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更新时间:2017-6-15 10:21:58 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Destroying a Philippine City to Save It From ISIS Allies

MANILA, Philippines — Black smoke billows behind lush palm groves. Tanks rumble past graceful minarets. Bullets rain on empty streets.


As the siege of the southern Philippine city of Marawi enters its fourth week, more than 200 people have been killed and much of the city lies in ruins. The strongest attempt yet by supporters of the Islamic State to seize and hold territory in Southeast Asia has turned into an urban street fight in what is now largely a ghost town.

菲律宾南部的马拉维市已经持续四周遭受围困,200多人死于非命,大片城市化为废墟。这是伊斯兰国(Islamic State)支持者迄今在东南亚为占领和保有领土所做出的最大努力,目前局势已经演变为城市巷战,这里几乎成为一座鬼城。

Hastily closed businesses bear signs reading “looters will be shot.” Stray dogs scavenge for food on deserted streets. A light rain on Tuesday added to the feeling of despair.


The Philippine military appears to have adopted a strategy of destroying the city to save it, conducting bombing runs at least twice a day.


The rebels are holding a piece of the city center, controlling checkpoints on several bridges and planting well-armed snipers in some of the city’s mosques. Hundreds of civilians are believed to be in their midst, making the government assault more difficult. Each side claims to have the other boxed in; both seem to be digging in for a protracted battle.


A battle fought house by house


Marawi, a city of 200,000, sits on the shore of Lake Lanao on the island of Mindanao. The Agus River, which flows from the lake, divides the city.


The militants still hold the part of the city southeast of the river that was once the economic and business center. The heaviest fighting is concentrated there in an area of about 500 square meters, one military commander said.


Rebel snipers are positioned in the taller buildings, forcing Philippine troops to maintain their distance. The military says the rebels control a fifth of the city.


“It’s urban warfare, face-to-face combat,” said Lt. Col. Christopher Tampus, an infantry battalion commander at the front line. “They are still holding out. The fighting is house to house, building by building.”

“这是城市战争,面对面的战斗,”前线步兵营指挥官克里斯托弗·坦普斯(Christopher Tampus)中校说。“他们还在坚持。战斗在一座房屋接一座房屋,一座建筑接一座建筑之内发生。”

The Philippine military controls the skies and has been using helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft to bombard the city, inflicting heavy damage but so far failing to drive out the militants.


Officially known as the Islamic City of Marawi, Marawi is the largest predominantly Muslim city in a country that is more than 90 percent Roman Catholic. Some of the city’s most notable buildings are mosques. Some remain standing.

马拉维的官方名称是马拉维伊斯兰城(Islamic City of Marawi),是这个90%以上人口都信仰罗马天主教徒的国家中最大的穆斯林城市。市內若干最重要的建筑是清真寺。有些如今仍然挺立。

The Philippine military says that the militants are using mosques and madrassas as bases for fighting, including for the placement of sniper nests. It has complained that they can’t attack these buildings because they are protected as cultural monuments.


Who are the rebels?


The militants are a combined force of two Islamist insurgencies.


Their leader is Isnilon Hapilon, designated by the Islamic State as its emir in Southeast Asia. He leads a faction of Abu Sayyaf, a decades-old militant group best known for taking foreign hostages. He is on the FBI’s list of most-wanted terrorists, and the United States has offered a $5 million bounty for his capture.

他们的领导人是伊斯尼隆·哈皮隆(Isnilon Hapilon),由伊斯兰国指定为其在东南亚的埃米尔领袖。他领导着阿布沙耶夫(Abu Sayyaf)的一个派系,这是一个拥有数十年历史的武装组织,以绑架外籍人质著称。他位列联邦调查局的恐怖分子通缉名单,美国为抓获他的人提供500万美元赏金。

Hapilon has banded with the Maute group, led by the brothers Abdullah and Omarkhayam Maute. Educated in the Middle East, they are said to have sworn allegiance to Hapilon.

哈皮隆已经同穆特组织联合在一起,该组织由阿卜杜拉和奥马尔·穆特(Abdullah and Omarkhayam Maute)兄弟领导。他们曾在中东接受教育,据说已对哈皮隆宣誓效忠。

The Philippine military says the militants have put up a much fiercer fight than expected. A video recovered by the army shows the militant leaders planning to seize Marawi. Hapilon is seated at a table wearing a head scarf, to the right of Abdullah Maute, who is standing.


The fight for Marawi represents the first time the Maute and Hapilon groups have joined for such a major operation. The authorities say they have also been joined by fighters from Indonesia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Chechnya.


The role of the United States


Americans are providing surveillance and intelligence assistance to the Philippine military under a long-standing agreement. Since the early 2000s, the United States has stationed a rotating force of 50 to 100 Special Forces troops in the southern Philippines to provide training and technical assistance to the Philippine military in its fight against terrorists.


Now, U.S. intelligence is probably helping the Philippine military select bombing targets, like those targeted by OV-10 Broncos.

现在,美国的情报可能正在帮助菲律宾军方选择轰炸目标,OV-10“野马”(OV-10 Broncos)飞机则会执行相关任务。

But foreign troops are barred from combat by the Philippine Constitution, and U.S. and Philippine officials say there are no U.S. troops in Marawi.


A government crackdown


President Rodrigo Duterte declared martial law for 60 days on the island of Mindanao, the country’s second-largest island, where various rebel Islamic groups have operated for decades. Duterte, facing his biggest crisis since taking office nearly a year ago, had talked of declaring martial law nationwide in his anti-drug campaign, which has resulted in thousands of deaths at the hands of police and vigilantes.

罗德里戈·杜特地(Rodrigo Duterte)总统在该国第二大岛棉兰老岛上宣布戒严60天,在这里,各种伊斯兰反叛团体已经运作了数十年。杜特地如今面临上任近一年以来的最大危机,此前他曾在他的反毒品运动中说起过宣布全国戒严,该运动已导致数千人死于警察和治安积极分子之手。

Checkpoints set up around Mindanao may aid in the apprehension of militants who slip away from Marawi in the coming weeks. The Maute brothers’ father, Cayamora Maute, and other relatives were arrested at a checkpoint in Davao City. A combined military and police unit arrested their mother, Ominta Romato Maute, in the town of Masiu, an hour’s drive from Marawi.

环棉兰老岛建立的检查站可能有助于逮捕在接下来的几个星期内逃离马拉维的武装分子。穆特兄弟的父亲卡亚莫拉·穆特(Cayamora Maute)和其他亲属在达沃市的检查站被捕。一个军方与警察的联合小队在距马拉维一小时车程的马苏镇逮捕了他们的母亲奥米塔·罗马托·穆特(Ominta Romato Maute)。

Philippine security forces searched houses for guns and ammunition last week.


For the Philippine military, which is more experienced at fighting the Islamists in the jungle, the Marawi siege has meant urban street fighting.


The trapped civilians


The militants seized an unknown number of civilians on the first day of the siege. It is unclear how many have survived. The military believes the rebels are using some of them as human shields.


Those who escape from the city are closely vetted by the police.


Tens of thousands of refugees fled the city when the fighting began. But as many as 2,000 civilians remain, according to rescuers and the local Red Cross.


Many are trapped in their homes or in other buildings — those that still stand — waiting for the siege to end. In the last few days, some have been able to flee.


Thousands of the displaced have been housed in temporary evacuation centers on the outskirts of the city.