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离奇海难:美国军舰撞货轮险些沉没

更新时间:2017-6-19 18:29:33 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Sleeping Sailors on U.S.S. Fitzgerald Awoke to a Calamity at Sea
离奇海难:美国军舰撞货轮险些沉没

As a U.S. destroyer cruised off the waters of Japan in clear weather after 2 a.m. Saturday, only a few dozen of the crew of 350 were likely to be awake: standing watch, keeping the engines running, manning the bridge.

周六凌晨2点过后,天气清朗,一艘美国驱逐舰正航行在日本海域附近。此时,船上350名船员中可能只有几十人是醒着的:站岗、保持发动机运转、在舰桥上值班。

Then, say Navy officers with decades of experience at sea, there were probably minutes of sheer terror aboard the Fitzgerald before the collision with an enormous container ship that killed seven sailors.

然后,一些有数十年海上航行经验的海军军官说,在“菲茨杰拉德”号(Fitzgerald)与一艘巨大的集装箱船相撞,导致七名水兵死亡前,船上出现了持续时间可能长达几分钟的极度恐惧。

“My guess is they suddenly saw the lights of the other ship coming toward them and tried to veer off,” said retired Adm. James G. Stavridis, whose book “Destroyer Captain” recounts his time commanding a similar ship in the mid-1990s. “Suddenly your ship is sinking under you. It’s terrifying.”

“我猜他们突然看到了迎面而来的另一艘船上的灯光,试图转向,”退役海军上将詹姆斯·G·斯塔夫里迪斯(James G. Stavridis)说。斯塔夫里迪斯的著作《驱逐舰舰长》(Destroyer Captain)详细记述了他在90年代中期指挥一艘类似舰船的经历。“突然之间,你脚下的船正在下沉。很可怕。”

Navy leaders Sunday hailed the efforts of the surviving sailors who struggled to seal off compartments and pump out the water that poured in through gaping holes torn in the starboard side.

海军领袖周日称赞了幸存船员的努力。他们奋力封锁船舱,并抽出了通过右侧撕开的一个大洞灌进船里的水。

“Heroic efforts prevented the flooding from catastrophically spreading, which could have caused the ship to founder or sink,” said Vice Adm. Joseph P. Aucoin, commander of the Navy’s Seventh Fleet. “It could have been much worse.”

“英勇举措阻止了海水灾难性地蔓延,那本会导致舰船沉没或下沉,”海军第七舰队(Seventh Fleet)指挥官、海军中将约瑟夫·P·奥库安(Joseph P. Aucoin)说。“情况本来可能严重得多。”

With the aid of tugboats, the Fitzgerald returned Saturday to its home port, the U.S. base at Yokosuka, Japan, south of Tokyo.

在拖船的帮助下,“菲茨杰拉德”号周六回到母港,即位于东京以南横须贺的美国基地。

As hundreds of anxious spouses, children and fellow sailors waited for word, Navy divers entered flooded compartments below decks and recovered the bodies of seven sailors, according to former Navy officials.

据前海军军官介绍,在数百名配偶、子女和水兵战友焦急等候中,海军潜水员进入甲板下被淹没的船舱,找到了七名水兵的遗体。

The Navy released the names Sunday night of the seven sailors aboard the Fitzgerald who were killed in the collision with a container ship. They were all located in flooded berths, the Navy said.

周日晚上,海军公布了“菲茨杰拉德”号上七名在此次与一艘集装箱船相撞事故中死亡的水兵姓名。海军称,他们都是在被水淹没的舱位上找到的。

The sailors were identified as Dakota Kyle Rigsby, 19, of Palmyra, Virginia; Shingo Alexander Douglass, 25, of San Diego; Ngoc T Truong Huynh, 25, of Oakville, Connecticut; Noe Hernandez, 26, of Weslaco, Texas; Carlosvictor Ganzon Sibayan, 23, of Chula Vista, California; Xavier Alec Martin, 24, of Halethorpe, Maryland; and Gary Leo Rehm Jr., 37, of Elyria, Ohio.

公布的七名水兵分别是来自弗吉尼亚州帕尔迈拉19岁的达科塔·凯尔·里格斯比(Dakota Kyle Rigsby)、圣迭戈25岁的慎吾·亚历山大·道格拉斯(Shingo Alexander Douglass)、康涅狄格州奥克维尔25岁的玉·T·张·黄(Ngoc T Truong Huynh)、得克萨斯州韦斯拉科26岁的诺埃·赫南德斯(Noe Hernandez)、加利福尼亚州丘拉维斯塔23岁的卡尔罗斯维克托·甘佐·西巴扬(Carlosvictor Ganzon Sibayan)、马里兰州黑尔索普24岁的沙维尔·亚历克·马丁(Xavier Alec Martin)和俄亥俄州伊利里亚37岁的小加里·利奥·雷姆(Gary Leo Rehm Jr.)。

The Navy said the collision inflicted significant damage to the destroyer above and below the water line, flooding berths, a machinery area and the radio room.

海军称,撞击给驱逐舰吃水线以上和以下部位、被淹没的舱位、一个机械区和无线电广播室造成了严重破坏。

Photographs showed the side of the Fitzgerald caved in about one-third of the way back. Among the compartments that flooded were cabins where 116 sailors were sleeping, Aucoin said.

照片显示,“菲茨杰拉德”号的一边塌陷了大约三分之一。奥库安说,进水的舱隔包括116名海军睡觉的船舱。

A collision of a U.S. Navy ship resulting in fatalities is extremely rare; veteran seamen could recall only a handful in recent decades.

美国海军的船只发生碰撞并造成人员伤亡的情况非常少见。在最近几十年里,老兵只能想起为数不多的几起。

Aucoin said he would appoint a flag officer to conduct one of several investigations that will seek to establish exactly what happened and to apportion responsibility.

奥库安说,为了弄清楚事故原因并明确责任,将展开多项调查,他将委派一名海军将官进行其中一项调查。

The Navy will conduct a separate safety investigation intended to find lessons on what might be done differently to reduce the risk of such accidents in the future.

海军将进行单独的安全调查,总结经验教训,降低未来再出现这种事故的风险。

The U.S. Coast Guard will also carry out a marine casualty investigation, Aucoin said, evidently because the crash involved a commercial ship, the 29,000-ton ACX Crystal, registered in the Philippines.

奥库安说,美国海岸警卫队(U.S. Coast Guard)也将展开海损事故调查,这显然是因为事故涉及一艘商船,即在菲律宾注册的2.9万吨的“ACX水晶”号(ACX Crystal)。

According to Navy veterans, the main investigation ordered by Aucoin will compile a minute-by-minute timeline of everything that happened before the collision, probably beginning at the moment the ACX Crystal appeared on the Fitzgerald’s radar.

据海军老兵称,奥库安下令进行的主要调查将把相撞前每一分钟发生的事情做成一份时间表,可能会从“ACX水晶”号出现在“菲茨杰拉德”号的雷达上那一刻开始。

Investigators will interview everyone who was on duty that night and assess their training, experience, competence and sleep schedule. They will also assess the performance of the radar, which stores a recording like the “black box” on an aircraft.

调查人员将对当晚所有值班人员进行访谈,并评估他们的培训、经验、能力和作息时间表。他们还将评估雷达的性能。雷达存储了一个备份记录,类似于飞机上的“黑匣子”。

They will determine whether anyone on the ship’s bridge pulled the collision alarm, a switch that would have caused an extremely loud signal to sound, directing every crew member to rush to their specifically assigned emergency stations on the ship.

他们将确定舰桥上是否有人拉了撞船警报。这个开关本会让船上响起极其刺耳的声音,指示每一个船员跑向自己在船上的指定岗位。

“The crew is highly trained in damage control,” Stavridis said. “That includes fighting fires and fighting flooding.”

“船员受过危害控制的严格训练,”斯塔夫里迪斯说。“包括救火和处理进水问题。”

The investigators’ attention will be focused in particular on the Fitzgerald’s commander, Cmdr. Bryce Benson, who was in his stateroom on the destroyer’s starboard side when the Crystal’s bow struck right at that point. He was injured and airlifted by a Japanese Coast Guard helicopter to Yokosuka, along with two other crew members, the Navy said.

调查人员的重点尤其会放在“菲茨杰拉德”号的指挥官、海军中校布赖斯·本森(Bryce Benson)身上。“水晶”号撞上来时,他身在驱逐舰右舷的船长室里。海军说,本森身体受伤,和另外两名船员一起被日本海上保安厅(Japanese Coast Guard)的一架直升飞机送去了横须贺。

“His cabin was destroyed. He’s lucky to be alive,” Aucoin said of Benson, 40, who had commanded the Fitzgerald for a little more than one year.

“他的船舱被毁,他能活下来实属幸运,”奥库安说起40岁的本森时表示。事件发生前,本森指挥“菲茨杰拉德”号的时间刚过一年多一点。

Several experienced ship commanders said the captain is all but certain to be relieved of command as a result of the accident.

几名经验丰富的舰船指挥官说,因为这起事故,船长肯定会被解除指挥职务。

“It’s a terrible, swift sanction, but it sends a message to everyone else in the fleet — make sure you’re training harder, make sure they call you when another ship is approaching,” McGrath said.

“这是一种严厉、迅速的处罚,但此举向舰队里的其他所有人发出了一个信号:确保更加努力地训练,确保另一艘船靠近时有人通知你,”麦格拉思说。

Stavridis, the former destroyer commander, who is now dean of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, said it was too early to speculate about the cause of the collision.

现任塔夫茨大学弗莱彻法律与外交学院(Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University)院长的前驱逐舰指挥官斯塔夫里迪斯说,现在猜测撞船原因为时过早。

The Fitzgerald, under international maritime rules, would be expected to give the Crystal the right of way because it was on the destroyer’s starboard side when they hit. But Stavridis said the container ship “may have carried out some bizarre maneuver” before the crash.

按照国际航海规则,“菲茨杰拉德”号应该给“水晶”号让行,因为两船相撞时“水晶”号在驱逐舰的右侧。但斯塔夫里迪斯说,相撞前那艘货船“也许做出了某个奇怪的动作”。

Marine traffic records show the Crystal made a series of sharp turns about 25 minutes before the collision, which in crowded seas might conceivably have caused a cascade of maneuvers by other vessels as they tried to avoid one another.

海上交通记录显示,在事故发生的大约25分钟前,“水晶”号进行了一系列急转弯。在拥挤的海域,这可能导致其他船只在努力避免相撞时做出大量动作。

Whatever the ultimate findings, Stavridis said, “My heart is really with the captain. He’s got a rough passage ahead, to put it in nautical terms.”

不管最终调查结论是什么,斯塔夫里迪斯说,“我的心真的和船长在一起。用航海术语来说,他接下来会迎来一段波涛汹涌的航程。”

Marc Tuell, who served as a personnel specialist on the Fitzgerald from 2010 to 2013, when he retired from the Navy, said it was deeply disturbing to watch the video of the damaged ship being towed to port in Japan.

从2010年开始在“菲茨杰拉德”号上担任人事专员,直到2013年从海军退役的马克·图尔(Marc Tuell)说,看着受损的“菲茨杰拉德”号被拖回日本港口的视频令人非常不安。

“I was putting myself in the mindset of what the crew is going through,” said Tuell, of Deltona, Florida, who now works at a Toyota dealer. “It’s pretty heart wrenching, having walked those decks for three years.”

“我自己陷入了船员现在正在经历什么的思绪中,”来自佛罗里达州德尔托纳的图尔说。他现在就职于丰田的一家经销商。“非常揪心,毕竟我在那些甲板上走了三年。”

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