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日本真子公主将订婚,皇室女性地位再引争议

更新时间:2017-5-18 19:35:45 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Japanese Princess’s Engagement Revives Debate on Women in Royal Family
日本真子公主将订婚,皇室女性地位再引争议

TOKYO — A royal engagement typically unleashes breathless headlines and frenzied efforts by the press to learn of the wedding details. All that is happening in Japan, where Princess Mako, the eldest grandchild of Emperor Akihito, will soon be engaged to her college boyfriend.

东京——一条皇室婚约通常会引发让人目不暇接的头条报道,会令媒体疯狂地探究婚礼的细节。所有这一切正在日本上演,明仁天皇(Emperor Akihito)的大孙女真子内亲王(Princess Mako)即将与自己的大学男友订婚。

But news of the impending engagement, which broke Tuesday night, is also raising fresh questions about the status of women in the imperial family.

但周二晚上爆出的这条婚约临近的消息,也引发了一些有关皇室女性地位的新质疑。

Under the Imperial Household Law, which governs the succession of emperors in Japan’s monarchy, the world’s oldest, women are not allowed to reign on the throne. And women born into the royal family must officially leave it once they marry.

依据指导日本皇室——世界上最古老的君主政体——王位继承的《皇室典范》(Imperial Household Law),女性成员不能继承王位。出生于皇室的女性在婚后必须正式脱离皇室。

So when the princess, a 25-year-old doctoral student at International Christian University in Tokyo, marries Kei Komuro, 25, an aspiring lawyer, she will become a commoner, narrowing the prospective pool of heirs to the throne.

所以当这名在东京国际基督教大学(International Christian University)读博士的25岁公主,嫁给颇有抱负的25岁律师小室圭(Kei Komuro)后,她将变成一个平民,日本王位的继承人选也进一步减少。

As Japan considers whether to reform the imperial law to accommodate the current emperor’s request to abdicate before he dies, many Japanese have suggested it is time to revise the 70-year-old law to allow women to ascend to the throne and to allow royal daughters to bear heirs.

在日本正考虑是否改革皇室法以满足现任天皇生前退位的要求之际,许多日本人表示,是时候修订这项已经颁布70年的法律,允许女性成员继承王位,允许公主做继承人了。

With so few males left in the imperial family — there are only five, including the current emperor — Japan’s monarchy is facing a looming succession crisis.

因为皇室现有男性成员非常少——包括现任天皇在内只有五人——所以日本的君主政体面临迫在眉睫的继承危机。

The public overwhelmingly supports changing the law not only to allow the emperor to give up the throne, but to allow female successors. In a poll by Kyodo News this month, 86 percent of those surveyed said they were in favor of allowing a female to reign. And close to two-thirds said that sons — or daughters — born of royal women should also be allowed to ascend to the throne.

绝大多数公众支持改变这项法律,不仅允许天皇退位,还允许出现女继承人。日本共同社(Kyodo News)本月进行的一项民意调查显示,86%的受访者表示他们支持日本允许皇室女性继承王位。接近三分之二的人表示,皇室女性的儿子(或女儿)也该被允许继承王位。

Under the current law, even if the princess, the eldest daughter of Prince Akishino, the younger brother of Crown Prince Naruhito, were allowed to remain within the imperial family after she marries, her children — even any sons — would not be in line to the throne. That is because the law requires that the line of succession pass only through the men of the family.

在目前的法律下,即便真子公主——皇太子德仁亲王(Crown Prince Naruhito)的弟弟秋篠宫文仁亲王(Prince Akishino)的长女——在婚后被允许保留皇室身份,她的孩子(哪怕是儿子)也不能跻身王位继承人之列。这是因为这项法律要求,排位只可在皇室男性当中进行。

On Friday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s cabinet is expected to introduce a one-time bill to allow Emperor Akihito, 83, to give up the throne, opening the way for Prince Naruhito, 57, to take over before his father dies.

周五,日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)的内阁有可能会提出一项允许83岁的明仁天皇退位的一次性法案,为57岁的德仁亲王在父亲去世之前掌位开辟道路。

The legislation, which will need to be approved by the Parliament, does not address the issue of female succession, or the question of whether the children of royal women will be allowed to ascend to the throne.

这项需要获得议会批准的法案,并不解决女性成员继承权的问题,也不涉及女性成员的子女是否能继承王位的问题。

After Prince Naruhito, his immediate successor would be his younger brother, Prince Akishino, 51, since Prince Naruhito’s only child is a daughter, Princess Aiko, 15. Prince Akishino would be followed by his son, Prince Hisahito, 10, the younger brother of Princess Mako. Prince Hisahito is the only boy of his generation in the imperial family.

德仁亲王之后的顺位继承人是他的弟弟、51岁的秋篠宫文仁亲王,因为德仁亲王唯一的孩子是个女儿,即15岁的敬宫爱子内亲王(Princess Aiko)。排在秋篠宫文仁亲王之后的是他的儿子、10岁的悠仁亲王(Prince Hisahito),也就是真子内亲王的弟弟。悠仁亲王是他那一代皇室成员里唯一的男孩。

Given how short the line of succession has become, imperial family watchers say that the law should be reformed to allow for more heirs.

考虑到有资格继承王位的人数太少,皇室观察人士表示,应该修订这项法律,以纳入更多继承人。

“Now we all know that an important imperial family member will be lost with the engagement of Princess Mako,” said Isao Tokoro, professor emeritus of legal history at Kyoto Sangyo University and an expert on the imperial family system. “It is urgent that the system should be reformed so that female members can remain in the imperial family. Otherwise, we will lose more and more members from the imperial family.”

“现在我们都知道,随着真子内亲王订婚,我们将失去一位重要的皇室成员,”京都产业大学(Kyoto Sangyo University)法律史荣誉退休教授、皇室制度专家所功(Isao Tokoro)说。“日本急需改革这项制度,以便让女性成员继续留在皇室。否则,我们将失去越来越多的皇室成员。”

Mr. Tokoro added that Japan has previously had eight female emperors who “did wonderful jobs.” The current law prohibiting female succession has been in place since 1947, when the postwar Constitution downgraded the emperor to a symbol of Japanese unity from a god.

所功还表示,日本历史上有过八位“取得杰出成就”的女天皇。现在这项禁止女性成员继承王位的法律是从1947年开始实施,当时战后宪法使天皇的地位降低,从神一般的角色变成了日本团结的一个象征。

Twelve years ago, Princess Mako’s aunt, Princess Sayako, now 48, the only daughter of Emperor Akihito, married a commoner and left the imperial household. In doing so she gave up a royal allowance, though she gained the right to vote — and pay taxes. She never had children.

12年前,真子内亲王现年48岁的姑姑纪宫清子内亲王(Princess Sayako),也就是明仁天皇唯一的女儿嫁给一个平民,离开了皇室。这个决定让她失去了皇家津贴,也由此获得投票,以及纳税的权利。她至今没有子女。

Princess Mako, who has a master’s degree from the University of Leicester in England, will also gain those rights when she marries Mr. Komuro. According to news media reports, she has been dating him since 2012, and her parents have already approved the engagement, which will be officially announced soon.

嫁给小室圭之后,在英格兰莱斯特大学(University of Leicester)取得了硕士学位的真子内亲王也将获得这些权利。据媒体报道,她是从2012年开始与他交往,而且她的父母已经同意了这个婚约,很快就会正式宣布。

Conservative supporters of Mr. Abe are steadfastly opposed to allowing women on the throne, or even sons of female family members. Yet their insistence on male lineage is threatening the future of the royal bloodline.

安倍晋三的保守派支持者坚决反对允许女性继承王位,就连女性家庭成员的儿子也不行。然而,他们对男性血统的坚持威胁着日本王室的未来。

The opposition Democratic Party has called for a revision that would allow women to take the throne or to stay in the family after marriage. In remarks to reporters on Wednesday, Renho Murata, the Democratic leader, said her party was “urging the government, based on a consensus of the public, to set a deadline to study establishing female imperial branches.”

反对党民进党要求修改法律条款,允许女性在结婚后继承王位或留在王室。民进党党魁村田莲舫(Renho Murata)本周三对记者表示,该党“敦促政府以公众共识为基础,对研究如何建立女性王室谱系设定一个最后期限”。

Analysts said that Mr. Abe’s silence on women in the imperial household was particularly striking given his professed support for women’s equality.

分析人士说,安倍晋三对王室女性问题的沉默尤其令人惊讶,因为他自称支持女性平等。

“Mr. Abe has tried to showboat as somebody who embraces ‘womenomics’ and promotes empowerment of women,” said Jeff Kingston, the director of Asian studies at Temple University in Tokyo. “But here is a chance for him to step up, and instead he is avoiding making a decision that would benefit the imperial institution. He feels that this is a step too far, so clearly there is a glass ceiling at least as far as the imperial household is concerned.”

“安倍晋三表现得试图拥抱‘粉红经济学’,并提倡女性赋权。”天普大学(Temple University)东京分校的亚洲研究主任杰夫·金斯顿(Jeff Kingston)表示,“现在有了一个机会让他站出来表现,而他却在避免做出一个有利于王室的决定。他觉得这一步会迈得太大了,所以至少就涉及王室的时候,是存在着玻璃天花板的。”

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