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关记者进监狱?特朗普对新闻媒体的厌恶与“恐吓”

更新时间:2017-5-18 19:59:08 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Trump’s Urging That Comey Jail Reporters Denounced as an ‘Act of Intimidation’
关记者进监狱?特朗普对新闻媒体的厌恶与“恐吓”

News organizations and free speech groups reacted with outrage and defiance Wednesday to a report that President Donald Trump had asked the former FBI director, James B. Comey, to consider jailing U.S. journalists who published classified information about the government.

周三,新闻机构和倡导言论自由的组织均表示出极大愤慨,原因是有报道称唐纳德·特朗普总统曾要求前联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯·B·科米(James B. Comey)考虑将公布政府机密信息的美国记者关进监狱。

Trump’s suggestion, reported in a New York Times article Tuesday based on a memo that Comey wrote shortly after a Feb. 14 meeting between the two men in the Oval Office, was a stark summation of the president’s dislike of the news media.

该报道是《纽约时报》周二发表的,基于2月14日两人在椭圆形办公室会晤后不久科米写的备忘录。特朗普的这一建议鲜明地反映出他对新闻媒体的厌恶。

“We’ve been saying there’s a big gap between the president’s rhetoric and actions he can take to undermine the work of the media,” said Joel Simon, executive director of the Committee to Protect Journalists. “That gap has now been closed.”

“我们一直在说,总统的言论和他可以采取的破坏媒体工作的行动之间存在距离,”保护记者委员会(Committee to Protect Journalists)的执行主任乔尔·西蒙(Joel Simon)说。“现在,这个距离消失了。”

Trump was fixated during the Feb. 14 meeting on a series of damaging leaks about his administration, including the disclosure that his national security adviser had been recorded on an FBI wiretap speaking with Russia’s ambassador to the United States, according to one of Comey’s associates. The topic led Trump to suggest that Comey consider putting reporters in prison for disseminating classified information, the associate said, according to The Times’ article.

据科米的一位身边人称,在2月14日的会晤中,特朗普专注于一系列对其政府机密的破坏性泄露事件,包括FBI窃听到他的国家安全顾问与俄罗斯驻美国大使之间通话一事的曝光。据《纽约时报》的文章称,这个人表示,该话题导致特朗普建议科米考虑以传播机密信息罪将记者们关进监狱。

“Suggesting that the government should prosecute journalists for the publication of classified information is very menacing, and I think that’s exactly what they intend,” said Martin Baron, The Washington Post’s executive editor. “It’s an act of intimidation.”

“建议政府起诉公布机密信息的记者是很有威慑力的,我认为那正是他们的意图,”《华盛顿邮报》(The Washington Post)的执行主编马丁·巴伦(Martin Baron)说。“这是一种恐吓行为。”

For their part, right-leaning media outlets have looked warily at the mainstream media, frequently adopting Trump’s view that negative news about his administration is “fake news.” And the conservative media has seized on major news stories critical of Trump as proof that the left-leaning media wants to sabotage the president.

右倾媒体也在谨慎地关注主流媒体,它们和特朗普一样,也经常认为关于该政府的负面新闻都是“假新闻”。保守派媒体将批评特朗普的重大新闻报道视为左倾媒体意图颠覆总统的证据。

Trump often rails against the journalists and news organizations that cover him, invoking the “fake news” term in public appearances and on social media. As a former reality television star fixated on the media, the president also grants interviews to those same news organizations. His comments to Comey about imprisoning journalists could be construed as a private fit of pique or as a more concerted effort to enlist the Justice Department in quashing reporting that the president dislikes.

特朗普经常责骂报道他的记者和新闻机构,在公开场合和社交媒体上使用“假新闻”这个说法。作为一名关注媒体的前电视真人秀明星,这位总统也接受同一批新闻机构的采访。他向科米发表的监禁记者的言论可以被理解为私下里的泄愤,也可以被认为是谋求司法部压制总统不喜欢的报道的实际行动。

The White House did not respond Wednesday when asked whether Trump still supported imprisoning reporters. The president’s press secretary, Sean Spicer, told reporters on Air Force One that Trump did not believe that The Times’ article “was an accurate representation of that meeting.”

周三,当被问及特朗普是否依然支持监禁记者时,白宫没有予以回复。总统的新闻秘书肖恩·斯派塞(Sean Spicer)在空军一号(Air Force One)上向记者们表示,特朗普认为,《纽约时报》的文章没有“准确描述那次会晤”。

The president returned to the theme Wednesday during an address at the Coast Guard Academy.

周三,总统在海岸警卫队学院(Coast Guard Academy)讲话时又提到了这个主题。

“No politician in history has been treated worse or more unfairly” by the media, he said.

他说,媒体“对我的恶劣和不公超过对历史上的任何一位政治人士”。

Trump is not the first president that journalism groups have accused of impinging on press freedoms. The Obama administration was harshly criticized by news organizations for pursuing aggressive prosecutions of suspected government leakers, investigations that occasionally ensnared the journalists involved.

特朗普不是第一位被新闻团体指控侵犯新闻自由的总统。新闻机构曾严厉批评奥巴马政府积极起诉涉嫌泄露政府机密的人,那些调查偶尔会使相关记者掉入陷阱。

Still, Trump’s record of flouting political norms — and his expressions of disdain toward the press, as when he declared some news organizations to be “the enemy of the American people” — has worried journalists who believe he is more willing to take drastic steps to stifle reporting.

不过,特朗普之前蔑视政治规范的做法令那些认为他更愿意采取激烈措施扼杀新闻报道的记者们感到担忧,例如,他曾对新闻界表示鄙视,宣布某些新闻机构是“美国人民的敌人”。

“Jailing reporters would put us on par with nations like Turkey” said Robert J. Byers, executive editor of the Charleston Gazette-Mail in West Virginia, which won a Pulitzer Prize this year. The president’s suggestion that reporters be jailed, Byers said, is “just one more way that President Trump has shown his lack of understanding of the role of the press in a free society.”

“监禁记者会把我们拉低到土耳其等国的层次”,西弗吉尼亚州《查尔斯顿邮报》(Charleston Gazette-Mail)的主编罗伯特·J·拜尔斯(Robert J. Byers)说。今年,该报获得了一项普利策奖(Pulitzer Prize)。拜尔斯表示,总统监禁记者的建议“再次证明,他不甚理解新闻媒体在自由社会中的作用”。

Joseph Kahn, the managing editor of The Times, said in a statement: “We believe strongly that it is in the public interest to have a vigorous media committed to publishing truthful information about the government. The First Amendment clearly protects the right of the press to publish such information, and The Times regards fair, unfettered coverage of those who hold power as a core part of its mission.”

《纽约时报》的执行主编周看(Joseph Kahn)在一项声明中表示:“我们坚信,媒体积极致力于发布关于政府的真实信息符合公共利益。第一修正案明确保护新闻媒体发布此类信息的权利,时报认为公正、自由地报道执政者是自己核心使命的一部分。”

The government has never charged a reporter under the Espionage Act. But previous administrations have flirted with the possibility.

美国政府从未以《反间谍法》(Espionage Act)起诉过任何记者。不过,之前的一些政府考虑过这种可能性。

After The Times exposed the National Security Agency’s warrantless surveillance program during President George W. Bush’s administration, Alberto Gonzales, the attorney general at the time, publicly raised the possibility of prosecution. Although the Justice Department launched an aggressive investigation into that leak, no one was ever charged.

在时报曝光国家安全局(National Security Agency)在乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)执政期间实施了未经授权的监视计划后,时任司法部长阿尔伯托·冈萨雷斯(Alberto Gonzales)公开提出了起诉的可能性。虽然司法部对该泄密事件进行过积极调查,但无人受到指控。

That increased focus on leaks carried over into the Obama administration, which brought about nine cases against leakers — about twice as many as all previous administrations combined. The administration never charged journalists, but its aggressive investigative tactics in several cases attracted a backlash.

对泄密事件的更多关注延续至奥巴马政府,它对泄密者提出过9起诉讼,几乎是之前所有政府此类诉讼总和的两倍。该政府从未起诉过记者,但它在几起案件中咄咄逼人的调查策略引起了强烈反抗。

In 2013, the Justice Department identified a Fox News reporter, James Rosen, “as an aider, abettor and/or co‑conspirator” in a leak by State Department officials of information about North Korea. Justice Department officials said they never contemplated charging Rosen and merely wanted access to his email account. But Congress and news organizations vehemently protested, prompting Attorney General Eric Holder to revise the Justice Department’s rules for leak investigations and to add protections for reporters.

2013年,美国司法部认定福克斯新闻(Fox News)记者詹姆斯·罗森(James Rosen)在国务院官员泄漏有关朝鲜的信息一事中担当了“协助者、教唆者和/或合谋者”。司法部官员表示,他们从未考虑过起诉罗森,只是想查看他的电子邮件账户。但这遭到了国会和新闻机构的强烈抗议,促使司法部长埃里克·霍尔德(Eric Holder)修改了司法部对泄密调查的规定,增加了对记者的保护。

Holder also fought to the Supreme Court to try to force a Times reporter, James Risen, to testify as a witness in the trial of a former CIA official accused of leaking classified information to him about Iran’s nuclear program. Risen vowed to go to prison for contempt rather than provide information. In the end, the Justice Department did not carry out its threat.

霍尔德还曾上诉至最高法院,试图强迫时报记者詹姆斯·里森(James Risen)在对一名前中央情报局(CIA)官员的审判中作证,这名官员被指控向里森泄露了有关伊朗核计划的绝密信息。里森誓言宁愿以藐视法庭罪入狱,也绝不提供信息。司法部最终没有将其威胁付诸实际行动。

“What happened during the Obama administration was an investigation of leaks and leakers,” Baron of The Post said. “This is of a different order because what he’s talking about here is actually prosecuting journalists directly for receiving and publishing information that is confidential and in some instances classified.”

“奥巴马政府是对泄密和泄密者进行调查,”《华盛顿邮报》的巴伦说,“跟这次的性质不同,因为他[特朗普]讨论的是以接收和发布机密或绝密信息直接起诉记者。”

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