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在缅甸私人油田开采一个发财梦

更新时间:2017-5-23 18:49:41 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Drilling for a Dream in Myanmar
在缅甸私人油田开采一个发财梦

NGA NAUNG MONE, Myanmar — Soon after dawn, Win Myint Oo, bleary-eyed and wearing just a longyi, a traditional Burmese sarong, starts a generator and squats on a bamboo platform suspended under a 40-foot, jury-rigged derrick: just three steel poles and bamboo struts lashed together with rope.

缅甸雅南莫——天亮后不久,睡眼惺忪、只穿着一件笼基——一种传统的缅甸纱笼——的温敏乌(Win Myint Oo,音)打开发电机,蹲坐在一个用竹子做的平台上,平台吊在一个40英尺(约合12米)高的井架下面。临时搭建的井架不过是用绳子捆在一起的三根钢杆和几根竹竿。

The generator powers a winch that lowers a blue plastic pipe 1,500 feet into the ground, then pulls it back up filled with black crude oil.

发动机带动绞车转动,把一个蓝色的塑料管子下放到地下1500英尺(约合460米)的地方,然后再把装满黑色原油的管子拉上来。

Like the other prospectors trying to draw the dregs out of Myanmar’s largest unregulated oil field, Mr. Win Myint Oo, 24, came with a dream of striking oil and making it rich.

和其他试图把残渣从缅甸最大的无人监管油田抽出来的探矿工一样,24岁的温敏乌怀揣着找到石油、发家致富的梦想来到这里。

“I hope I have the chance to be a big boss,” he said. “If I get lucky I want to open a car showroom. I love cars. Maybe I will become Formula 1 champion, one day.”

“我希望有机会当大老板,”他说。“如果走运的话,我想开一个汽车展示中心。我喜欢车。也许有一天,我会成为一级方程式赛车(Formula 1)冠军。”

The reality is otherwise. Competing with thousands of other wildcat prospectors here, he will be lucky to collect a barrel a day, earning a little over $50.

但现实不是这样的。他要和其他数千名自发的探矿工竞争,一天能采集到一桶石油,挣50美元出头(约合345元人民币)就算幸运的了。

That is good money in rural Myanmar, where most farmers earn a subsistence income. But most drillers here in Nga Naung Mone saved for years or borrowed money from family members to come up with the setup costs, about $7,300 to buy a plot of land from a farmer, acquire some basic equipment and hire a driller.

在大部分农民的收入仅能维持生存的缅甸农村地区,这是高薪。但雅南莫这里的大部分钻探工要积攒多年,或是从家人那里借钱,才能凑够大约7300美元的启动资金,用于从农民手里买一块地、购买一些基本设备并雇佣一名钻井工人。

“If they don’t find oil, they lose the money,” said Khin Maung Myint, a supervisor at the Sein Tagon Oil Company, which buys the oil from the drillers and ships it by truck to a refinery. “We don’t have the technology to see where the oil is, which is the problem. So people just go and dig.”

“如果找不到石油,这笔钱就赔了,”从这些钻探工手里购买石油,并用卡车运送到一座炼油厂的森达贡石油公司(Sein Tagon Oil Company)的主管金芒敏(Khin Maung Myint,音)说。“我们没有探明石油在哪里的技术,这是问题的所在。所以人们只能挖挖看。”

“If you dig and get lucky,” he said, “it is fate.”

“如果走运挖到了,”他说,“就是命。”

Moreover, since prospectors first struck oil here about five years ago, the field has become overcrowded, and its reserves have been depleted.

此外,自从探矿工大约五年前在这里发现石油后,这片油田变得人满为患,石油已经采得差不多了。

Nga Naung Mone is one of three oil fields near the town of Minhla, in south central Myanmar, and the largest by far. The others, Dagine and Da Hat Pin, are much smaller and less developed.

雅南莫是缅甸中南部敏拉镇附近的三个油田之一,也是缅甸迄今为止最大的油田。另外两个油田达金(Dagine)和达哈宾(Da Hat Pin)在规模和开发程度上远不及雅南莫。

Now several thousand people live and work here, and the oil fields are chockablock with derricks, many as close as 10 feet apart.

目前,有几千人在这里生活和工作。油田里撘满了井架,很多井架之间只隔着10英尺(约合3米)。

Win Ko, 44, who has been at Nga Naung Mone for four years and owns over 50 wells, says that a few years ago he was able to pump oil 24 hours a day, extracting up to 15 barrels per well. Today, he said, that average is less than half a barrel per well a day.

44岁的温哥(Win Ko,音)已在雅南莫呆了四年,拥有50多口油井。他说,几年前,他能够一天24小时用泵抽油,一口井的出油量高达15桶。但现在,他说,平均一口井一天的出油量不到半桶。

The work starts early to beat the tropical heat, and soon after sunrise, the hum of generators fills the air.

为了抵御热带的炎热,采油工作早早开始。日出后不久,四下里便是发动机的轰鸣声。

Most of the drillers store their day’s collection in barrels. Those who own several derricks use tarpaulin-lined pits, which hold more oil.

大部分钻探工把一天的收获装在桶里。拥有多个井架的人会使用铺了柏油帆布的坑,可以装更多油。

As the sun starts to dip below the horizon, silhouetting the derricks, about 100 pickup trucks, tractors pulling trailers and even ox-drawn carts weave their way through the maze of wells carrying old dented oil drums to the Sein Tagon collection stations.

随着太阳开始掉到地平线以下,映照着井架的影子,大约100辆皮卡、牵引拖车甚至牛车在油井组成的迷宫里穿梭,把凹凸不平的旧油桶运到森达贡的收购站。

In the dry season, when temperatures climb as high as 110 Fahrenheit, most wildcatters retreat to their huts around 9 a.m. to shelter from the sun and rest until late afternoon, when it is cool enough to work again.

在旱季,当气温升至110华氏度(约合43摄氏度)时,大部分自发开采石油的人都会在上午9点左右回到工棚里躲避烈日,休息到傍晚凉快时再继续工作。

The workday ends around 6:30. Some drillers bathe and start to prepare dinner outside their huts, while others play chinlone, a Burmese game similar to volleyball.

大约6点30分,一天的工作结束。一些钻井工人洗澡并开始在工棚外面准备晚饭,其他人则打藤球。藤球是缅甸的一种体育运动,与排球类似。

About 3,000 people live in Nga Naung Mone. Most have one or two wells and live in bamboo huts next to them, some with their wives and children.

雅南莫生活着大约3000人。大部分人拥有一两口油井,住在油井旁边的竹棚里。一些人有妻儿相伴。

A small village has sprung up beside the oil field to support them.

油田旁边兴起了一个小村庄,为他们提供服务。

In the evening, workers and their families stroll along the road, browsing the shops in bamboo shacks that sell products and drilling supplies. There are a handful of restaurants and tea shops, some showing live soccer matches.

晚上,工人和家人边沿路溜达,边逛售卖商品和钻探用品的竹屋商店。这里有少数几家餐厅和茶楼,一些还放映现场直播的足球比赛。

Most wildcatters work seven days a week and take time off only during important Buddhist festivals. Children who are old enough attend school in nearby villages.

大部分自发开采石油的人一周工作七天,只在重要的佛教节日休息。适龄的孩子会去邻近的村子上学。

Women and young girls work as well, using rags to soak up spilled oil, then wringing them into a bucket. A full bucket sells for about $4.50.

妇女和小女孩也要工作。她们用破布把洒出来的石油吸干,再把它们挤进一个小桶里。满满一小桶石油能卖大约4.50美元。

Most drillers figure Nga Naung Mone has at most two years left before it is pumped dry. Then they will pack up their derricks and their dreams and move on.

大部分钻井工人认为,最多再过两年,雅南莫就会被抽干。届时,他们会收起井架和梦想,再次出发。

Mr. Win Ko is already looking into another oil field, in Myaing, a few hundred miles north, where he already owns six wells.

温哥已经在考察另一片油田了。该油田位于几百英里以北的棉因,他在那里已拥有六口油井。

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