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韩国称朝鲜已从导弹试射中收获重要技术数据

更新时间:2017-5-23 10:49:51 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

North Korea Missile Test Was Short on Distance but Long on Data, South Says
韩国称朝鲜已从导弹试射中收获重要技术数据

SEOUL, South Korea — The missile North Korea launched on Sunday was a medium-range ballistic missile that cannot fly far enough to strike American military bases in Guam, South Korean defense officials said on Monday.

韩国首尔——韩国国防官员周一说,朝鲜周日发射的导弹是一枚中程弹道导弹,其射程不足以打击美国在关岛的军事基地。

But the test of the ground-to-ground Pukguksong-2 missile appeared to have provided North Korea with meaningful data that it could use to advance its missile programs, they said.

但这些官员表示,这枚“北极星-2”型地对地导弹的试验,看来已为朝鲜提供了有用的数据,有助于其导弹计划进一步发展。

The Pukguksong-2, first tested on Feb. 12, already represents key strides in the North’s missile technologies. The missile was fired on Sunday from a mobile launch vehicle. And unlike most North Korean missiles, it used solid fuel, rather than liquid. These features mean that the missile can have its fuel already loaded before it is moved from a hiding place to a launching site and can be fired quickly, making it difficult for the North’s enemies to detect an attack.

“北极星-2”型导弹的首次试验是在2月12日,它已代表着朝鲜在导弹技术上取得的关键进步。周日的导弹是从一个移动运载设备上发射的。与朝鲜的大多数导弹不同,新导弹使用了固体燃料,而不是液体燃料。这些特征意味着,这种导弹可以先装好燃料,然后再从其隐蔽地点移到发射场去,还可以迅速发射,这将让朝鲜的敌人很难侦察到导弹袭击。

After watching the test on Sunday, North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, approved the deployment of the Pukguksong-2, ordering his country to start mass-producing the system, the North’s official Korean Central News Agency reported on Monday.

朝鲜官方的中央通讯社周一报道称,朝鲜领导人金正恩在周日观看了试验之后,批准了“北极星-2”型导弹的部署,并下令开始进行批量生产。

But it remained unclear how far the missile could fly. North Korea calls it a “mid-to-long-range” ballistic missile. But during the test on Sunday, the missile flew 310 miles while reaching an altitude of 348 miles, according to South Korean officials. Flown on a standard trajectory, the same missile carrying a similar payload would have a range of about 780 miles, according to David Wright, co-director of the Global Security Program at the Union of Concerned Scientists.

但目前尚不清楚这种导弹能飞多远。朝鲜称之为“中远程”弹道导弹。但据韩国官员的说法,周日试验的导弹的飞行距离约为310英里(约合500公里),飞行高度达到了348英里(约合560公里)。在标准轨迹上飞行、携带类似有效载荷的同类导弹将会具有约780英里(约合1250公里)的射程,忧思科学家联盟(Union of Concerned Scientists)全球安全项目的联席主任戴维·赖特(David Wright)说。

“If this test were conducted with a very light payload, as North Korea is believed to have done in past tests, the actual range with a warhead could be significantly shorter,” Mr. Wright wrote in a blog.

赖特在一篇博客中写道:“如果这次试验是在携带非常轻的有效载荷的情况下进行的,正如人们认为朝鲜在过去的试验中所做的那样,那么带有弹头的这种导弹的实际射程将会显著缩短。”

During a news briefing on Monday, a spokesman for the South Korean military, Col. Roh Jae-cheon, said that the Pukguksong-2 was believed to be a medium-range missile. Medium-range missiles are classified as having a maximum range of between about 620 and 1,900 miles.

在周一的记者会上,韩国军方发言人卢载千上校(Col. Roh Jae-cheon)表示,“北极星-2”型导弹被认为属于中程导弹。中程导弹的最大射程一般在620英里(约合1000公里)到1900英里(约合3000公里)之间。

“Based upon the analysis of related authorities, the missile cannot reach” Guam, he said. Guam lies about 2,000 miles from North Korea.

他说,“据有关方面的分析,该导弹无法到达”关岛。关岛距离朝鲜约2000英里(约合3200公里)。

The American military bases in Guam would serve as a major launching pad for United States reinforcements should war break out on the Korean Peninsula.

如果朝鲜半岛发生战争的话,美国在关岛的军事基地将成为美国提供增援的主要出发点。

For years, North Korea has been trying to build a reliable intermediate-range ballistic missile that can reach Guam, also home to American strategic bombers. An intermediate-range ballistic missile has a range of about 1,900 to 3,400 miles.

多年来,朝鲜一直在努力建造一种能够到达关岛的、可靠的远程弹道导弹,关岛也是美国战略轰炸机的基地。远程弹道导弹的射程范围约为1900英里(约合3000公里)到3400英里(约合5500公里)。

But North Korea has had a dismal record in testing its intermediate-range ballistic missile Musudan. All but one of the several Musudan projectiles launched since last year have exploded shortly after liftoff.

但是,朝鲜在试验其“舞水端”远程弹道导弹上的记录不佳。去年以来试验的几枚“舞水端”导弹,除一枚外,都在发射后不久就爆炸了。

But on May 14, North Korea successfully launched a new intermediate-range ballistic missile that it said could carry a heavy nuclear warhead.

但朝鲜在今年5月14日成功地发射了一枚新型远程弹道导弹,据说该导弹可携带比较重的核弹头。

The missile, known as Hwasong-12, was believed to have a range long enough to hit Guam. But the Hwasong-12 used liquid fuel and was launched from a ground station. Large liquid-fuel missiles must be moved without fuel and then fueled from a separate source after they are positioned at the launch site — a process that can take more than an hour and makes the missile vulnerable to a pre-emptive attack.

这枚名为“火星-12”型的导弹据信射程足以打击关岛。但“火星-12”使用的是液体燃料,而且需要从地面发射。大型液体燃料导弹必须在没有燃料的情况下移到发射场,然后用分离的单元为其添加燃料——这个过程可能需要一个多小时,让导弹容易受到先发制人的打击。

But no matter the true range of the Pukguksong-2, North Korea has gained useful information from its latest test, South Korean officials said.

但是,韩国官员说,不管“北极星-2”的真正射程如何,朝鲜已经从最近这次试验中获得了有用的信息。

The North’s official Korean Central News Agency said on Monday that the latest test was to “finally verify all the technical indexes of the weapon system and thoroughly examine its adaptability under various battle conditions, before its deployment at military units for action.”

朝鲜的官方通讯社朝中社周一表示,最近这次试验是“在实战部署之前,对各种作战条件下该武器系统的所有技术指标和全面性能的最后检验。”

South Korean defense officials have said that one of the things they try to do when North Korea launches a missile is to monitor electronic signals sent from the missile to determine what technical data the North is gathering from the test. On Monday, the North’s main Workers’ Party newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, released pictures that it said were sent from a camera attached to the warhead of the Pukguksong-2. The images showed the Earth lying a great distance below.

韩国国防部官员说,朝鲜试发导弹时,韩国试图做的事情之一,是监测导弹发出的电子信号,以确定朝鲜从试验中收集了什么技术数据。周一,朝鲜劳动党的主要报纸《劳动新闻》发布了有关图片,《劳动新闻》说,这些图片是从“北极星-2”的弹头上携带的相机发来的。图片显示,地球位于遥远的下方。

North Korea said that such photographs helped missile scientists check the warhead’s positioning and steering functions after it separated from the missile.

朝鲜说,这些图片有助于导弹专家检查弹头与导弹分离后的定位和转向功能。

North Korea’s advancing missile technology is a growing concern for Washington. Besides developing missiles that can hit American military targets in South Korea and Japan, Pyongyang has said that it is trying to build an intercontinental ballistic missile that could deliver a nuclear warhead to the continental United States.

朝鲜不断进步的导弹技术给华盛顿带来日益增长的担忧。除了发展能打击在韩国和日本的美国军事目标的导弹外,平壤说,朝鲜也正在尝试建造一枚可将核弹头运载到美国大陆的洲际弹道导弹(简称ICBM)。

The Pukguksong-2 could be a key steppingstone toward building an ICBM, said Kim Dong-yub, a defense analyst at the Institute for Far Eastern Studies at Kyungnam University in Seoul. By combining two or more engines of the type used on the Pukguksong-2, the North could create an engine powerful enough to carry an ICBM, he said.

首尔庆南大学远东研究所的国防分析师金东叶说,北极星-2可能是建造ICBM的一个重要铺垫。他说,通过把两个或两个以上的用于北极星-2的引擎组合起来,朝鲜可以制造出一个运载能力大到足以携带ICBM的引擎。

But most analysts say that North Korea is still years away from building a reliable ICBM. One of the challenges is to master “re-entry” technologies that can protect a nuclear warhead from intense heat and vibrations as it crashes through the Earth’s atmosphere. An ICBM warhead must endure far greater heat than a shorter-range ballistic missile like the Pukguksong-2.

但大多数分析人士表示,朝鲜离建造出可靠的ICBM还有多年时间。其面临的一个挑战是,掌握在核弹头坠入地球大气层过程中保护弹头不受强热和振动影响的“再入”技术。洲际弹道导弹弹头必须能承受远远高于北极星-2这种较短程弹道导弹所能承受的温度。

“South Korean and United States intelligence authorities believe that through yesterday’s test, North Korea has collected data meaningful in improving the reliability of its missile technologies,” Colonel Roh said on Monday. “But we need more analysis to determine whether the warhead had a stable atmospheric re-entry.”

“韩国和美国情报机构认为,通过昨天的试验,朝鲜已经收集到了对提高其导弹技术可靠性有意义的数据,”卢载千在周一说。“但是,我们需要做更多的分析,才能确定其弹头是否具有稳定的重返大气层的再入技术。”

Separately, Rodong Sinmun, the North Korean paper, carried a commentary on Monday dismissing as “absurd” and “childish” the allegations that the country’s hackers might be involved in a recent wave of ransomware cyberattacks around the world.

另外,朝鲜报纸《劳动新闻》周一发表一篇评论文章,把朝鲜黑客可能与世界各地最近遭受的一波勒索软件网络攻击有关的指责驳斥为“荒谬的”和“幼稚的”。

While there is still nothing definitive to link the attacks to North Korea, some analysts have suspected North Korean involvement, citing similarities between the ransomware used to extort computer users into paying the hackers and previously deployed North Korean malware codes.

虽然目前尚无确凿证据将网络攻击与朝鲜联系起来,但一些分析人士一直怀疑朝鲜参与其中,他们指出,用于迫使计算机用户向黑客支付赎金的勒索软件,与朝鲜以前使用过的恶意软件的代码有相似之处。

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