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冷萃咖啡是如何征服美国人的?

更新时间:2017-6-8 18:32:47 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How Cold Brew Changed the Coffee Business
冷萃咖啡是如何征服美国人的?

Summer officially starts this year on June 21, but that’s only the solstice, the day when the sun reaches its highest position in the sky. Down on street level, summer really begins on the first humid, sun-streaked day, when even the thought of sipping a hot cup of coffee is too much to bear. It’s as if, just as birds know instinctively when to migrate, we wake up one bright morning and agree that it’s iced coffee season.

今年的夏季从6月21日正式开始,但那只是夏至,太阳到达天空最高点的那一天。在街道上,夏季真正开始是在第一个潮湿的、阳光灿烂的日子里,就连喝一杯热咖啡的念头都会让人难以忍受。如同鸟类本能地知道什么时候迁移一样,我们在一个明亮的早晨醒来,觉得到了喝冰咖啡的季节。

Gregory Zamfotis, the owner of Gregorys Coffee in New York City, which is about to open its 24th location, starts tracking the temperature in early May. “I literally look at the weather forecast and send emails to my store leaders,” he said. Zamfotis estimated that 75 percent of the coffee he sells is hot and 25 percent is iced for most of the year. With the start of iced coffee season, those numbers flip, and 65 percent of the coffee he sells is iced.

纽约市格雷戈里咖啡店(Gregorys Coffee)的第24家分店即将开业,老板格雷戈里·赞弗提斯(Gregory Zamfotis)从5月初就开始跟踪温度。“我看天气预报,还发送电邮给我的分店店长,”他说。赞弗提斯估计,在一年的大部分时间中,他卖的咖啡中有75%是热的,25%是冰的。随着冰咖啡季节的开始,这些数字将会翻转,他出售的咖啡中会有65%是冰的。

At All Day, a coffee shop in Miami that’s on the must-visit list of coffee fanatics, cold brew is the foundation of the menu.
迈阿密咖啡店全日(All Day)是咖啡迷必去之地,冷翠咖啡是这里的镇店之宝。

That change can happen overnight. “You don’t want to get caught and run out by 9 a.m.,” he said.

这种变化可能会在一夜之间发生。他说:“你可不想在上午9点之前冰咖啡就卖光。”

The danger of running out is real. All of the iced coffee at Gregorys Coffee is cold-brewed, a process that takes 12 hours and yields a drink often described as smooth, round and lush. Zamfotis estimates that he sells 10,000 servings per day at the peak of the season.

冰咖啡确实有喝光的危险。格雷戈里咖啡店的所有冰咖啡都是冷萃咖啡,需要12个小时的制作时间,喝起来的感觉通常被描述为柔滑、圆润而醇厚。赞弗提斯估计在夏季高峰,他每天能卖出1万杯咖啡。

There’s no way to rush cold brew. If you’re running a coffee shop, you need to anticipate demand. Every year, that demand is increasing: The United States is becoming a cold-brew nation.

冷萃咖啡是急不得的。如果你是咖啡店经营者,就需要对需求进行预测。每一年这种需求都在增长:美国正在成为一个盛行喝冷萃咖啡的国家。

In the past, coffee sales lagged during the summer and rose sharply during the holiday season. But cold brew now drives a surge in demand during warmer months, too, far more so than other iced coffee drinks. Coffee sales spike when the mercury rises. Cold brew is also attracting an entirely new audience for coffee: millennials, many of whom are making it their drink of choice.

过去,咖啡销量会在夏季下滑,在年底的假日季会出现大幅攀升。但现在,冷萃咖啡推动咖啡需求在气温较高的几个月也出现激增,幅度远大于其他加冰咖啡饮品。咖啡销量随着气温的升高而增加。冷萃咖啡还为咖啡吸引了一个全新的受众群体:千禧一代,他们中的很多人把它作为自己的首选饮品。

“It’s pheromonal," said James Freeman, the founder of Blue Bottle Coffee. “And the feedback loop encourages more iced orders — watching other people order iced coffee inculcates the desire.” It’s the coffee version of “I’ll have what she’s having.”

“它能产生跟风性,”蓝瓶咖啡(Blue Bottle Coffee)的创始人詹姆斯·弗里曼(James Freeman)说。“这个反馈回路会促成更多冰咖啡订单,看到其他人订购冰咖啡又会激起欲望。”这是 “她吃什么我就吃什么”的咖啡版。

What was once a regional curiosity largely limited to New Orleans and the South is now found throughout the country. The shift started about 10 years ago, when cold brew was adopted by innovative coffee shops like Blue Bottle (which sells what it calls New Orleans-style iced coffee, a milky cold brew flavored with chicory) and Stumptown Coffee Roasters (which sells nitro cold brew, a coffee infused with nitrogen so that it’s slightly fizzy, with the thick, creamy head of a good stout).

一度仅限于新奥尔良和南方的一种地区性奇特饮品,现在全美国都能找到。这种转变开始于大约10年前。当时,蓝瓶咖啡(卖的是一种被其称作新奥尔良式冰咖啡的菊苣口味牛奶冷萃咖啡)和斯顿普敦咖啡烘烤(Stumptown Coffee Roasters,销售氮气冷萃咖啡,这种咖啡里含有氮,因此会稍微起泡,像上乘烈性黑啤那种厚厚的奶油状泡沫)等有创意的咖啡馆开始采用冷萃法做咖啡。

Cold brew was still a relatively niche market until 2015, when Starbucks introduced the drink in a number of stores; it is now available at every one of its more than 13,000 locations in the United States, 800 of which also offer nitro. It’s a coffee with both mass-market appeal and indie credibility. Today, you can find cold brew at a coffee shop where everything is meticulously crafted by hand, and at a Dunkin’ Donuts.

在2015年星巴克宣布在一些门店中引入冷萃咖啡之前,它依然是一个相对小众的市场。现在,冷萃咖啡在美国超过1.3万家星巴克门店均有售,其中800家门店还提供氮气冷萃咖啡。它成了一种既对大众市场有吸引力,又有着非主流口碑的咖啡。现在,无论是在一切都坚持小心翼翼手工制作的咖啡馆,还是唐恩都乐(Dunkin'Donuts),都能找到冷萃咖啡的影子。

What is cold brew? Essentially, it is a preparation. You steep coffee grounds in room-temperature water (which isn’t “cold,” strictly speaking) for six to 20 hours (depending on the recipe) to make a concentrate that can be diluted with water and served over ice. By giving up heat, you have to add time.

什么是冷萃咖啡?本质上,它是一种配制品。把咖啡粉在室温(严格地说,不是凉水)的水中浸泡6至20个小时(视做法而定),制成可以用水稀释,并盛放在冰块上面的浓缩咖啡。因为没有加热过程,所以必须增加制作时间。

Cold brew is more than a slowed-down version of hot coffee; it’s a noticeably different product. Hot water will bring out the acids in coffee, a characteristic that professional tasters call “brightness.” Cold water doesn’t but still gets the full range of mouthfeel and sweetness. The absence of acidity in cold brew is even more pronounced when compared with the iced coffee from the dark ages (of a few years ago), when it was almost always made with hot coffee that was chilled in the refrigerator. When hot coffee cools, even more acids develop, many of them unpleasantly harsh.

冷萃咖啡不仅仅是过程放慢了的热咖啡。它是一种明显不同的产品。热水会让咖啡中的酸释放出来,职业品尝师把这种特征叫“亮度”。冷水不会这样,但依旧会带来丰富的口感和芳香。和(几年前)黑暗时期的冰咖啡——几乎都是通过把热咖啡放在冰箱里冷却制成的——相比,冷萃咖啡没有酸味这一点甚至更明显。热咖啡冷却时,会产生更多的酸,其中很多味道浓烈,令人不悦。

But cold brew has a poor reputation in some coffee circles. According to those critics, cold brew’s selling point — its absence of acidity — is a flaw. The best coffees in the world, the ones grown at high altitudes, command higher prices specifically because of their complex acidity: Brightness is a virtue. Why give up one of the defining characteristics of a great coffee?

但在有些咖啡圈,冷萃咖啡口碑不佳。据这些圈子里的人说,冷萃咖啡的卖点——没有酸味,是一种缺陷。生长在高海拔地区的全世界最好的咖啡卖价更高,正是因为它们复杂的酸味:亮度是一种优点。为什么放弃好咖啡的一个决定性特点?

In addition, detractors say, the long exposure to air during the steeping process can leave cold-brewed coffees tasting flat and oxidized. Some coffee shops treat cold brew as a dumping ground for lesser coffees — old beans that are losing their flavor or uninteresting beans that couldn’t stand up to conventional brewing.

此外,批评者说,浸泡过程长时间暴露在空气中会导致冷萃咖啡氧化,喝起来平淡无味。一些咖啡馆把冷萃咖啡当作较差咖啡——那些味道变淡的陈年咖啡豆或口味清淡、经受不住传统制作工艺的咖啡豆——的垃圾倾倒场。

“The main argument is the lack of acidity, that it’s very one-note,” said Jenny Bonchak, who started Slingshot Coffee Co. with her husband, Jonathan. “But that’s not how we want to drink coffee. We wanted something that was balanced, and that was going to be juicy.”

“主要原因是没有酸味,非常平淡,”和丈夫乔纳森(Jonathan)共同创立斯林绍特咖啡公司(Slingshot Coffee Co.)的珍妮·邦查克(Jenny Bonchak)说。“但那不是我们想喝的咖啡。我们想要的是味道均衡、给力的东西。”

Bonchak uses high-quality beans from Counter Culture Coffee, a roaster based in Durham, North Carolina, and Slingshot Coffee is praised by the kind of coffee nerds who usually wouldn’t touch cold brew with a 10-foot straw.

邦查克用的是来自北卡罗来纳州达勒姆的烘烤公司Counter Culture Coffee的优质咖啡豆。斯林绍特咖啡受到了一些咖啡迷的称赞,这类咖啡迷往往即便用一根10英尺(约合300厘米)长的吸管,也不愿碰冷萃咖啡。

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