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他把火辣的湘菜带入美国

更新时间:2017-5-18 11:49:34 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Henry Chung, Who Helped Bring Hunan’s Flavors to America, Dies at 98
他把火辣的湘菜带入美国

Henry Chung, who brought the lessons of Chinese cooking from his grandmother’s rural kitchen to the United States, where he opened one of the first American restaurants to specialize in spicy Hunanese cuisine, died on April 23 in San Francisco. He was 98.

把祖母乡下厨房里的烹饪秘诀带到美国,率先开办辛辣的湘菜馆的钟武雄(Henry Chung)于4月23日在旧金山去世,享年98岁。

His death was confirmed by his granddaughter MacKenzie Fegan.

他的外孙女麦肯齐·费根(MacKenzie Fegan)确认了这一消息。

When Mr. Chung was growing up on a farm in Tao Hua, a village outside Liling, in southern Hunan Province, food preparation was a two-woman job: His mother, Wang Shao Yi, chopped the ingredients, then added wood to the fire as his grandmother, He Xiang Tao, had instructed.

钟武雄是在湖南省醴陵城外桃花村的一个农场上长大的,当时家里承担烹饪工作的是两个女人:他的母亲王少宜(音)负责切菜,然后按照他的祖母何香桃(音)的指示,往火里添柴。

The elder woman “loved to use fresh ginger, hot pepper, black beans, black pepper, garlic, scallions, vinegar and good white wine as flavor builders,” Mr. Chung wrote in “Henry Chung’s Hunan Style Chinese Cookbook” (1978).

何香桃“喜欢以鲜姜、辣椒、黑豆、黑胡椒、大蒜、葱、醋和上好的白葡萄酒调味”,钟武雄在《钟武雄湘菜谱》(Henry Chung’s Hunan Style Chinese Cookbook,1978年)里写道。

“She was often choked by strong smells and she would say, ‘This is a mighty good dish!’ ” He added, “Her cookery was early injected into my blood.”

“她常常被浓重的味道呛到,但却会说,‘这是一道绝好的菜!’”他接着写道,“她的烹饪方法被早早地注入了我的血液。”

But turning his grandmother’s teachings into a restaurant would take many years, immigration to the United States, numerous jobs and the urgings of his wife, Diana Chung, to pursue work that he would truly savor.

但把祖母的教导转化为一家餐厅,则要经过很多年时间——他移民美国,干各种各样的工作,并在妻子黄德荣(Diana Chung)的鼓励下,寻求做他真正乐在其中的事情。

Finally, in 1974, when he was in his mid-50s, he started Hunan, a tiny restaurant on Kearny Street in San Francisco’s Chinatown, where he introduced diners to hot, peppery Hunanese food, a departure from the milder Cantonese cuisine that many Americans were more accustomed to.

最终在1974年,五十来岁的他在旧金山唐人街的科尔尼街上创办了一家名为“湖南”的小餐厅,向食客推介火辣的湘菜——截然不同于很多美国人当时更习惯吃的味道更温和的粤菜。

One diner dazzled by Mr. Chung was Tony Hiss, a staff writer for The New Yorker, who was walking by the restaurant on Thanksgiving in 1976 and lured in by its rich aromas. A few weeks after eating Mr. Chung’s onion cakes and chicken and garlic sauce, he declared in the magazine that Hunan was “the best Chinese restaurant in the world.”

被钟武雄的厨艺所折服的食客当中,有一位是《纽约客》(The New Yorker)的记者托尼·希斯(Tony Hiss)。1976年的感恩节那天,受浓浓的香味吸引,本来只是路过的他走进了餐厅。品尝了钟武雄的葱油饼和蒜香鸡的希斯,几周后在《纽约客》上宣布,‘湖南’是“全世界最好的中国餐厅”。

In a telephone interview, Mr. Hiss said: “Henry was such a warm, sweet and charming guy and so devoted to his grandmother’s memory. Each dish was more interesting, astonishing and unusual than the next, and all simply prepared.” Mr. Hiss subsequently edited Mr. Chung’s cookbook and wrote the introduction.

希斯接受电话采访时说:“钟武雄是一个热情、贴心、充满魅力的人,对祖母念念不忘。每一道菜都比下一道菜更有趣、惊人和不同寻常,烹制起来都很简单。”希斯后来编辑了钟武雄的食谱,并写了前言。

In the interview, Mr. Hiss said that one challenge of their collaboration was getting Mr. Chung to translate his instinctive cooking into recipes. “I’d ask, ‘How much salt?’ And he’d say, ‘Enough!’” Mr. Hiss recalled. “So I bought some graded spoons, spread them out and said to him: ‘Pick one. How much ginger? How much soy sauce? How much chili sauce?’”

希斯在采访中表示,两人的合作遭遇的一个挑战是让钟武雄把烹饪的直觉转化为菜谱。“我问,‘放多少盐?’他会回答,‘适量!’”希斯回忆。“于是我买了一些定量的勺子,全部摊开来,对他说:‘选一把吧。多少姜?多少酱油?多少辣椒酱?’”

People clamored to eat at Hunan, partly because of Mr. Hiss’s praise. Mr. Chung moved from his original spot to a larger space in 1979 and later opened several more restaurants around San Francisco that are known as Henry’s Hunan. His son Howard said in an interview that some less adventurous customers were shocked by the garlic, spice and ginger of his father’s dishes and demanded something tamer.

人们争先恐后地去“湖南”吃饭,在一定程度上是因为希斯的称赞。1979年,钟武雄把餐厅从原址搬去了一个更大的地方,后来又在旧金山周围新开了几家“湖南”。其子霍华德(Howard)在接受采访时说,一些不太具有冒险精神的顾客,对他父亲菜里的大蒜、调料和姜感到震惊,会点口味更温和一些的菜。

“If someone said, ‘I want moo goo gai pan,’ he’d say, ‘That’s Cantonese!’” Howard Chung said. “I was a waiter for many years, and people would walk out. They’d ask for dishes we didn’t have. They’d say, ‘That’s not what we had in the Midwest.’”

“如果有人说,‘我想点蘑菇鸡片’,他会说,‘那是粤菜!’”,霍华德·钟说。“我当了很多年服务员,有的人站起来就走了。他们会点我们没有的菜。他们会说,‘这不是我们在中西部吃的。’”

After the restaurant critic Craig Claiborne of The New York Times ate at Hunan in 1979, he called it the “most talked about restaurant in San Francisco” and said the food was “either gently or violently palate burning.” Mr. Claiborne was fond of fiery foods.

1979年在“湖南”吃过一顿饭后,《纽约时报》的美食评论家克雷格·克莱本(Craig Claiborne)称其是“旧金山最受热议的餐厅”,还说那里的食物“是用文火或大火燃烧味觉”。克莱本自己喜欢吃辣。

In his cookbook, Mr. Chung rhapsodized about spices, writing that “Hunan people can live without meat, but they cannot live without hot peppers.”

在食谱中,钟武雄热情地赞扬了辣椒,他写道,“湖南人不吃肉能活,但不吃辣椒活不了。”

He was born Chung WuShiung on Sept. 9, 1918, to a peasant family in Hunan Province. He was about 2 years old when his father, Chung Wei Yi, a soldier, died, leaving him to be raised by his mother and grandparents. At age 8, he was married in an arranged ceremony to a girl four years his senior. They had three children and later divorced.

1918年9月9日,钟武雄出生在湖南省的一个农民家庭。在他大约两岁时,当兵的父亲钟伟毅(音)去世,留下他由母亲和祖母抚养长大。八岁时,钟武雄在一场安排好的仪式中和一个年长他四岁的姑娘结婚。两人育有三个子女,后来离婚。

“He would tell us, ‘I was a boy, she was a woman, and I didn’t know what was going on,’” Ms. Fegan said.

“他会和我们说,‘我还是个小男孩,她是个女人,我都不知道发生了什么,’”费根说。

At National Central University in Chongqing, in neighboring Sichuan Province, he met Hwang TehYung, a star volleyball player and hurdler. They married after they graduated, and both later Americanized their first names.

在邻省四川重庆(重庆于1997年正式挂牌成为直辖市,此前归四川省管辖——编注)的国立中央大学,他认识了排球和跨栏明星黄德荣。两人在毕业后结婚,后来双双给自己起了美国名字。

His career course appeared to be set as a civil servant and diplomat. After World War II, China’s government sent him to Japan (where he developed a love for bacon) and then to Houston, to work in a consulate office.

他的未来职业定位似乎是公务员和外交官。二战后,中国的政府派他先后前往日本(在那里,他喜欢上了培根)和休斯顿的领事馆工作。

“My mother said, ‘You can go back, but I’m staying,’” their daughter Sophia Chung Fegan said.

“我母亲说,‘你可以回去,但我要留下,’”他们的女儿索菲娅·钟·费根(Sophia Chung Fegan)说。

In Houston, and later in San Francisco, he opened several businesses, including a dry cleaner, a shoe repair store, a custard shop, a hamburger joint and a Chinese restaurant that did not specialize in Hunanese food. When he found a job at China Airlines, his son Howard remembered thinking, “Finally, some continuity and certainty.”

他先是在休斯敦、后来在旧金山开了几家店,包括一家干洗店、一家修鞋店、一家蛋奶糕店、一家汉堡店和一家不是专做湘菜的中餐馆。他的儿子霍华德回忆说,他在中华航空公司找到一份工作时,觉得自己“终于有了一点连续和安稳的感觉”。

But then came Hunan. Diana Chung, who died in 2003, told her husband to do something he knew about and loved.

然而接下来他就开了“湖南”。黄德荣鼓励丈夫做一些自己了解和喜爱的事。黄于2003年去世。

In addition to his son Howard, his daughter Sophia and his granddaughter MacKenzie, Mr. Chung is survived by three other children from his second marriage, Stephen, Marty and Linda Chung.

除了儿子霍华德、女儿索菲娅和外孙女麦肯齐,钟武雄在世的亲人还包括他第二次婚姻中的另外三个孩子:斯蒂芬(Stephen)、马蒂(Marty)和琳达(Linda)。

From his first marriage, he is survived by a son, Meng Qio Chung, and two daughters, Meng Jiao Chung and Meng Tao Chung, who all immigrated to the United States in the 1980s.

他在世的亲人还包括第一次婚姻中的儿子钟孟秋(音)和两个女儿钟孟娇(音)和钟孟桃(音),在80年代全部移民到了美国。

Mr. Chung’s survivors also include 27 other grandchildren, 40 great-grandchildren and 21 great-great-grandchildren. Many of them have worked in the restaurants. “I was a tiny hostess when I was 9 or 10,” MacKenzie Fegan said.

钟武雄在世的亲人还包括另外27名孙辈,40名曾孙辈和21名玄孙辈。他们中的很多人都在那些餐厅工作过。“我9岁、10岁时,是个小服务员,”麦肯齐·费根说。

Looking back on his grandmother’s life, Mr. Chung recalled in his cookbook how deeply she had believed in him. “The fact is,” he wrote, “she is still helping me, because she gave me the recipes in this book. And when you cook some of them, she will also be helping you.”

钟武雄在自己的烹饪书中回顾祖母的一生时,谈起她对他多么有信心。“事实上,”他写道,“她至今还在帮助我,因为这本书中的食谱都是她给我的。你在做其中一些菜时,她也会帮助你。”

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