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披着瑜伽外衣的性侵犯

更新时间:2017-6-11 8:43:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Yoga Teachers Need a Code of Ethics
披着瑜伽外衣的性侵犯

I was relieved when Bikram Choudhury, the 73-year-old founder of Bikram yoga, was finally served a warrant for his arrest late last month, after failing to pay nearly $7 million in legal fees he owes for a sexual harassment lawsuit. Many in the yoga world had been waiting for that moment, after years of rape and assault claims against Mr. Choudhury, the millionaire creator of a 26-posture “hot yoga” sequence and studio system. But the news brought only a grim satisfaction; many of us wish he’d been arrested for the assault claims themselves.

现年73岁的比克拉姆瑜伽创始人比克拉姆·乔杜里(Bikram Choudhury),因没能支付在一起性骚扰官司中欠下的近700万美元法律费用而终于在上月末被捕,听闻此讯,我如释重负。这个开创了26式“热瑜伽”套路和工作室体制的百万富豪,多年来一直面临着强奸和性侵指控,不少瑜伽界人士都在等待这一刻的到来。但这是一个差强人意的消息;我们中的很多人都希望他因性侵指控本身而被捕。

Unfortunately, the case of Mr. Choudhury is not unique. In 2016, a beloved teacher in the New York City-based Jivamukti Yoga center, known for its celebrity clientele, was sued, along with the center and its leaders, for sexual abuse by her mentee. John Friend’s Anusara community was rocked and dissolved in 2012 after he was discovered having affairs with married students and performing Wiccan-like sex rituals. Kripalu’s Amrit Desai was accused of sexual misconduct and abuse of authority in 1994 and a $2.5 million settlement was paid (the Kripalu Center in Massachusetts divorced itself from Desai and reorganized). And there are, of course, countless under-the-radar stories of yoga teachers coming on to students or touching them inappropriately in class.

不幸的是,乔杜里的情况并非孤例。2016年,纽约市几瓦穆克提瑜珈中心(Jivamukti Yoga center)一名深受喜爱的老师,被一名学员以性侵罪告上法庭,一同被告的还有该中心及其负责人。约翰·弗兰德(John Friend)被曝与已婚学生偷情并举行巫术般的性爱仪式后,其阿努萨拉式(Anusara)瑜伽社群受到冲击,并于2012年被解散。克里帕鲁中心(Kripalu)的阿姆里特·德赛(Amrit Desai)在1994年被控性失德和滥用权力,最终支付了250万美元与原告达成和解(克里帕鲁中心与德赛做了切割,并进行了重组。)当然了,还有数不清的瑜伽老师占学生便宜或者在课堂上不当触碰她们的故事,至今未被公之于众。

This must stop. As a practitioner of yoga for 20 years who has been teaching for a decade, I know that people often approach spiritual practices like yoga and meditation when they are vulnerable. They come recovering from broken bones and hearts, and usually at some greater personal crossroads. They come with trauma, addictions or eating disorders. They come after divorce. They come with hope.

这样的情况绝不能持续下去了。作为一个练了20年瑜伽、教学也有十载的人,我知道人们常常是在很脆弱的时候接触瑜伽、冥想等灵修活动。他们前来修复破碎的身心,而且常常处于人生重要的十字路口。他们带着心灵创伤、种种成瘾症或饮食失调症而来。他们在离婚后前来。他们带着希望而来。

In this state of vulnerability, it is absolutely critical that students feel safe. Teachers, like therapists or educators in other fields, have an inherent power, which can be used to either heal or exploit. But because it is also easy to conflate the goodness of yoga with the teachers themselves, instructors can benefit from an aura of ethical conduct, or even holiness — what some call a spiritual blanket that protects those who abuse their power. While it is up to students to discern between teacher and teachings, those in authority have a responsibility to protect.

在这种脆弱状态中,学生有安全感绝对是至关重要的事情。像治疗师或其他领域的教育工作者一样,瑜伽老师有一种天然的权力,既可以用于治愈,也可以用于趁人之危。但由于人们也很容易把瑜伽的好和老师本身混为一谈,老师可以受益于道德行为乃至圣洁的光环——一些人称之为保护滥用权力者的灵魂之毯。学生应该擦亮眼睛,分清老师本人和老师的教导,但那些拥有权威的人也有责任去保护学生。

According to the 2016 Yoga in America survey co-sponsored by Yoga Journal and Yoga Alliance — the largest nonprofit in the United States representing the yoga community and providing teacher-training requirements — there are 36.7 million yoga practitioners nationwide, 72 percent of them women. Though Yoga Alliance has published a bullet-point code of conduct, few know it exists until they are explicitly looking, and by then it may be too late.

根据由《瑜伽杂志》(Yoga Journal)和瑜伽联盟(Yoga Alliance)——在美国代表瑜伽界利益、制定教师培训要求的最大非营利组织——联合赞助的2016年美国瑜伽市场调查,全美共有3670万瑜伽修习者,其中72%是女性。尽管瑜伽联盟发布了一份简明扼要的行为守则,但甚少有人知道它的存在,除非人们目标明确地加以查看,但那时或许为时已晚。

I have personally seen things go wrong. Early in my practice I became involved with a meditation teacher and learned, after the breakup, that he had dated students serially. I lost my community. I’ve received inappropriate sexual Facebook messages from well-respected teachers and have had my bottom slapped (not an adjustment) in a balancing pose. Though these actions are not as serious as the egregious behavior Mr. Choudhury and others have been accused of, they provided a personal window into the hurt and confusion crossed boundaries can create.

我亲眼目睹事情向错误的方向发展。初练瑜伽时,我交往过一个冥想老师。分手后,我才得知他连续和学生约会。我失去了我的瑜珈社群。我在Facebook上收到过备受敬重的老师含有性暗示的不当消息,在做一个平衡动作时被人拍过屁股(不是指导姿势的那种拍打)。尽管这些动作不像乔杜里和其他人被指控的恶劣行为那么严重,但它们提供了一扇窗户,让我个人得以了解逾越界限可能会造成的伤害和困惑。

Yoga transformed my life: healing a back injury, giving me tools to work with my anxiety and providing a spiritual home. Had it not, I would have quit. Some victims have quit, and face years of trauma from what should have been a refuge from the hurt of life: spiritual practice. This sort of violation denotes rape on many levels: spiritually, mentally, emotionally and, yes, sometimes physically.

瑜伽改变了我的生活:治愈了我的背伤,让我有了缓解焦虑的工具,并给我提供了一个精神家园。如果不是它,我已经放弃了。一些受害者已经放弃了,面临多年的精神创伤,而这种创伤的源头,正是本应让他们远离生活带来的伤害的灵修。这种侵犯意味着多种层面的蹂躏:精神上、心理上、情感上,并且的确,有时候还有身体上。

When I began teaching yoga at an all-girls charter school in Lower Manhattan, we took the first class to create a “yoga contract.” Girls from 5 to 12 years old brainstormed and signed lists of rules to “keep everyone safe and happy” during practice. Rules they themselves invented included “respect others’ space” and “use active listening.” As the teacher, I signed, too. We ended each class with a Sanskrit chant that translates to, “The one true teacher lives in the center of your heart.” I wanted these young girls to know, though teachers are helpful guides, the one true authority is inside of them. I wanted them to carry this lesson forward into their adult yoga world as women. Mr. Choudhury and others like him could learn plenty from these girls.

当我开始在曼哈顿下城一所只招收女生的特许学校教瑜伽时,我们用第一节课来发明了一种“瑜伽接触”。5至12岁的小姑娘绞尽脑汁,在一连串能够在练瑜伽期间“保证大家都安全和开心”的规定下面签了名。她们自己发明的规定包括“尊重他人的空间”和“利用积极的倾听”。作为老师,我也签了名。每节课结束时,我们都会喊一句梵语口号。这句梵语的意思是,“真正的老师在你心中”。我想让这些小女孩知道,尽管老师是有用的向导,但真正的权威是她们的内心。我想让她们把这条经验带进她们长大成人后的瑜伽世界。乔杜里及其同类可能会从这些姑娘身上学到很多。

I’m hopeful the arrest warrant for Mr. Choudhury will ignite this conversation in spiritual communities. I believe all organized yoga teacher training should include training in ethics and, if affiliated with Yoga Alliance, point students toward that resource. Each community center, meditation group and yoga studio should post a code of ethics, as Jack Kornfield’s Spirit Rock community recently did. Every center should have a formalized, safe place to report abuse seriously and anonymously. Even secular yoga studios should provide this service, alongside mats and towels.

我希望对乔杜里的逮捕令能在灵修界引发这种讨论。我认为,所有有组织的瑜伽老师培训都应该包括道德培训,如果隶属于瑜伽联盟的话,还应该向学生指明相关资源。每个社区中心、冥想团体和瑜伽馆都应该张贴道德规范,就像杰克·科恩菲尔德(Jack Kornfield)的灵石(Spirit Rock)社区一样。每个中心都应该设立一个正规、安全的地方,用于严肃认真地匿名举报不当行为。除瑜伽垫和毛巾外,每个世俗的瑜伽馆都应该提供这种服务。

We cannot rely on karma alone.

我们不能只依靠因果报应。

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