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75年来,神奇女侠的不同面孔

更新时间:2017-6-14 10:55:32 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Wonder Woman, Weaponized
75年来,神奇女侠的不同面孔

The hit movie “Wonder Woman” stages a clever sight gag when our heroine infiltrates a gala held by a hated villain while wearing an evening gown that exposes the hilt of the battle sword she carries on her back. Partygoers are oblivious to the weapon. But those of us who were weaned on the comic books of the 1950s and ’60s recognized it right away as a sign that the filmmakers had discarded the original conception of Wonder Woman as an easygoing avenger who pledged not to kill even as she battled abject evil.

热门影片《神奇女侠》(Wonder Woman)中出现一个不言自明的亮点,当时我们的女英雄身着晚礼服潜入了由一个令人厌恶的反派人物举办的盛会,但这件晚礼服暴露了藏在她背后的一把战剑的剑柄。聚会的常客没有在意这个武器。但我们中那些看五六十年代漫画书长大的人立马注意到了,并由此认为电影制作者抛弃了神奇女侠这个最角色最初的定位,即一位性格随和的复仇者,曾发誓即便在与卑鄙的恶人战斗时也不会杀人取命。

This weaponized posture brings a welcome edginess to a 75-year-old comic book idol who maintained a squeaky clean rectitude while trapped in a succession of conceptual cages that writers and editors fashioned for her. The mistreatment she experienced at the hands of the men who dominated the comic book business in the 1940s echoed the trials that real women endured as they struggled to find places in the world of work.

这副全副武装的姿态给这个75岁的漫画偶像注入了一种受欢迎的锐利之气,之前她一直维持着一种毫不含糊的纯粹的正直,但又被作家和编剧为她设计的概念牢笼所困。她遭遇的来自那些在四十年代漫画行业占主导地位男性的不公对待,与现实中的女性在职场中竭力寻找自己的位置时的遭遇类似。

Wonder Woman’s creator, the psychologist William Moulton Marston, viewed her as a propaganda tool in the struggle for women’s rights. As the historian Jill Lepore explains in “The Secret History of Wonder Woman,” Mr. Marston drew heavily on the philosophies of the women’s suffrage and reproductive rights movements as he plotted out his story. He settled on an Amazon heroine who hails from an island where women had lived without men since ancient times. She moves to the United States to fight for peace, justice — and equal rights for women.

神奇女侠的创造者、心理学家威廉·莫尔顿·马斯顿(William Moulton Marston)将她视为女权斗争的宣传工具。就像历史学家吉尔·莱波雷(Jill Lepore)在《神奇女侠秘史》(The Secret History of Wonder Woman)一书中所解释的,在构思这个故事时,马斯顿大量运用了女性投票权和生育权运动的理念。他最后确定了这样的一个人设:来自一座岛屿的亚马逊女英雄,那里自古以来就只有女性,没有男性居住。之后,她来到美国为和平、正义而战——也为女性平权而战。

Mr. Marston appealed to young men by dressing Wonder Women as a 1940s pinup girl, with a red bustier, blue underwear and kinky, knee-high boots. He shaped her temperament to answer critics who were beginning to view comics as a source of violence, delinquency and general moral rot. His Wonder Woman hated guns, and her battle gear consisted of golden bracelets that deflected bullets and a magical lariat that could force bad guys to tell the truth.

马斯顿将神奇女侠设计成四十年代海报女郎的形象——身着红色紧身无带胸衣、蓝色短裤,脚蹬一双与众不同的及膝长靴——以此吸引年轻男读者。他塑造的神奇女侠的性格也让批评者无可指责,后者开始将漫画视为一种暴力、犯罪和普遍的道德堕落的源头。他笔下神奇女侠厌恶枪支,战斗装备包括能抵御子弹的金色手镯和能迫使坏蛋讲真话的神奇套索。

Mr. Marston was fixated on bondage. As the Lepore book points out, every comic book in which Wonder Woman appeared included scenes with her “chained, bound, gagged, lassoed, tied, fettered and manacled.” As a Wonder Woman editor noted, Mr. Marston’s conception of strong femininity encompassed the dissonant notion that powerful women should revel in male domination.

马斯顿迷恋束缚。正如莱波雷书中指出的,神奇女侠漫画书的每一册中似乎都有她被“被锁链锁住、被束缚、被堵住嘴、被套索套住、被捆绑、戴上手铐脚镣”的情景。正如一位神奇女侠的编辑指出的,马斯顿对强大女性气质的定义当中混杂了一个并不一致的概念,他认为强大的女人应该乐于接受男性的统治地位。

Introduced in 1941, Wonder Woman became hugely popular very quickly. A year later, she became the first female superhero to get her own comic book title and crashed the Justice Society of America, a boys’ club that included Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. (Instead of becoming a full partner, she settled for the role of secretary.)

神奇女侠于1941年推出后很快大受欢迎。一年之后,她成为第一个拥有自己漫画书的女性超级英雄,而且一头闯进美国正义协会(Justice Society of America)——这本是一个包括超人、蝙蝠侠和绿灯侠在内的男孩俱乐部。(但她没有成为协会的完整一员,只是安于充当秘书的角色。)

Celebrity made her an even bigger target for the zealots who viewed the comics industry as the fount of all evil. In the ’50s, for example, congressional hearings elevated the crackpot theories of the psychiatrist Fredric Wertham, who seemed especially vexed that comics publishers were allowing Wonder Woman to compete on an equal footing with men. The witch hunt against the comics coincided with the widespread expulsion of women from the postwar work force and the persecution of gay people in federal government.

她出了名,因此也成了狂热分子更大的目标,他们将漫画工业视为一切邪恶的源头。例如,在1950年代,国会听证会令精神病专家弗雷德里克·温特姆(Fredric Wertham)那些骇人听闻的理论获得了地位上的提升,此人对于漫画出版商允许神奇女侠与男人平等竞争这一点尤其感到恼怒。漫画界遭受政治迫害的同时,女性也被普遍逐出战后的工作岗位,联邦政府内则对同性恋实行迫害。

Fearing a backlash, publishers submitted voluntarily to a repressive code that ruled out pathbreaking content. Words like “horror,” “crime” and “terror” were limited, and plotlines had to promote “the value of the home and the sanctity of marriage.” It was forbidden to even hint at illicit sexual relationships. Homosexuality was out of the question.

由于担心遭到强烈反对,出版商自愿实行高压准则,把任何开创性的内容都排除在外。诸如“可怕”、“犯罪”和“恐怖”之类词语都受到限制,故事情节必须促进“家庭的价值和婚姻的神圣”。甚至对不正当性关系的暗示也遭到禁止。同性恋就更不在话下。

Even before the hearings, publishers had adopted policies that killed some superheros outright and bled the vitality out of others. The pressure to churn out plain vanilla characters and cornball moral rectitude was especially debilitating to franchise players like Superman and Batman. They were soon deemed square by younger, hipper readers, and they are still struggling to shake off that legacy. They were sitting ducks in the ’60s when the upstart Marvel Comics company started pumping out morally ambiguous heroes who embraced an inner nastiness and didn’t really give a damn what other characters thought.

甚至在那些听证会之前,出版社已经开始彻底抛弃某些超级英雄,去除其他英雄的活力。炮制简单平白角色和陈腐道德偶像的压力尤其削弱了超人和蝙蝠侠等主要角色。很快,更年轻、更时髦的读者认为他们太古板,直到现在,他们仍在努力摆脱那种印象。到了60年代,当雄心勃勃的漫威漫画公司(Marvel Comics)开始大量创造道德上存在争议的英雄时——他们接受内心的恶念,并不真的在意其他角色的看法——老英雄角色很快就成了被赶超的目标。

Wonder Woman, too, had been softened and diminished in a number of ways. She had become by turns a fashion model, a baby sitter, an actress and a lonely hearts advice columnist. At one point, the publisher even ditched her trademark boots for shoes that resembled ballet slippers.

神奇女侠也在很多方面被软化、被削弱。她先后被塑造成时装模特、保姆、女演员和征友专栏作家。出版商一度抛弃了她标志性的靴子,换成了类似芭蕾舞鞋的鞋子。

The resurgent feminism of the late ’60s probably rescued Wonder Woman. DC Comics realized it needed a more modern character. Her love life became more interesting as did her fights (as when she punched out Batman), and over time she became the kick-ass figure we know today, growing fully into her legacy as the daughter of the Greek god Zeus.

60年代末女权主义的复兴很可能拯救了神奇女侠。DC漫画公司意识到它需要一个更现代的角色。她的恋爱故事变得更有趣,打斗(比如她痛打蝙蝠侠时)也是如此。她慢慢变成了我们今天看到的彪悍角色,完全呈现出其背景设定的希腊众神之神宙斯女儿的形象。

The new film capitalizes on this legacy, and strikes a cathartic note with female moviegoers in particular. What’s remarkable is that it took so long to create a big-budget movie for one of the most popular comic book characters in the history of the medium.

这部新电影发挥了这个传统,特别打动了女性观众,使她们获得了精神上的宣泄。值得注意的是,过了这么久,才有人为史上最流行的漫画角色之一制作了一部大成本电影。

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