·里万·阿卜杜拉(Ahmed Rilwan Abdulla)被人绑架。

Rasheed was part of a campaign dedicated to finding Abdulla, who was a close friend and is still missing.


Police said they had arrested seven suspects in May in Rasheed’s killing, including two men captured in CCTV footage at the crime scene. But those close to Rasheed have expressed little hope that the case will be solved without pressure from outside the Maldives.


Last month, the lawyer representing Rasheed’s family submitted a complaint to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights calling for an independent and international investigation.


The last major attack in which foreigners were injured here occurred almost a decade ago when a group of militants detonated a homemade bomb at a public park in the capital, Malé, injuring a dozen tourists. But occasionally, the security of visitors has been breached in other ways.


Last year, two resorts were robbed by groups of masked intruders, and security guards were tied up. Robberies at resorts are rare. But Ismail Ali, a police spokesman, said in an interview with The Maldives Independent that when they do happen, they are often inside jobs. Gaining access to most of the islands, he added, is relatively simple.

去年,两个度假岛曾遭到一群蒙面入侵者的抢劫,保安人员被绑了起来。很少有度假岛发生抢劫的事情。但警方发言人伊斯梅尔·阿里(Ismail Ali)在接受《马尔代夫独立报》的采访时表示,确实发生抢劫案时,往往是内部人作案。他还说,大部分岛屿相对来说很容易到达。

“Most of the resorts have one official access point. There are security posts set up to monitor who comes on and off the island,” he said. “But like any island, it’s fairly easy to enter from other sides as well.”


The tourism industry has mostly remained off limits as a target for terrorism, but security experts say many resorts are ill equipped to fend off an attack on par with those that have occurred in places like Tunisia and Bali, Indonesia.


A security chief from a resort in a northern atoll of Maldives said the country’s resorts are not prepared, adding that regulations and policies from the government were needed to address the issue. The security chief spoke on the condition of anonymity because of a fear of being targeted by the government, which has a history of jailing individuals who discuss sensitive issues.


Abeer Ismail, the information officer at the Ministry of Tourism, said that as far as he knew, no safety concerns had been raised officially by any resorts.

旅游部的信息官员艾米尔·伊斯梅尔(Abeer Ismail)说,据他所知,还没有一个度假岛正式表达过任何安全担忧。

Complicating those security measures, many say, is an expectation from high-end clientele that they will not be inconvenienced.


Brig. Gen. Zakariyya Mansoor, director general of the National Counter Terrorism Center, a recently formed government office spearheading efforts to increase security preparedness, agreed that it was challenging to identify noninvasive solutions and maintain the tranquil environment expected by tourists.

扎卡里亚·曼索尔准将(Brig. Gen. Zakariyya Mansoor)是最近成立的政府机构国家反恐中心的总干事,该中心将带头加强安全防范工作,曼索尔承认,找到非干扰的解决方案,维护游客对宁静环境的预期,是有挑战性的工作。

But he said the country was well prepared to handle terrorist threats, pointing to the national policy on terrorism and the regular staging of simulated attacks at tourist facilities for training purposes.


“There are certain criteria that every resort must meet in terms of safety and security,” Mansoor said. “Resort owners and resort operators are very cooperative with us.”


Ibrahim Hussain Shihab, a spokesman for the president of the Maldives, Abdulla Yameen, wrote in an email that the government takes all breaches of security, including thefts, seriously, and that security forces are “more than adequately trained.” As such, he said there was no immediate need for security forces at the resorts to carry firearms.

马尔代夫总统阿卜杜拉·亚明(Abdulla Yameen)的发言人易卜拉欣·侯赛因·希哈布(Ibrahim Hussain Shihab)在一封电子邮件中写道,政府认真对待一切有损安全的行为、包括盗窃,国内的安全部队“受过充分的训练”。他说,因此,度假岛对携带武器的安全部队没有紧迫需求。