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关于菲律宾马拉维危机,你应该了解的问题

更新时间:2017-5-26 18:27:46 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Latest Unrest in the Southern Philippines, Explained
关于菲律宾马拉维危机,你应该了解的问题

Philippine troops using tanks and helicopters stormed the southern city of Marawi on Thursday in an effort to defeat militants linked to the Islamic State who have besieged the city for days, setting fire to buildings and taking hostages.

菲律宾军队周四动用坦克和直升机突袭南部城市马拉维(Marawi),试图击败和伊斯兰国(Islamic State)勾结的武装分子。后者已围攻马拉维数日,他们焚烧房屋,劫持人质。

Here is a look at what is happening and who is involved.

本文是对发生的事情和事件涉及各方的介绍。

— What is happening?

——发生了什么?

On Tuesday, security forces in Marawi tried and failed to capture Isnilon Hapilon, an Islamist militant on the FBI’s list of most-wanted terrorists. They were confronted by at least 100 militants, some of whom carried sophisticated weapons.

周二,马拉维的安全部队试图抓捕美国联邦调查局(FBI)恐怖分子通缉犯名单上的伊斯兰派武装分子伊斯尼隆·哈皮隆(Isnilon Hapilon),但以失败告终。他们遇到了至少100名武装分子的反抗,其中一些人携有精密武器。

Many of those militants, members of a gang known as the Maute, then joined forces with Hapilon’s followers in a rampage through the city of 200,000. Both the Maute and Hapilon’s organization, Abu Sayyaf, have pledged allegiance to the Islamic State, and fighters have raised that group’s black banner over several buildings in Marawi, including the city’s main hospital.

这些武装分子是一个名为穆特组织(Maute)的成员,他们中的很多人联合哈皮隆的支持者,在人口20万的马拉维市为非作歹。穆特组织和哈皮隆的组织阿布沙耶夫(Abu Sayyaf)均承诺效忠伊斯兰国,武装分子已在马拉维多栋建筑,包括该市主要的医院楼顶悬挂该组织的黑色旗帜。

They have also taken a priest and his parishioners hostage and set fire to buildings. Thousands of civilians have fled the fighting, and at least 30 people have been killed.

他们还把一名神职人员和他的多名教民劫为人质,并焚烧房屋。已有成千上万名平民逃离战场,至少30人死亡。

On Tuesday, President Rodrigo Duterte imposed martial law on the southern island of Mindanao, which includes Marawi. Mindanao, home to 20 million people, is the heart of the country’s long-simmering Muslim insurgency.

周二,菲律宾总统罗德里戈·杜特蒂(Rodrigo Duterte)对马拉维所在的南部岛屿棉兰老岛实行戒严。棉兰老岛生活着2000万人,是该国长期一触即发的穆斯林暴乱的中心。

— Who are the key players?

——主要参与者是谁?

Abu Sayyaf is a jihadi group that has terrorized the southern Philippines for decades, engaging in piracy, kidnapping, extortion and bombings. The group beheaded a German hostage this year and killed two Canadians in 2016.

阿布沙耶夫是一个圣战组织,几十年来一直在菲律宾南部制造恐怖,从事海盗、绑架、敲诈勒索和爆炸活动。该组织今年斩首了一名德国人质,2016年杀害了两名加拿大人。

The group says it wants to establish an Islamic caliphate in the southern Philippines. Last year, Hapilon, a Muslim preacher and an experienced guerrilla, pledged his allegiance to the Islamic State and its leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, in a video posted online.

该组织自称希望在菲律宾南部建立一个伊斯兰哈里发。去年,穆斯林传道者、久经沙场的游击队员哈皮隆在一段发布在网上的视频中承诺忠于伊斯兰国及其领导人阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪(Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi)。

The United States has offered a $5 million reward for Hapilon’s capture. In January, the Philippine military tried to kill him in an airstrike, but he was only wounded.

美国悬赏500万美元抓捕哈皮隆。1月,菲律宾军方曾试图在一场空袭中杀死哈皮隆,但他只是受了伤。

Hapilon has been trying to unite several smaller Islamist groups in the region, including the Maute, who are mostly in Marawi.

哈皮隆一直试图联合该地区另外几个规模小一些的伊斯兰组织,包括主要在马拉维活动的穆特组织。

The Maute are another of the four Islamist groups in the region affiliated with the Islamic State. The group, founded by the brothers Abdullah and Omar Maute, started as a small band of petty criminals. Last year, members of the Maute were arrested in connection with a bombing at a night market in Davao City, Duterte’s hometown. The authorities also said they foiled a plot in November in which the group tried to bomb the U.S. Embassy in Manila.

穆特组织是该地区四个隶属于伊斯兰国的伊斯兰组织之一。由阿卜杜拉和奥马尔·穆特(Abdullah and Omar Maute)兄弟建立的该组织成立之初,只是一小群罪行轻微的罪犯。去年,穆特组织的多名成员因为与杜特蒂的家乡达沃市一个夜市发生的爆炸有关联而被捕。当局还表示他们去年11月挫败了该组织试图轰炸马尼拉美国大使馆的阴谋。

Duterte cut short a trip to Russia this week to oversee the military operation and declared martial law in Mindanao.

为了指挥这场军事行动,杜特蒂缩短了本周对俄罗斯的访问,并宣布棉兰老岛实行戒严。

The populist president has taken an extreme hard line on crime and disorder, most notably with his contentious war on drugs, which has left thousands across the country dead and has drawn condemnation from rights groups and many Western governments. On Wednesday, Duterte warned that he might impose military rule over the rest of the country, citing the possibility that terrorists could begin operations in the northern Philippines.

这位民粹主义总统对犯罪和骚乱的立场极其强硬,最有名的是他备受争议的打击毒品行动,该行动导致菲律宾全国成千上万人死亡,遭到权利组织和很多西方政府的谴责。周三,杜特蒂警告称他可能会对全国其他地方实行军事管制。他给出的理由是,恐怖分子可能会在菲律宾北部开始行动。

— How does martial law work?

——戒严令有何影响?

Tuesday’s declaration of martial law effectively replaced the civilian government in Mindanao with the armed forces. Under the declaration, soldiers have increased latitude to carry out arrests.

周二宣布戒严实际上是用武装部队代替了棉兰老岛的文职政府。根据宣布的戒严令,军方进行逮捕的自由加大。

For two months, civil liberties will be curtailed. Civilians can be held in detention merely on suspicion of committing a crime and can be subjected to trial by military tribunal.

公民自由将受到两个月的限制。平民可能会仅仅因为涉嫌犯罪就被关押,并被军事法庭审判。

Duterte’s threat to expand martial law nationwide is unnerving for many in the Philippines who lived through the dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos. Marcos declared martial law in 1972 and used it to maintain his grip on power for years.

对很多经历过费迪南德·E·马科斯(Ferdinand E. Marcos)的独裁统治的菲律宾人来说,杜特蒂要把戒严的范围扩大到全国的威胁令人不安。马科斯1972年宣布戒严,并用它来维持自己对权力的多年控制。

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