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缅甸湖光山色中潜伏着生态与战争危机

更新时间:2017-6-9 11:14:44 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

In Myanmar, a Lake That Sustained Generations Feels Strains
缅甸湖光山色中潜伏着生态与战争危机

LONTON, Myanmar — Cresting a mountain pass on a freshly bulldozed road, Indawgyi Lake and its valley appear below, pastoral and calm.

缅甸隆东——通过一条新修的路来到山顶,便会看到下方的山谷,因道支湖就坐落在那里,眼前一片宁静的田园风光。

The 300-square-mile surface, one of the largest freshwater bodies in Southeast Asia, reflects the clouds. A plaid quilt of rice paddies is squeezed between the water and jungled mountains. Widely spaced hamlets dot the shores.

这座湖泊是东南亚最大的淡水体之一,面积达300平方英里的湖面上倒映着云朵。一块块稻田见缝插针地分布在湖水与丛林密布的山麓之间,像是一块格纹被子。岸边散布着一座座小村庄。

Besides a few spindly cellphone towers, there are few signs of the globalization swamping Myanmar as the nation opens itself after half a century of isolation under a military dictatorship.

半个世纪的军事独裁统治结束后,缅甸开始对外开放,处处都被全球化的迹象所淹没。然而在这里,除了几座细高的手机信号塔,几乎没有任何全球化的痕迹。

For centuries, the indigenous Kachin people in Myanmar’s remote north planted rice when the lake flooded their fields during the monsoon, fished its waters and hunted its wetlands and the surrounding mountains. As Ma Thwe Thwe Win, 32, a local birding guide, explained: “The lake gives us fish, waters our fields, and brings the birds here. It is everything to my people.”

几个世纪以来,缅甸偏远北部的土著克钦人在雨季湖水淹没田地时种植水稻,在湖中捕鱼,在湖畔湿地和附近的山脉狩猎。32岁的兑兑温(Thwe Thwe Win)是当地的一名观鸟导游,她解释说:“湖给了我们鱼,灌溉我们的田地,把鸟儿带到这里。对我的乡亲们来说,它就是一切。”

Today, every morning and afternoon, fishermen still paddle out, singing Burmese songs to themselves, trailing gillnets with soda bottle buoys. But despite the encircling mountains and buffering remoteness, Indawgyi Lake is straining under many of the same environmental and conflict-related challenges that are stressing the fragile nation.

如今,每天的上午和下午,渔民们仍然会把船划到湖中,唱起缅甸民歌,沿着用汽水瓶做成的浮标巡视撒下的刺网。但是,尽管有群山环绕以及偏远地理位置带来的缓冲,因道支湖还是和这个脆弱的国家一样,面临许多同环境与冲突相关的挑战。

In the mid-1990s, Myanmar’s army captured the Hpakant jadeite mine, the world’s richest, from the Kachin Independence Army, a rebel force of around 10,000 men, about 35 miles north of Indawgyi Lake. The mine was mechanized and expanded, and soon many of Indawgyi’s inhabitants had traded their native villages for squalid mining camps where heroin addiction ran rampant. Increasing commercialization of the region’s economy also led to the expansion of illegal gold mines in the mountains above Indawgyi Lake.

克钦独立军(Kachin Independence Army)是驻扎在因道支湖以北约35英里处的一支反政府武装,约有1万人,1990年代中期,缅甸军队从他们手中夺取了世界上最富饶的翡翠矿帕甘。此后矿藏经过了机械化与扩建。不久后,许多因道支湖的居民将自己的村庄售出,它们很快变成了肮脏的采矿营地,海洛因猖獗泛滥。该地区日益发展的商业化也导致因道支湖周边山区的非法金矿不断扩大。

At about the same time, young men from other regions of Myanmar began to flood into the valley as their elder brothers inherited what land remained in their hometowns and an ill-conceived dam flooded prime farmland nearby. These migrants established five villages and introduced fishing techniques like small-gauge gillnets and electroshock fishing that began depleting the lake’s fish stocks.

大约在同一时期,缅甸其他地区的年轻人开始涌入这片山谷,因为在他们的家乡,土地都由兄长继承了;此外也是因为一个设计不合理的大坝淹没了附近地区的主要农田。移民们建立了五个村庄,引进了小型刺网和电击捕鱼等捕鱼技术,开始消耗湖泊的鱼类资源。

Another kind of visitor also appeared: foreign tourists, seeking the peace of rural life or a glimpse of rare migratory lake birds. Adventurous souls would ride the colonial-era train north from Mandalay and then bump over the mountains on the back of motorbike taxis to the tiny town of Lonton, a row of lakeside teak houses on stilts sheltering about 2,800 inhabitants.

另一种访客也出现了:那就是外国游客,他们追求平静的乡村生活,或是想要一窥罕见的湖边候鸟。这些冒险家们在曼德勒以北乘坐殖民时代的火车,之后坐在摩托出租车的后座上,在山间一路颠簸,来到隆东小镇——湖畔一排用支柱撑起的柚木屋,大约居住着2800名居民。

But then in 2011, a cease-fire broke down, and the army occupied the valley while the KIA locked down the highlands. Today, on the outskirts of town, peasants riding ox carts and dump trucks heading to Hpakant line up at candy-cane striped sawhorses wrapped in barbed wire. Machine-gun-wielding soldiers wave the traffic through after inspecting it, as European backpackers in jean shorts and flip-flops lounge at the town’s four food stalls across the road.

但是到了2011年,停火协议破裂,政府军占领了山谷,克钦独立军则封锁了高地。如今,在镇子郊区,坐着牛车或是开着翻斗车前往帕甘的农民沿着糖果色条纹,缠绕铁丝网的一排锯木架排成长队。手持机枪的士兵检查过车辆后指挥它们通行,身穿牛仔短裤和人字拖的欧洲背包客沿路逛着镇上的四家小吃店。

Tin Myaing, owner of the ramshackle Indawmahar Guesthouse, one of the two in town, estimates that 400 tourists visit annually, down more than 50 percent from its peak. A sign on the wall warns day trippers to return by dark and not to stray off the beaten path — hand-drawn maps mark potential rebel areas with cartoonish skull and crossbones. Sometimes, land mine explosions echo from the canyons.

因道玛哈客栈是镇上仅有的两个旅馆之一,老板丁棉因(Tin Myaing)估计,每年会有400名游客来到这里,比最高的时候下降了50%以上。墙上有个标志,告诫短途旅行者要在天黑之前返回,不要偏离常规路径——手绘地图上用卡通头骨和交叉的腿骨标出了叛军可能出没的区域。有时会有地雷爆炸的回音从峡谷的方向传来。

Most foreigners visit Inn Chit Thu, a nonprofit ecotourism group, the only tourist-centered business in town beside the guesthouses. From an office decorated with the mounted plumage of two owls, young workers rent out kayaks and bicycles.

大多数外国游客都会来到起杜旅馆(Inn Chit Thu),这是一个非营利的生态旅游组织,也是镇上除客栈外唯一从事旅游业的机构。办公室里有两只猫头鹰标本作为装饰,年轻的工人在这里出租皮划艇和自行车。

If fighting is low, as it has been recently, they lead treks into the safe parts of the mountains. They also offer bird-watching tours, as it was rare birds like Pallas’ fish-eagles, Oriental darters and sarus cranes that first enticed foreigners here.

在最近这种战事不激烈的时候,他们会领着徒步旅行者进入山里的安全地区。他们还提供观鸟游,因为吸引外国游客来到这里的,主要是玉带海雕、黑腹蛇鹈和赤颈鹤之类的罕见鸟类。

Every year, rare and endangered birds from China and Siberia migrate to Indawgyi Lake’s flooded grasslands. About 73,000 hectares of the valley were designated a wildlife reserve in 1999, and in 2014 it was nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage sanctuary for supporting a “diversity of globally threatened wildlife,” including the white-rumped and slender-billed vultures, and at least three endemic fish species and one turtle. Hog deer, Bengal slow loris, Asian elephants and clouded leopards also lurk in its jungles.

每年,来自中国和西伯利亚的珍稀濒危鸟类都会迁徙到因道支湖淹没的草场。1999年,这座占地约7.3万公顷的山谷被划定为野生动植物保护区,并于2014年被提名为联合国教科文组织世界遗产保护区,以支持“全球受威胁野生动物的多样性”,这里出没的动物包括白色尾巴、喙部纤细的秃鹫,至少三种鱼类和一种乌龟为本地特有,丛林中还潜伏着豚鹿、孟加拉懒猴、亚洲象和云豹。

Just a few miles south of Lonton, the town of Maing Naung straddles Khaung Tong Creek. A decade ago, the waterway coursed pristinely into Indawgyi Lake, but it has since become choked with mud and chemicals from an illegal hydraulic KIA gold mine.

隆东以南几英里,便是横跨在光东溪上的马瑙朗镇。十年前,这条小溪原本是流入因道支湖的,但是由于克钦独立军的非法水力压裂金矿开采,它已被泥浆和化学物质堵死了。

Villagers warn foreigners not to venture upstream. On its banks stands a convenience store, stocked with bags of potato chips, shampoo and other sundries — as well as a scale and a miniature blowtorch for processing the raw gold that freelance miners sell before stocking up on supplies to take back into the jungle.

村民警告外国人,不要冒险到上游去。河岸上有一家便利店,出售袋装薯片、洗发水和其他杂物,还有一个天平秤盘和微型喷灯,用来处理个体矿工销售的生金,这些工人卖了金子,就会备足补给回到丛林里去。

Elevated mercury levels and increased sedimentation make some environmentalists fear that the distinctive ecosystem is at risk. Other problems threaten the watershed too. Illegal logging is thinning the forests that once protected hillsides from eroding into the lake. Overfishing and the use of banned techniques like dynamite, cyanide and electroshock fishing have depleted fisheries that many locals depend on.

汞含量水平升高和沉淀增加使一些环保人士担心,这个特殊的生态系统正处于危险之中。其他问题也威胁着这一流域。非法树木砍伐令曾经保护着山坡不被湖泊侵蚀的森林不断缩小。过度捕捞和使用被禁止的捕鱼技术(如炸药、氰化物和电击)已经耗尽了许多当地人赖以为生的渔业资源。

“The ecology of Indawgyi Lake has been severely impacted by silt and mercury pollution from mining and overfishing, so much that it’s become hard for the local fishers to make a living,” said Oliver Springate-Baginski, a professor at the University of East Anglia who has led an environmental survey of the area.

“因道支湖的生态已经受到采矿和过度捕捞造成的泥沙淤塞与汞污染的严重影响,所以当地渔民难以谋生。”东英吉利大学教授奥利弗·斯普林盖特-巴金斯基(Oliver Springate-Baginski)说,他主导了该地区的环境调查。

He added, “The conflict has undermined the effectiveness of regulatory mechanisms, and powerful people have been able to exploit the natural resources at the expense of less influential locals.”

他补充说:“这样的冲突破坏了监管机制的有效性,有权力的人能够滥用自然资源,牺牲没有影响力的当地人的利益。”

Nongovernmental organizations, local fishermen and the government are working to address the problems.

非政府组织、当地渔民和政府正在努力解决这些问题。

“Now the lake’s communities, with assistance from NGOs, have established fishing-free zones that have been recognized by the government,” said Julia Fogerite, a Myanmar-based environmental researcher. “Continued collaboration has the potential to improve the management of the lake and ensure its future health.”

“现在,在非政府组织的帮助下,湖边社区已经建立了政府认可的无渔区。”现居缅甸的环境研究者朱莉娅·法格特(Julia Fogerite)表示。“持续的合作有可能改善湖泊的管理,并确保其未来的健康。”

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