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女性的声音淹没在男人的世界

更新时间:2017-6-18 14:17:53 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Universal Phenomenon of Men Interrupting Women
女性的声音淹没在男人的世界

For women in business and beyond, it was an I-told-you-so day.

对于商界乃至其他行业的女性而言,那天发生的事并不陌生。

The twin spectacles Tuesday — an Uber board member’s wisecrack about women talking too much, and Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., being interrupted for the second time in a week by her male colleagues — triggered an outpouring of recognition and what has become almost ritual social-media outrage.

周二接连发生了两件被围观的事情——一位优步(Uber)董事会成员说了个俏皮话,挖苦女人话太多;还有加利福尼亚州民主党参议员卡玛拉·哈里斯(Kamala Harris)一周内第二次发言被男性同事打断——它们引发了大量感同身受的反响,近乎惯例地在社交媒体上激起了公愤。

Academic studies and countless anecdotes make it clear that being interrupted, talked over, shut down or penalized for speaking out is nearly a universal experience for women when they are outnumbered by men.

学术研究和无数事例清楚地表明,当男人在人数上超过女人时,女人经常会遭到打断、被高声压过、被制止,或是遭到惩罚,这几乎已经成为一种普遍的体验。

A few statistics show that the questions directed at Uber about how women fare in the workplace extend beyond one company, and indeed beyond Silicon Valley. Women make up 6.4 percent of Fortune 500 chief executive officers and 19.4 percent of Congress this year. About a fifth of board members in Fortune 500 companies in 2016 were women, according to research conducted by Deloitte and the Alliance for Board Diversity.

一些统计数据显示,这些女性在工作场所会遭遇的问题不止在优步才有,也超出了硅谷的范畴。今年,在财富500强公司的首席执行官中,女性占6.4%;在国会里,女议员占19.4%。根据德勤(Deloitte)和董事会多样性联盟(Alliance for Board Diversity)的研究,2016年财富500强公司的董事会成员中约有五分之一是女性。

After Arianna Huffington, an Uber director, spoke of how important it was to increase the number of women on the board, David Bonderman said that would mean more talking. He soon resigned from the board. Even in companies without notorious bro-cultures, however, women have had to struggle to feel heard and, as the numbers make clear, to advance to the top.

优步的一位董事阿里安娜·赫芬顿(Arianna Huffington)谈到在董事会中增加女性人数的重要性,戴维·邦德曼(David Bonderman)之后说,这意味着董事会里会有更多谈话。此后他很快就从董事会辞职了。然而,如数据显示,即使在那些不以兄弟情文化著称的公司中,为了能被提升到高层,女人也不得不拼命努力,好让自己的声音被听到。

“I think every woman who has any degree of power and those who don’t knows how it feels to experience what Kamala Harris experienced yesterday,” said Laura R. Walker, the chief executive of New York Public Radio. “To be in a situation where you’re trying to do your job and you’re either cut off or ignored.”

“我认为任何哪怕稍微掌握一点权力的女人,乃至那些从来不知道权力为何物的女人,都曾经体验过卡玛拉·哈里斯昨天的遭遇,”。纽约公共广播电台首席执行官劳拉·R·沃尔克(Laura R. Walker)说。“你想做好自己的工作,但是要么被打断,要么被忽视了。”

Harris, a former prosecutor, assertively questioned Attorney General Jeff Sessions during his testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee. Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., interrupted and chided her to let Sessions answer her questions. Soon after that, Sen. Richard Burr, R-N.C., the committee chairman, cut her off, saying her time had elapsed.

哈里斯是一位前任检察官,在司法部长杰夫·塞申斯(Jeff Sessions)向参议院情报委员会作证期间,她向塞申斯提出明确质疑。亚利桑那州共和党参议员约翰·麦凯恩(John McCain)打断并申斥了她,才让塞申斯回答她的问题。不久后,委员会主席,北卡罗来纳州共和党参议员理查德·伯尔(Richard Burr)再次打断她,说她的提问时间已经用完了。

Women in a wide range of industries, at all levels, offered hundreds of such examples in response to an invitation from The New York Times for people to share their personal experiences on Facebook. “I can’t even count the number of times I’ve witnessed a woman being interrupted and talked over by a man, only to hear him later repeat the same ideas she was trying to put forward,” wrote one respondent, Grace Ellis. “I’d say I see this happen ... two to three times a week? At least?”

《纽约时报》邀请女人们在Facebook上分享她们的类似经历,于是来自各行各业、各种级别的女性应邀提供了数百个这样的例子。“女人被男人打断、被高声压过,之后他却开始重复她刚才试图提出的想法,这种事简直数不胜数,”一位名为格蕾斯·埃利斯(Grace Ellis)的回复者写道。“我会说我每周都能看到这种事……至少两到三次?”

Joyce Lionarons wrote, “My female boss told me she needed to allow each man to interrupt her four times before protesting in a meeting. If she protested more often, there were problems.”

乔伊斯·莱昂伦斯(Joyce Lionarons)写道:“我的女老板告诉我,她得容忍会上每个男人至少打断她四次,然后她才能开始抗议。如果她更频繁地抗议,就会出问题。”

Erica Brown wrote that she has worked for three months as a distiller. Virtually every time she goes to pick up supplies, she said, the staff asked her husband what she needed.

埃里卡·布朗(Erica Brown)写道,她已经做了三个月的酿酒师工作。她说,几乎每次她去取物资的时候,工作人员都会问她丈夫,需要什么。

A ream of studies affirm such anecdotes. Researchers consistently find that women are interrupted more and that men dominate conversations and decision-making, in corporate offices, town meetings, school boards and the U.S. Senate.

大量研究报告证实了这样的轶事。研究人员不断发现,在公司办公室、城镇会议、学校董事会和美国参议院中,女性都会更经常遭到打断,由男性主导对话和决策。

Victoria L. Brescoll, associate professor of organizational behavior at the Yale School of Management, published a paper in 2012 showing that men with power talked more in the Senate, which was not the case for women. Another study, “Can an Angry Woman Get Ahead?” concluded that men who became angry were rewarded, but that angry women were seen as incompetent and unworthy of power in the workplace.

耶鲁大学管理学院组织行为学副教授维多利亚·L·布雷斯科尔(Victoria L. Brescoll)于2012年发表论文指出,在参议院,掌握权力的男性说话也更多,但女性的情况却并非如此。另一项名为《愤怒的女人能不能得到晋升?》的研究得出结论说,在工作场合,发怒的男人会得到回报,但是发怒的女人却会被认为无能、不配得到权力。

Indeed, Jason Miller, a former adviser to President Donald Trump’s campaign and a CNN commentator, described Harris as “hysterical” and shouting during her questioning of Sessions. At times, Harris cut Sessions off, but she spoke in an even tone.

事实上,唐纳德·特朗普总统的前竞选顾问,CNN评论员杰森·米勒(Jason Miller)描述哈里斯“歇斯底里”,在质询塞申斯期间大喊大叫。哈里斯有时候确实会打断塞申斯,但是她用的是非常一致的口吻。

That experience, too, resonated with many women responding to the Facebook callout.

许多在《纽约时报》Facebook的帖子下面回复的女人对此也有共鸣。

“And if you complain, you are excluded,” said Paula Minnikin. “As the only woman on a particular corporate board, I asked the chair in private if we could consider finding another one or two women as we were seeking to replace three board members. He said there was no doubt I was one of our strongest members but that there ARE no good women. I was the exception. He then went on to share that this is because I’m tall and strong, like a man, and don’t confuse things like a regular woman. I was flabbergasted.”

“如果你抱怨,就会被排除在外,”保拉·米尼金(Paula Minnikin)说。“我们公司董事会在考虑替换三名成员。作为董事会里唯一的女性,我私下里问主席,可不可以考虑再找一两名女性董事。他说,毫无疑问,我是董事会里最具能力的成员之一,但是根本没有什么好的女性人选。我是例外。然后,他继续分享说,这是因为我身材高大强壮,像个男人一样,而且不会像普通女人那样把事情越搞越复杂。我当时真是瞠目结舌。”

Tali Mendelberg, professor of politics at Princeton University, is co-author of “The Silent Sex: Gender, Deliberations and Institutions,” compiling studies examining what happens when more women join decision-making groups. She and Christopher F. Karpowitz, associate professor of political science at Brigham Young University, found that, at school board meetings, men and women did not speak as long until women made up 80 percent of the school board. When men were in the minority, however, they did not speak up less.

普林斯顿大学的政治教授塔利·门德尔伯格(Tali Mendelberg)是《沉默的性:性别,审议与惯例》(The Silent Sex: Gender, Deliberations and Institutions)的合著者,该书汇编了若干对女性加入决策小组情况的研究报告。她和杨百翰大学(Brigham Young University)政治学副教授克里斯托弗·F·卡尔波维茨(Christopher F. Karpowitz)发现,在学校董事会会议中,当女性占据80%的时候,男女的发言时长才会相等。当男人居少数地位时,他们的发言也没有减少。

“The fact that women are outnumbered in every room puts them in a position where they’re often coming up against gender-based stereotypes,” said Deborah Gillis, president and chief executive officer of Catalyst, which works for women’s advancement in business. “Women are too hard, too soft, but never just right. What that means is that women are seen as either competent or liked but not both.”

“在所有房间里,男人的人数都比女人多,这令女人经常受到基于性别的刻板印象影响,” Catalyst的总裁兼首席执行官黛博拉·吉利斯(Deborah Gillis)表示,Catalyst是一个致力于女性职场发展的机构。“女人要么太强硬,要么太软弱,但从来没有刚刚好的时候。这意味着女人要么被视为是有能力的,要么被视为受喜爱的,但不能两者兼得。”

Some women are working to subvert these gender imbalances in their own organizations.

一些女人正在努力颠覆自己工作机构中的这些性别失衡。

Walker, of New York Public Radio, said she pressed for more women at its senior level and on its board. “I think this not only empowers women throughout our organization, it also makes for better discussions,” she said. She is also pushing to increase the number of women who host podcasts.

纽约公共广播电台的沃尔克表示,她努力推动更多女性出任电台的高级职务和董事会成员。“我认为这不仅能在我们的整个机构中为女性赋予权力,而且还有利于展开更好的讨论。”此外她也在推动更多女性主持播客节目。

Jacqueline Hinman, chairman and CEO of CH2M Hill Cos., a Colorado-based engineering company that manages projects including light rail in Toronto and Olympic facilities in London, works in a field where women have typically been scarce. Now, however, women make up 30 to 40 percent of her board and are well represented in senior positions.

杰奎琳·恩曼(Jacqueline Hinman)是科罗拉多州工程公司CH2M Hill Cos.的董事长兼首席执行官,该公司曾负责管理包括多伦多轻轨和伦敦奥运会设施在内的项目,她所工作的领域通常鲜有女性涉足。但如今,在她公司的董事会里,女性占了30%至40%,也有不少女员工担任高级职位。

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