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给你10亿美元做慈善,你会怎么做?

更新时间:2017-6-7 18:35:15 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Giving Away Your Billion
给你10亿美元做慈善,你会怎么做?

Recently I’ve been reading the Giving Pledge letters. These are the letters that rich people write when they join Warren Buffett’s Giving Pledge campaign. They take the pledge, promising to give away most of their wealth during their lifetime, and then they write letters describing their giving philosophy.

最近,我在读捐款承诺书。它们是富人加入沃伦·巴菲特(Warren Buffett)的捐款承诺计划(Giving Pledge)时所写的承诺书。他们承诺在有生之年将大部分财富捐出去,然后写下自己的捐款理念。

“I suppose I arrived at my charitable commitment largely through guilt,” writes George B. Kaiser, an oil and finance guy from Oklahoma, who is purported to be worth about $8 billion. “I recognized early on that my good fortune was not due to superior personal character or initiative so much as it was to dumb luck. I was blessed to be born in an advanced society with caring parents. So, I had the advantage of both genetics … and upbringing.”

“我认为,我做出慈善承诺主要是因为愧疚,”俄克拉何马州的石油金融大亨乔治·B·凯泽(George B. Kaiser)写道。据说他大约有80亿美元的身家。“我很早就意识到,我之所以能获得如此巨大的财富,并不是因为我拥有超凡的品格或主观能动性,而更多的是因为纯粹的运气。我幸运地出生在一个先进的社会里,父母很关爱我。所以,我在基因和养育方面具有优势。”

Kaiser decided he was “morally bound to help those left behind by the accident of birth.” But he understood the complexities: “Though almost all of us grew up believing in the concept of equal opportunity, most of us simultaneously carried the unspoken and inconsistent ‘dirty little secret’ that genetics drove much of accomplishment so that equality was not achievable.”

凯泽认为,他“在道德上有义务帮助那些由于出生的偶然性而落后的人”。不过,他理解事情的复杂性。“虽然几乎所有人在成长过程中都被灌输了公平机会的概念,但大部分人同时又怀揣未曾说出口的、与此矛盾的‘肮脏小秘密’,那就是,基因决定了大部分成就,所以公平是难以实现的。”

His reading of modern brain research, however, led to the conclusion that genetic endowments can be modified by education, if you can get to kids early. Kaiser has directed much of his giving to early childhood education.

不过,基于对现代大脑研究的理解,他得出了一个结论:教育可以改变基因天赋,如果你早些培养的话。凯泽把大部分捐款用于儿童早期教育。

Most of the letter writers started poor or middle class. They don’t believe in family dynasties and sometimes argue that they would ruin their kids’ lives if they left them a mountain of money. Schools and universities are the most common recipients of their generosity, followed by medical research and Jewish cultural institutions. A ridiculously disproportionate percentage of the Giving Pledge philanthropists are Jewish.

大部分承诺书的作者出生于下层或中产阶级。他们不相信家族王朝,甚至认为,如果给孩子留下一大笔钱,会毁了孩子的一生。他们的慷慨捐赠最常见的受益者是学校和大学,然后是医学研究和犹太文化机构。在捐赠承诺慈善家中,犹太人所占的比例特别高。

Older letter writers have often found very specific niches for their giving — fighting childhood obesity in Georgia. Younger givers, especially the tech billionaires, are vague and less thoughtful.

年长的承诺书作者通常已找到非常具体的捐赠方向,比如在佐治亚州对抗儿童肥胖。而更年轻一些的捐款者,尤其是科技亿万富翁,确定的方向往往比较模糊,考虑得不够周详。

A few letters burn with special fervor. These people generally try to solve a problem that touched them directly. Dan Gilbert, who founded Quicken Loans, had a son born with neurofibromatosis, a genetic condition that affects the brain. Gordon Gund went fully blind in 1970. Over the ensuing 43 years, he and his wife helped raise more than $600 million for blindness research.

还有几份承诺书充满特殊的热情。这些人往往试图解决一个与他们直接相关的问题。丹·吉尔伯特(Dan Gilbert)成立了快速贷款公司(Quicken Loans),他有个儿子天生患有神经纤维瘤,这种基因疾病会影响大脑。戈登·冈德(Gordon Gund)1970年完全失明。在随后的43年里,他和妻子帮助筹集了6亿多美元,用于失明研究。

The letters set off my own fantasies. What would I do if I had a billion bucks to use for good? I’d start with the premise that the most important task before us is to reweave the social fabric. People in disorganized neighborhoods need to grow up enmeshed in the loving relationships that will help them rise. The elites need to be reintegrated with their own countrymen.

这些承诺书引发了我自己的幻想。如果我有10亿美元可以用于慈善事业,我会怎么做呢?我是基于这样一个前提:我们面前最重要的任务是重新组织社会结构。混乱社区的人们需要在充满关爱的关系中成长,帮助他们崛起。精英分子需要与自己的同胞重新联系在一起。

Only loving relationships transform lives, and such relationships can be formed only in small groups. Thus, I’d use my imaginary billion to seed 25-person collectives around the country.

只有关爱的关系才能改变生活,而这样的关系只能在小群体中结成。因此,我会用想像中的10亿美元在美国各地筹建25人小组。

A collective would be a group of people who met once a week to share and discuss life. Members of these chosen families would go on retreats and celebrate life events together. There would be “clearness committees” for members facing key decisions.

小组成员每周会面一次,分享和讨论生活。这些被选中的家庭的成员将一起出游,庆祝生活中的大事。它还会为面临重大决定的成员成立“解惑委员会”。

The collectives would be set up for people at three life stages. First, poor kids between 16 and 22. They’d meet in the homes of adult hosts and help one another navigate the transition from high school to college.

这些小组将为处于人生三个不同阶段的人设立。第一个群体是16岁至22岁的贫穷孩子。他们会在成人主持者的家中会面,帮助彼此度过从高中到大学的转变。

Second, young adults across classes between 23 and 26. This is a vastly under-institutionalized time of life when many people suffer a Telos Crisis. They don’t know why they are here and what they are called to do. The idea would be to bring people across social lines together with hosts and mentors, so that they could find a purpose and a path.

第二个群体是23岁至26岁的各个阶层的年轻人。这是人生的一个非常没有体系的时期,很多人遭受终极目标危机。他们不知道自己为什么在这里,也不知道自己的使命。因此,创立小组的目的是把不同社会层面的人与主持者和导师聚到一起,帮他们找到一个目标和一条道路。

Third, successful people between 36 and 40. We need a better establishment in this country. These collectives would identify the rising stars in local and national life, and would help build intimate bonds across parties and groups, creating a baseline of sympathy and understanding these people could carry as they rose to power.

第三个群体是36岁至40岁的成功人士。我们这个国家需要更好的体制。这些小组将找出地方和国家生活中的明日之星,帮助在不同党派和团体之间建立亲密纽带,确立一个同情和理解的基线,期望那些明日之星在占据权力高位时,依然记得这些基线。

The collectives would hit the four pressure points required for personal transformation:

这些小组会针对个人转型所需的四个压力点:

Heart: By nurturing deep friendships, they would give people the secure emotional connections they need to make daring explorations.

心:通过培养深厚的友谊,小组会在人们进行大胆探索时提供必需的安全的情感联系。

Hands: Members would get in the habit of performing small tasks of service and self-control for one another, thus engraving the habits of citizenship and good character.

手:成员们必须养成为彼此提供不太沉重的服务和自控的习惯,从而培养公民意识和良好性格。

Head: Each collective would have a curriculum, a set of biographical and reflective readings, to help members come up with their own life philosophies, to help them master the intellectual virtues required for public debate.

头脑:每个小组会有一个课程表,也就是一个关于自传和反思的读书清单,帮助成员确立自己的人生哲学,掌握进行公共辩论所需的智识优势。

Soul: In a busy world, members would discuss fundamental issues of life’s purpose, so that they might possess the spiritual true north that orients a life.

灵魂:在这个忙碌的世界,成员们将讨论人生意义的基本问题,以便他们掌握指导人生的精神真理。

The insular elites already have collectives like this in the form of Skull and Bones and such organizations. My billion would support collectives across society, supporting the homes and retreats where these communities would happen, offering small slush funds they could use for members in crisis.

排外的精英们已经拥有类似的团体和组织,比如骷髅会(Skull and Bones)。我想像中所捐赠的10亿美元将支持社会各个阶层的此类小组,支持能够创建此类小组的活动中心和场所,为陷入危机的成员提供少量度过难关的资金。

Now all I need is a hedge fund to get started.

现在,我只需要一个对冲基金来启动它。

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