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保卫气候协议,世界“反美阵线”形成

更新时间:2017-6-3 10:06:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

As Trump Exits Paris Agreement, Other Nations Are Defiant
保卫气候协议,世界“反美阵线”形成

UNITED NATIONS — Leaders from around the world maintained a defiant front Thursday after President Donald Trump announced that he would withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement.

联合国——周四,唐纳德·特朗普总统宣布他将让美国退出《巴黎协定》(Paris Agreement),世界各国领导人随即形成了针对他的反抗阵线。

French President Emmanuel Macron, speaking in English before switching to French, said he believed Trump was making a mistake, then extended an offer to Americans: “Tonight, I wish to tell the United States: France believes in you, the world believes in you. I know that you are a great nation. I know your history, our common history. To all scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, responsible citizens who were disappointed by the decision of the president of the United States, I want to say that they will find in France a second home.

法国总统埃马纽埃尔·马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)先用英语,后用法语发言,说他相信特朗普犯了一个错误,然后向美国人提出建议:“今晚,我想告诉美国:法国相信你,世界相信你。我知道你是一个伟大的国家。我知道你的历史,我们的共同历史。我想说,所有对美国总统的决定感到失望的科学家、工程师、企业家,以及负责任的公民,他们可以在法国找到第二个家园。”

Miguel Arias Cañete, the European Union’s commissioner for climate, said Trump’s decision had “galvanized us” and promised that “this vacuum will be filled by new broad committed leadership.”

欧盟气候委员米格尔·阿里亚斯·卡涅特(Miguel Arias Cañete)表示,特朗普的决定“激励了我们”,并承诺“这个真空将由全身心投入的新领导力量填补。”

The leaders of France, Germany and Italy swiftly issued a statement expressing “regret” and rejected Trump’s assertion that he would renegotiate the deal.

法国、德国、意大利的领导人迅速发表了一项声明,表示“遗憾”,并表示不接受特朗普就该协议展开重新谈判的主张。

“We therefore reaffirm our strongest commitment to swiftly implement the Paris Agreement, including its climate finance goals, and we encourage all our partners to speed up their action to combat climate change,” the statement read.

“我们在此重申,我们以最坚定的决心致力于迅速执行《巴黎协定》,包括其气候资金目标,我们鼓励所有合作伙伴加快行动,应对气候变化,”这份声明说。

Christina Figueres, the former U.N. official who led the negotiations, said that under the agreement the United States cannot even submit its intention to withdraw until November 2019, after which the process would take a year.

主导谈判的前联合国官员克里斯蒂安娜·菲格雷斯(Christina Figueres)说,根据协议,美国直到2019年11月才能提交退出意图,之后的退出程序还需要一年时间。

“You cannot renegotiate individually,” she said. “It’s a multilateral agreement. No one country can unilaterally change the conditions.”

“你不能分别重新谈判,”她说。“这是一个多边协议。没有任何国家可以单方面改变条件。“

In his comments Thursday, Trump took aim at the Green Climate Fund designed to help poor nations deal with the havoc of climate change, calling it a vast scheme to redistribute wealth. Figueres described the fund as a “political message” of help from rich countries to poor countries that have done little to wreck the atmosphere.

在周四的评论中,特朗普把目标对准旨在帮助贫穷国家处理气候变化破坏的绿色气候基金(Green Climate Fund),称之为重新分配财富的巨大阴谋。菲格雷斯将该基金描述为富国释放的“政治信息”,表明它们在帮助那些几乎没有对大气造成任何破坏的穷国。

Mayors from Sweden to Australia pushed back against the U.S. announcement. “What’s heartbreaking is the damage governments can do in a short time when they’re in power,” said Clover Moore, the mayor of Sydney. “But where national action falters, as we see in the USA tonight, we see more and more city governments stepping up to provide the leadership we urgently need.”

从瑞典到澳大利亚,许多市长都批驳了美国的声明。“令人心碎的是,一旦他们掌握权力,政府在短时间内就能造成这样的破坏,”悉尼市市长克洛弗·摩尔(Clover Moore)说。“但是,正如我们今晚在美国看到的,当国家的行动出现摇摆的时候,就会有越来越多的城市政府站出来,提供我们迫切需要的领导力。”

Mary Robinson, a former U.N. special envoy for climate change, said in a biting statement: “The U.S. reneging on its commitment to the Paris Agreement renders it a rogue state on the international stage.”

前联合国气候变化特使玛丽·罗宾逊(Mary Robinson)在一份措辞犀利的声明中说:“美国违反对《巴黎协定》的承诺,使其成为国际舞台上的流氓国家。”

Before the announcement, U.N. envoys from rich and poor countries alike said they were sticking to the agreement, with or without the United States. New diplomatic alliances were forming, with Europe, India and China pledging to uphold their end of the deal.

在特朗普宣布该消息之前,来自富国和穷国的联合国特使都表示,不管有没有美国参与,他们都将坚持这个协议。欧洲、印度和中国都承诺遵守自己在协议中的部分,新的外交联盟正在形成。

Even some of Washington’s most reliable allies warned that the United States would find itself isolated on the international stage.

即使华盛顿的一些最可靠的盟友也警告说,美国会在国际舞台上遭到孤立。

Arias Cañete insisted the Paris Agreement “will endure,” and he said the “world can continue to count on Europe for global leadership in the fight against climate change.”

阿里亚斯·卡涅特坚称,《巴黎协定》“将会持续下去”,他说,“在应对气候变化的战斗中,世界可以继续依靠欧洲来充当全球领导者的角色。”

Premier Li Keqiang of China, in Berlin for meetings with Chancellor Angela Merkel, said Thursday before Trump’s decision that his country remained committed to the fight against climate change and to participating in international efforts for a greener world.

周四,在特朗普宣布这一决定之前,中国总理李克强在柏林与德国总理安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)会晤时表示,中国会继续致力于抗击气候变化,并参与各种国际努力,建设一个更环保的世界。

China, the world’s biggest emitter of carbon dioxide, stands to gain international credit for standing by the Paris Agreement, but it would not be able to fill the void on its own if the United States abandoned the treaty.

中国是世界上最大的二氧化碳排放国,它因支持《巴黎协定》而逐渐在国际上获得赞誉,但如果美国放弃条约,它也无法自己填补空白。

“China will continue to uphold its commitments to the Paris climate agreement,” Li said, confirming a position his country agreed to alongside the United States in 2014, in what proved to be a watershed moment for the ultimate passage of the landmark accord the following year.

“中国将会继续履行巴黎协定承诺,”李克强表示,2014年,中国在这一问题上和美国达成了同一立场,这被证明是具有决定性意义的时刻,使得具有里程碑意义的巴黎协定终于在翌年获得通过。如今,中国再次重申了自己的立场。

Merkel, who welcomed the Chinese commitment as “encouraging,” has been a leader in the global push for climate action since 1992, when she played a crucial international role in the passage of the world’s first climate treaty, the Kyoto Protocol.

默克尔对中国的承诺表示欢迎,称之为“鼓舞人心”。1992年,她在通过世界首个气候条约《京都议定书》(Kyoto Protocol)当中扮演了至关重要的国际角色,此后在全球推动气候行动中一直发挥着领导作用。

She pointed to future cooperation between Brussels and Beijing, making clear the similar intention in Europe to move ahead with potential partners to fill any vacuum created by Washington’s absence.

她提到布鲁塞尔与北京未来的合作,表明欧洲也有类似意图:推动潜在合作伙伴以填补华盛顿缺席所造成的真空。

Merkel and India’s leader, Narendra Modi, pledged their support for the climate accord during meetings in Berlin on Wednesday.

默克尔和印度的领导人纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)于周三在柏林会见期间承诺支持气候协定。

The Paris Agreement entered into force in the General Assembly hall last November, just days before the U.S. presidential election. And it was at the U.N. this week that the isolation of the United States was palpable.

去年11月美国总统大选的前几天,《巴黎协定》在联合国大会大厅内生效。而本周,美国在联合国显然孤立无援。

Several Western diplomats said they could not fathom why the White House would join the tiny clique of nations — like Syria and Nicaragua — that had not signed the accord. The last time the United States’ standing had fallen so low was during its invasion of Iraq, several said.

几位西方国家的外交官说,他们不能理解白宫何以效仿叙利亚和尼加拉瓜,加入没有签署协议的小国家行列。有几位外交官说,上一次美国的世界地位下降到这么低的地步,还是在它入侵伊拉克的时候。

“Humanity is at a fork in the road,” said Kai Sauer, the ambassador from Finland. “One hundred and ninety countries going on one path, and the United States, Syria, Nicaragua going on another? It seems a bit strange. This definitely also changes how we are looking at the United States.”

“人类正位于一个岔路口,”芬兰常驻联合国代表凯·绍尔(Kai Sauer)说。“190个国家走上一条路,而美国、叙利亚、尼加拉瓜走上另一条路?这看起来有点奇怪。但这也绝对改变了我们对美国的看法。”

If the United States does withdraw, “the system of global climate governance won’t totally collapse, but it will be shaken,” said Zhang Haibin, a professor at Peking University who studies international environmental politics.

如果美国确实退出,“全球气候治理体系不会完全崩溃,但它会动摇,”北京大学研究国际环境政治的教授张海滨说。

“The international community may expect China to play a leading role,” he said. “But in my view, China doesn’t have the capacity to single-handedly play the role of global hero. Instead, we’ll need to work closely with the European Union and the BASIC countries,” he said, referring to a negotiating bloc that includes Brazil, South Africa, India and China.

“国际社会可能期望中国发挥领导作用,”他说。“但是在我看来,中国没有能力单枪匹马地扮演全球英雄角色。相反,我们需要同欧盟和基础四国紧密合作,”他所说的基础四国指由巴西、南非、印度和中国组成的谈判集团。

“Collective leadership will be more important,” he said.

“集体领导会更重要,”他说。

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