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特朗普和奥巴马同时去欧洲,气氛截然不同

更新时间:2017-5-27 10:59:51 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

European Visits by Trump and Obama Are a Study in Contrasts
特朗普和奥巴马同时去欧洲,气氛截然不同

BERLIN — The contrast could not have been more stark.

柏林——对比不可能更强烈。

Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany started Thursday in Berlin with the 44th president — the one she has called “dear Barack.” She spent the afternoon in Brussels with the 45th, Donald Trump, whose election she greeted with a stern reminder to respect shared values like equality and freedom.

周四,德国总理安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)在柏林与一直被她唤做“亲爱的奥巴马”的第44任美国总统一同开启了新的一天。当天下午,她又在布鲁塞尔和第45任总统唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)会面,当初祝贺后者当选时,她只是严肃地提醒说要尊重自由、平等之类双方共同的价值观。

Barack Obama was in Berlin to help celebrate 500 years since Martin Luther’s Reformation, and received a rock-star welcome from tens of thousands at the Brandenburg Gate. It was all bonhomie, waves and warm words, as the former president praised Merkel’s “outstanding work, not just here but around the world,” particularly with refugees.

贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)来到柏林是为了参加马丁·路德宗教改革500周年纪念活动,在勃兰登堡门前像个巨星般受到热烈欢迎。当这位前总统盛赞默克尔“为这里乃至全世界做了杰出的工作”——尤其是关于难民的工作时,人们感受到的是友好的氛围,看到的是挥手致意,听到的是暖心的言辞。

Barely two hours later, Merkel was among the European leaders who greeted Trump coolly at NATO headquarters in Brussels, where few casual words, let alone warm ones, were exchanged, as the new American president once again castigated allies for not paying their fair share of bills.

仅仅两个小时后,默克尔便和其他欧洲领导人一道,在布鲁塞尔的北约(NATO)总部矜持地欢迎了特朗普。当美国新任总统再度严厉批评盟友们没支付足够的费用时,两人甚少正式交换看法,更别提说些暖心的言辞了。

For Europeans, the juxtaposition served as an unavoidable reminder of the contrasts between the men — their personal styles, their relations with America’s allies and the values and priorities they embody.

这种并置肯定能让欧洲人注意到奥巴马和特朗普之间的强烈反差——包括他们的个人风格,他们与美国的盟友的关系,以及他们所体现的价值观、所看重的事项。

It was also a demonstration, however coincidental, of the political shadow boxing that has found an unlikely arena in Europe, the new center of the contest between liberal democracy and far-right populism.

尽管事出巧合,但这也是一场隔空发生的政治拳击表演——在欧洲这个新近成为自由主义民主和极右派民粹主义斗争中心的地方,这场表演找到了一个出人意料的舞台。

While Obama is the leader Europe prefers, Trump’s sudden ascendance has been seen as a challenge to America’s commitment to Europe, both its unity and its security, as well as the values that underpin the Western alliance.

奥巴马是欧洲更青睐的领导人,而特朗普的突然崛起一直被视为一种挑战——面临挑战的是美国对欧洲在统一和安全方面的承诺,以及让西方联盟得到巩固的价值观。

The impression was underscored once again on Thursday when Trump demurred from explicitly endorsing America’s commitment to NATO’s principle of collective defense.

周四,由于特朗普没有按照惯例明确重申美国将恪守北约共同防御原则,这种印象再度被加强。

Neither president has remained aloof from Europe’s politics as the stakes have mounted this year with critical elections that have so far beaten back the far-right populism that helped thrust Trump to power last year.

欧洲今年有若干场关键的选举,截至目前,在去年帮助特朗普上台的那种极右派民粹主义潮流遭到了阻击。由于涉及更大的利害关系,两位总统都没有与欧洲政治保持距离。

Each man has, in fact, made his preferences clear at important moments in a kind of political proxy war. Obama, who remains wildly popular in Europe, was not shy about weighing in on France’s presidential race and endorsing the centrist reformer Emmanuel Macron, the winner.

事实上,在一种政治上的代理人战争中,两人均在重要时刻表明了自己的偏好。在欧洲仍然广受欢迎的奥巴马不加避讳地影响法国的总统竞选,给身为中间派改革者的赢家埃马纽埃尔·马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)背书。

Trump, on the other hand, lauded Macron’s far-right opponent, Marine Le Pen, and posted a message on Twitter saying a terror attack in Paris in April would “have a big effect on presidential election!” Ultimately it did not.

特朗普则称赞了马克龙的极右翼对手马琳·勒庞(Marine Le Pen),还发推文称,巴黎四月份的一场恐怖袭击会“对总统选举产生重大影响!”结果并非如此。

For European leaders like Merkel, striking a balance between coaxing Trump into a deeper understanding with America’s traditional allies, while remaining true to their own political principles, is proving to be tricky.

事实证明,对默克尔等欧洲领导人来说,在劝诱特朗普与美国的传统盟友达成更深谅解和忠于自己的政治原则之间保持平衡,是高难度动作。

German government officials say Merkel telephoned Trump when it became clear she would meet both presidents on the same day, to dispel any impression of a slight.

德国政府官员称,默克尔在明确得知她将在同一天会见两位总统时,曾给电特朗普打过电话,以免对方有受到轻慢之感。

But the coincidence of scheduling — Obama’s invitation was issued a year ago, though accepted only last month — nonetheless presented Merkel with an opportunity for her to demonstrate that both sides need each other, and to show voters at home that she is a world leader as she campaigns for a fourth term.

不过,日程上的巧合——对奥巴马的邀请是一年前发出的,但直到上个月才被接受——无论如何都给默克尔提供了一个机会,让她得以展示双方都彼此需要,并在谋求第四个任期之际让本国选民看到她是一个世界性领导人。

“It is wonderful timing for her, a combination of good luck and good strategizing,” said Jan Techau of the Richard Holbrooke Forum at the American Academy in Berlin.

“对她来说这是一个绝好的时间安排,是好运气和好谋划的结合,”柏林美国研究院(American Academy)理查德·霍布鲁克论坛(Richard Holbrooke Forum) 的扬·特肖(Jan Techau)说。

She was with Obama, “the good American who everyone is already missing,” and then with Trump, “the other America which needs to be dealt with. And that is what is so crucial — of course she needs the relationship with Trump, but she can relativize that with pictures with Obama at the church meeting,” Techau added.

她先和奥巴马一起现身,那是“人人都已经开始怀念的美国好人”,然后是特朗普,代表着“需要应对的另一个美国。而这正是至关重要之处——与特朗普的关系当然是她需要的,但她可以用和奥巴马一起出席宗教集会的画面淡化这一点”,特肖补充道。

Yet, in Brussels, there were no evident breakthroughs.

不过在布鲁塞尔并没有出现明显的突破性进展。

As for Obama, usually trips by ex-leaders generate little public interest and consist of collecting obscure awards, like the media prize Obama was due to accept in the German spa town of Baden-Baden later on Thursday.

说到奥巴马,前领导人的行程通常不太会引起公众的兴趣,一般都是去领取不起眼的奖项,比如奥巴马周四晚些时候要在德国温泉小镇巴登巴登领取的传媒奖。

But while Obama has generally avoided making overtly political statements during his travels, his every movement, gesture and word have become objects of scrutiny at a highly politicized time.

尽管旅行期间奥巴马总是避免公开发表政治宣言,但在这样一个高度政治化的时刻,他的每一个动作、姿态以及他说出的每一个字都经受着审视。

Obama took his first step back onto the world stage earlier this month, at a food and technology conference in Milan, where he sprinkled his political stardust on Matteo Renzi, the center-left former Italian prime minister who is hoping for a comeback.

奥巴马于本月初首次重返国际舞台,在米兰出席一个关于食品和科技的会议,用自己的政治魅力点亮了希望卷土重来的中左翼意大利前总统马泰奥·伦齐(Matteo Renzi)。

The themes and settings of this week scarcely spelled neutrality, or reserve, analysts noted. “The entire week is more about symbolism than it is about substance,” Techau said. “It is state theater at the highest level.”

分析人士指出,本周的主题和场合几乎与中立或保留意见无缘。“整个星期与其说关乎本质,还不如说关乎象征意义,”特肖说。“这是最高层级的世界舞台大戏。”

Obama did not mention Trump once during his 90-minute appearance in Berlin. But he did take some veiled swipes, noting, for instance, that when dealing with migration, “we can’t hide behind a wall,” alluding to Trump’s plan to build a wall along the Mexican border.

在柏林现身的90分钟里,奥巴马一次也没有说起特朗普的名字。但他的确隐晦地有所提及,比如他说,处理移民问题时,“我们不能躲在一堵墙后面,”暗指特朗普修建美墨边境墙的计划。

In Brussels, Merkel, was similarly discreet as she unveiled a piece of the Berlin Wall, whose fall in November 1989 marked NATO’s triumph in the Cold War against the Soviets.

在布鲁塞尔,默克尔为一块柏林围墙残片揭幕时同样颇为谨慎。柏林墙于1989倒塌,标志着北约在冷战中击败苏联。

“To find convincing answers for the future,” she said, “it is good to know what we achieved in the past.”

“知道我们在过去取得的成就,”她说,“有助于为未来找到令人信服的答案。”

Trump, the New Yorker, presented a large chunk of the North Tower of the World Trade Center where the first hijacked plane made impact on Sept. 11, 2001, leading NATO allies for the first time to invoke the collective defense clause, Article V, which European leaders were hoping Trump would endorse.

纽约客特朗普则展示了一大块世贸中心北楼残片。2001年9月11日,第一架被挟持的飞机撞向世贸中心北楼,引得北约盟友首次启用共同防御条款,也就是欧洲领导本来希望特朗普为之背书的第五款。

Instead, Trump wasted no time in reminding Europeans that most of them are not paying their way in defense, and that this is “not fair” to the American taxpayer.

特朗普却争分夺秒地提醒欧洲人,他们中的大多数人都没有交足防御费用,这对美国纳税人来说“并不公平”。

While the atmosphere in Brussels was tense, in Berlin Germans and foreigners exulted in the chance to see and hear Obama live.

布鲁塞尔那边的氛围颇为紧绷,而在柏林这边,有机会见到奥巴马本人并听他说话的德国人和外国人都欣喜若狂。

Austin Joseph, 27, a native of Atlanta, said he left the United States two days after Trump’s election and swiftly settled in Berlin. “They talked to each other with decency and respect,” he said after Obama’s appearance with Merkel. “That is what we need more of nowadays.”

27岁的亚特兰大人奥斯丁·约瑟夫(ustin Joseph)说,他在特朗普当选总统两天后离开了美国,迅速在柏林定居。“他们带着礼貌和尊重彼此交谈,”他在奥巴马与默克尔一同现身后表示。“这正是我们现如今更需要的东西。”

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