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“我在这里”:首位跨性别男性进入日本政坛

更新时间:2017-5-22 18:26:55 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Japanese Transgender Politician Is Showing ‘I Exist Here’
“我在这里”:首位跨性别男性进入日本政坛

IRUMA, Japan — In addition to his name and title, the business card of Tomoya Hosoda, a city councilman in a suburb of Tokyo, bears a unique description.

日本入间——除姓名和头衔外,在一座与东京接壤的城市担任市议员的细田智也(Tomoya Hosoda)的名片上还有一项独一无二的内容。

“Born a woman,” it reads.

“出生时为女性”,上面写着。

Hosoda, 25, won his seat on the City Council in conservative-leaning Iruma in March, becoming the first openly transgender male elected to public office in Japan and one of only a handful around the world.

3月,现年25岁的细田智也在偏保守的入间的市议会赢得一个席位,成为日本首位,同时也是全世界少有当选公职的公开的跨性别男性。

Japan has not experienced the kind of transgender moment that has swept the United States, where the politics of sexual identity have convulsed schools, popular culture and big-time sports in recent years.

日本还没经历过席卷美国的那种跨性别时刻。近年来,性别认同政治动摇了美国的学校、流行文化和主要的体育运动。

The appearance of transgender Japanese television stars may convey the illusion of a culture at ease with gender fluidity. But this is a country where transgender people must be labeled as having a mental disorder in order to legally transition from one sex to the other, and where transgender people can struggle to rent apartments, obtain medical care or hold jobs.

跨性别日本电视明星的出现,可能会给人日本文化与性别流动和平共处的假象。但这是一个跨性别者必须被贴上患有精神障碍的标签才能合法地从一种性别变成另一种性别,且跨性别者可能很难租房、获得医疗保健服务或保住工作的国家。

Hosoda thinks that in his small way, he can make an important contribution simply by being public and confident about his identity, particularly for young people who may be confused about their own.

细田智也认为,仅仅通过公开并确信自己的身份,他可以自己的微薄之力做出重要贡献,尤其是对那些可能对自己的身份感到困惑的年轻人来说。

“I wanted to show children in elementary or junior high school that I exist here,” he said in an interview in the Iruma office of the Democratic Party, which Hosoda represents on the council. “I strongly felt that way, and that’s why I entered politics.”

“我想向上小学或初中的孩子表明,我在这里,”他在民主党(Democratic Party)的入间办公室接受采访时说。在市议会里,细田智也代表的正是该党。“我对那种情况有强烈的切身感受,这就是我从政的原因。”

Hosoda benefited from the activism of Japan’s only other transgender politician, Aya Kamikawa, who has sat on the council in Setagaya, a ward of Tokyo, for 14 years.

细田智也受益于日本政坛仅有的另一名跨性别者上川彩(Aya Kamikawa)的行动主义。后者已担任东京世田谷区议员14年。

Kamikawa, a transgender woman, lobbied for a change in Japan’s law to allow transgender people to officially change their gender on the all-important family registry certificate that every Japanese citizen must hold, and that is often needed to rent an apartment or receive medical care or other services.

上川彩是一名跨性别女性。她游说争取修改日本的一项法律,允许跨性别者正式更改自己在最重要的户籍证明上的性别。每一个日本公民都必须持有户籍证明,租房子、享受医疗保健服务或其他服务时通常都离不开它。

Under that law, only people who have received a diagnosis of “gender identity disorder” and have undergone sexual reassignment surgery may legally change their gender. Activists say the law makes it difficult for those who are transitioning or do not want surgery to live or work as the gender with which they identify and often leads to discrimination by those who recognize only biological gender.

这项法律规定,只有被诊断为患有“性别认同障碍”(Gender Identity Disorder),和接受了变性手术的人才能合法更改自己的性别。活动人士称,该法律让正处在过渡期或不想接受手术的人很难以他们自己认同的性别去生活或工作,并且常常会遭到那些只承认生理性别者的歧视。

In Hosoda’s case, growing up as a girl named Mika in Iruma she never met anyone who was transgender and did not even know it was possible to transition from female to male.

以细田智也为例,在以一个名叫三嘉(Mika,音)的女孩的身份在入间长大成人的过程中,她从没遇到过任何一个跨性别者,并且甚至不知道可以从女性变成男性。

All she knew was that she did not feel like a girl. She hated being forced to wear a skirt as part of her uniform in high school. When it came time for her coming-of-age ceremony at age 20, she balked at having to wear a feminine kimono.

她只知道自己感觉不像女孩。上高中时,她讨厌被迫穿校服裙。到20岁的成人礼时,她在必须穿女式和服面前退缩了。

Through an internet connection, she met a man who had transitioned from a woman, opening her eyes to the possibility of another life path. This mentor encouraged her to come out to her parents.

通过网络,她认识了一个从女性变成男性的人,让她看到了另一条生活道路的可能性。这位导师鼓励她向父母表明心意。

In 2014, Hosoda underwent sexual reassignment surgery, which allowed him to convert his gender on his official family register.

2014年,细田智也接受了变性手术。手术让他得以更改正式户籍上的性别。

By the time he decided to run for office, he felt comfortable going public with his identity, although his appearance could have allowed him to disguise his past. With his carefully moussed, close-cropped hairstyle, black-and-silver wire glasses and hints of a beard, he resembles many other men in their 20s in Tokyo.

到决定竞选公职时,他对公开自己的身份感到很轻松,尽管他的外表本可以让他隐瞒自己的过去。一头经过精心打理的短发,黑色和银色搭配的金丝眼镜,再加上少许胡子,他和东京很多20多岁的男性看上去并无二致。

His campaign brochures noted prominently that he is a transgender man, and he advocated a platform of embracing diversity, not just for sexual minorities but also for the elderly, children and people with disabilities.

他的竞选手册上显著地指出他是一名跨性别男性,主张建立一个支持多样性的平台,不仅面向性别少数群体,还面向老人、儿童和残疾人。

Hosoda did not experience any discrimination during the campaign, he said. He squeaked onto the council, receiving the second-fewest votes among the 22 members elected.

细田智也说竞选期间,他没遇到任何歧视。他能够进入市议会纯属幸运。在22名当选议员中,他得到的票数是倒数第二。

In Iruma, Shinji Sugimura, director of the local chapter of the Democratic Party, said Hosoda had succeeded because “he didn’t push his thoughts to others but tried to be understood first.”

在入间,民主党当地分部负责人杉村慎治(Shinji Sugimura,音)说,细田智也之所以取得成功是因为“他没有把自己的想法强加给他人,而是先努力争取得到对方的理解”。

“He’s good as a politician rather than an activist,” Sugimura added.

“他是一名优秀的政治人物,而不是活动人士,”杉村慎治接着说。

Kamikawa, who recalls being harassed during her first run for office 14 years ago, said she was heartened that Hosoda had not faced the kind of attacks she had. Some people hurled epithets, she said, and others asked, “What kind of parents raised someone like you?”

上川彩回忆起了14年前第一次竞选公职时被人骚扰的经历。她说,细田智也没有面临她遇到的那种攻击令她感到振奋。她回忆称,一些人骂她,其他一些人问她,“什么样的父母养出了你这种人?”

Some transgender activists say that even as Japanese society has grown more superficially accepting of transgender people, many hurdles remain.

一些跨性别活动人士表示,尽管日本社会表面上变得更加容忍跨性别者了,但仍存在很多障碍。

People who prefer not to risk surgery for health reasons or who are still in the process of changing their biological sex live in a limbo where they are not allowed to live as they choose.

因健康原因而不愿意冒手术风险的人,或者仍然处于改变生理性别过程中的人在炼狱中度日,无法过自己选择的生活。

“When someone points out that their appearance doesn’t match their official family register, they need to explain themselves each time,” said Yuka Tateishi, a lawyer who is representing a transgender woman fighting for the right to use the bathrooms that correspond to her gender identity at work.

“当有人指出他们的外表与官方户籍不符时,他们每次都需要解释自己的情况,”律师立石由佳(Yuka Tateishi,音)说道,她正在代理一名跨性别女性争取在工作中使用与自己性别相应的卫生间。

Takamasa Nakayama, founder of a transgender support organization in Japan, said some people had been fired after coming out.

日本一个跨性别者支援组织的创始人中山高正(Takamasa Nakayama,音)说,有些人公开身份后遭到解雇。

“Sometimes they are discriminated against because their appearance is changing,” Nakayama said. “If you are not strong enough, it’s hard to keep a full-time job and survive the bullying.”

“有时他们因为外表变化而遭受歧视。”中山高正说,“如果你不够强大,就很难保住全职工作,忍受欺凌。”

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