您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 文化 >> 正文

东风压倒西风?张大千作品全球最贵

更新时间:2017-6-6 12:19:03 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Biggest-Selling Artist at Auction Is a Name You May Not Know
东风压倒西风?张大千作品全球最贵

If asked, “Who is the biggest-selling artist at auction?” few people in the art world would answer “Zhang Daqian.”

如果问一位艺术界人士:“全世界拍卖成交额最高的艺术家是谁?”很少有人会回答“张大千”。

But works by this Chinese modernist painter, who died in 1983, generated $354.8 million in auction sales last year — $31 million more than Picasso, who weighed in at No. 2, according to the French database Artprice.

但是,据法国数据库Artprice统计,这位1983年去世的中国现代主义画家的作品,去年创下了3亿5480万美元的拍卖成交额,比排名第二的毕加索多出3100万美元。

On Tuesday, at a Christie’s sale in Hong Kong, Zhang’s 1965 “splashed ink” scroll painting “Ancient Temples Amidst Clouds” sold to a telephone bidder for 102.5 million Hong Kong dollars with fees, or about $13.2 million. It was the sixth-highest auction price for this prolific, much-traveled and much-faked artist, who himself delighted in faking Chinese masters. This particular work was from the prestigious Mei Yun Tang Collection, compiled from the 1940s onward by the photographer Kao Ling-mei and his wife, Jan Yun-bor.

周二,在佳士得的香港拍卖会上,张大千1965年的“泼墨”卷轴《云山古寺》由一位电话竞拍者以含佣金1亿250万港元的价格拍下。这幅画是张大千作品拍出的第六高价,这位云游四海的高产画家的作品被大量仿冒,他本人也颇为乐于仿其他中国大师的画作。本次拍卖的作品来自于著名的梅云堂旧藏,由摄影师高岭梅及其妻詹云白自1940年代开始收集整理。

Days earlier in Hong Kong, Christie’s had set an auction high of 152.9 million dollars, or about $19.6 million, for Zhang’s fellow another modernist painter Zao Wou-Ki (1920-2013), who spent most of his working life in France. The swirling, 11-foot-wide blue, black and white abstract, “29.09.64,” had been in the same French family collection since 1969 and had been estimated to sell for at least $5 million.

几天前,佳士得在香港拍出一幅赵无极(1920–2013)的作品,成交额高达1亿5290万港元,创下了他的个人拍卖纪录。赵无极和张大千一样是一位现代主义画家,大部分创作生涯在法国度过。此次拍出的作品《29.09.64》宽11英尺,是一幅风起云涌的蓝、黑、白色抽象画,自1968年起一直由一个法国家族收藏,最低估价500万美元。

The scale of these prices reflects how the balance of financial power has shifted to Chinese auctions. Artprice calculated that in 2016 — a year marked by nervousness and contraction in the art market — China captured 38 percent of the $12.45 billion in public fine art sales worldwide, eclipsing the 28 percent achieved in the United States.

这些高价反映出资金力量的平衡开始向中国拍卖市场倾斜。据Artprice估计,在艺术市场下行和收缩的2016年里,全球美术作品公开销售额为124.5亿美元,其中中国占38%,超过了美国的28%。

“It’s a remarkable when you think that in 1985 it was illegal to sell art in mainland China, and now there are 400 auction houses,” said James Lally, a New York dealer in historic Chinese works of art. “The rules are being set by Chinese buyers.”

“要知道,1985年在中国大陆销售艺术品还是非法的,如今这里已经有了400家拍卖行,真是非常惊人,”纽约的中国古代艺术品交易商蓝理捷(James Lally)表示。“中国买家正在制定规则。”

Both Zao and Zhang lived most of their lives abroad. “The interest in both of their oeuvres shows that Chinese in China are getting more and more interested in other Chinese stories of modernity — That is, stories other than the ones that happened in the P.R.C.,” said Shane McCausland, a professor of art history at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, referring to the People’s Republic of China.

赵无极和张大千大部分时间都生活在国外。“对他们两人作品的兴趣表明,身在中国的中国人正越来越关注其他的中国现代性故事——也就是发生在中华人民共和国以外的故事,”伦敦大学亚非学院(School of Oriental and African Studies)艺术史教授马啸鸿(Shane McCausland)说。

But modernism is not the only best-selling Chinese story. In Hong Kong, historic art continues to generate big auction prices. Mr. Lally attended Christie’s auction on Wednesday of a large celadon-glazed “Double Dragon” amphora in the Tang style from the reign of Emperor Yongzheng, who ruled from 1722 to 1735. This finely preserved item of porcelain was pushed by two telephone bidders to 140.5 million dollars, toward the upper range of Christie’s estimate. “It’s a very impressive piece,” Mr. Lally said, “but that’s plenty of money for a piece of porcelain from the 18th century.”

但现代主义不是唯一畅销的中国故事。在香港,古代艺术品还在持续拍出高价。蓝理捷于周三参加了佳士得的粉青釉“双龙”盘口尊拍卖会,这件有唐代风格的瓷器出自雍正年间(其统治期为1722–1735年),品相完好。两位电话竞拍者将价格推到1亿4050万港元成交,接近佳士得的最高估价。“这是一件非常令人赞叹的物品,”蓝理捷说,“但是对于一件18世纪的瓷器来说,这些钱还是太多了。

Auctions in Hong Kong and mainland China have been plagued by nonpayment issues, undermining the reliability of sales data. From May 2015 to May 2016, for example, the rate of nonpayment at Chinese auctions stood at 41 percent, according to a March report commissioned by Art Basel and UBS.

香港和中国大陆的拍卖一直受到拒付问题困扰,从而破坏了销售数据的可靠性。例如,根据今年3月一份由巴塞尔艺术展(Art Basel)和瑞银(UBS)委托的报告,从2015年5月至2016年5月,中国拍卖的拒付率达到41%。

That acknowledged, China, the second-largest economy after the United States, remains the art market’s prime emerging power. But how will that power evolve?

尽管如此,作为仅次于美国的世界第二大经济体,中国依然是艺术市场的主要新兴力量。不过,这股力量会如何发展呢?

Dealers and auctioneers in international contemporary art are hoping that Chinese collectors will develop an understanding and a taste for the names that dominate the market in the West. Over the past five years, the Hong Kong edition of the Art Basel fair has given American and European galleries a destination event at which to show their artists in Asia. And Western auction houses are now holding sales of international contemporary art in Hong Kong.

国际当代艺术领域的交易商和拍卖商希望中国收藏家能对主导西方市场的艺术家更加了解,更感兴趣。在过去五年里,香港巴塞尔艺术展成为美国和欧洲的画廊不可错过的活动,让它们可以在亚洲展示自己代理的艺术家的作品。现在,西方拍卖公司也在香港举办国际当代艺术拍卖会。

On May 28, Phillips held its second Hong Kong evening sale of 20th century and contemporary art and design. This raised 129.8 million dollars, or $16.6 million, from 57 lots, five of which failed to sell. The Sean Scully abstract “Wall of Light Green,” from 2013, sold for $1.4 million, almost doubling a high estimate that reflected current gallery prices.

5月28日,菲利普斯拍卖行(Phillips)在香港举办了第二场20世纪和当代艺术与设计夜拍。会上的58件拍品共售出1亿2980万港元,其中5件拍品流拍。肖恩·斯库利(Sean Scully)2013年创作的抽象画《淡绿色的墙》(Wall of Light Green)以140万美元售出,几乎是按照当前画廊价格估算的最高价的两倍。

But the main talking-point of the night came from the on-trend Indonesian painter Christine Ay Tjoe, who was the subject of a solo show last summer at White Cube in London. Ms. Ay Tjoe’s five-foot-high abstract “Small Flies and Other Wings” from 2013 soared to 11.7 million dollars, or $1.5 million, 10 times the presale estimate and an auction high for the artist. It was bought by a Japanese telephone bidder after nine minutes of competition.

不过,当晚的谈论焦点是当下炙手可热的印尼画家克里丝汀·艾珠(Christine Ay Tjoe)。去年夏天,伦敦白立方画廊(White Cube)为她举办了一场个展。艾珠2013年创作的5英尺高抽象画《小苍蝇和其他翅膀》(Small Flies and Other Wings)的售价飙升至1170万港元,是拍前估价的10倍,也是这位艺术家目前的最高拍价。经过9分钟角逐后,该作品被日本的一位电话竞拍者买下。

“The waiting list for the artist is in the hundreds,” said Jonathan Crockett, Phillips’s head of 20th century and contemporary art in Asia, who has been following Ms. Ay Tjoe’s career. “Three or four years ago, if you were lucky enough to be able to buy one of her paintings, it would have cost between $50,000 and $100,000.”

“有成百上千的人在排队等待收藏这位艺术家的作品,”菲利普斯拍卖行20世纪和当代艺术亚洲部主任乔纳森·克罗克特(Jonathan Crockett)说。他一直关注艾珠的艺术生涯。“如果你有幸在三四年前买到她的一幅画,那时候的价格在5万至10万美元。”

Mr. Taylor’s London gallery is exhibiting seven large-scale works by the Shanghai abstract painter Ding Yi. Little-known in the West, Ding uses a visual language of grids and crosses to obliquely evoke the seismic psychological and physical changes that China has undergone in recent years. The paintings, from 2016, are priced at 350,000 pounds, or about $450,000. Two have sold; one buyer was from Europe, the other from the United States.

泰勒的伦敦画廊正在展出上海抽象画家丁乙的几件大型作品。丁乙在西方鲜为人知,他使用网格和十字形等视觉语言,隐晦地表达了近年来在中国发生的身心剧变。他在2016年创作的这些画总定价为35万英镑。已有两件作品售出,一位买家来自欧洲,另一位来自美国。

Mr. Taylor said he had found it encouraging to see a far larger attendance of mainland Chinese visitors at this year’s Art Basel Hong Kong, but he remained skeptical that contemporary pieces would come to dominate China’s visual culture and art market as they have in the United States and Britain — at least any time soon.

泰勒表示,他在今年的香港巴塞尔艺术展上看到了更多来自中国大陆的访客,这令他深受鼓舞,但他依然认为,当代艺术作品不会像在美国和英国那样,主导中国的视觉文化和艺术市场,至少短期内不会。

“There just aren’t that many people” in China who are interested in buying international contemporary art, Mr. Taylor said. “Every museum has a historical collection at its core,” he added. “They’re all rooted in tradition.”

泰勒表示,在中国,“没有那么多人”对购买国际当代艺术作品感兴趣。“每个博物馆的收藏核心都是历史收藏,”他还说,“它们都植根于传统。”

Tastes change, of course, and electronic devices are revolutionizing notions of culture all over the world. But the millennia-old artistic traditions exemplified by Zhang Daqian suggest that China’s cultural tastes might well last longer than ours.

当然,品味是会改变的,电子设备正在世界各地造成文化观念的剧变。但是,张大千所代表的千年艺术传统表明,中国文化品味的存在,也许会比我们的更持久。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表