您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 观点 >> 正文

亚洲沙拉中的无意识种族主义

更新时间:2017-5-1 10:40:31 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why Is Asian Salad Still on the Menu?
亚洲沙拉中的无意识种族主义

One Friday night at a bar in San Francisco, I took a look at the menu and found myself face to face once again with the curious modern-day ubiquity of the Asian salad. The “Asian Emperor Salad,” with its “31 ingredients representing the tastes, textures and flavors of Asia,” stirred something other than hunger in me.

一个周五的晚上,在旧金山的一个酒吧,我看了一下菜单,再次发现自己面对着如今无处不在的亚洲沙拉。“亚洲帝王沙拉”包含“31种代表亚洲口味、质地和风味的配料”,引起了我除食欲之外的其他兴趣。

I tried to identify exactly what that was. I made a halfhearted joke to my husband about just which Asian emperor this salad was honoring. I thought about its grand imprecision, which irritated me as a Chinese-American. And I wondered, who cooked up this thing?

我想弄清那到底是一种什么情绪。我随便向丈夫开了一个玩笑,问他这款沙拉到底是供奉给哪位亚洲皇帝的。我琢磨着它强烈的不准确性,它惹恼了我这个华裔美国人。我很想知道,这道菜到底是谁发明的?

I was reasonably sure it wasn’t anyone Asian, but I did some investigating to find out.

我理智地确信它并非出自亚洲人之手,但我还是做了一些研究。

In many American restaurants, the Asian salad is right up there next to the Greek salad and the Caesar salad. You might think this is progress — cultural inclusion on a menu. And yet the Asian salad is often the one that comes with a winky, jokey name: Oriental Chop Chop. Secret Asian Man. Asian Emperor. Chicken Asian Chop Chop. Chinese-y Chicken.

在很多美国餐厅的菜单上,亚洲沙拉和希腊沙拉和凯撒沙拉一样榜上有名。你可能认为这是一种进步,代表着菜单的文化包容性。但亚洲沙拉通常会有一个醒目而好笑的名字,比如东方切切(Oriental Chop Chop)、神秘亚洲人(Secret Asian Man)、亚洲皇帝(Asian Emperor)、亚洲鸡肉切切(Chicken Asian Chop Chop)和华华鸡肉(Chinese-y Chicken)等。

In the weird cultural geography of the casual-restaurant menu, half-century-old jokes about Asians and long-discarded terminology jostle up against chicken tenders and nacho plates.

在休闲餐厅菜单的奇怪文化地理上,针对亚洲人的长达半个世纪的戏谑和早被弃用的说法与鸡胸肉和墨西哥玉米片混为一谈。

The persistence of these names — let’s at least call them “questionable” — on the American restaurant menu underscores how non-Asian-Americans have been making up their own version of Asianness for a long time now. While the Greek salad has some integrity — by this I mean that in Greece you will actually find a salad that looks like this — and the Caesar is a creation attributed to the 1920s-era restaurateur Caesar Cardini, the Asian salad stands apart as a strange kind of fiction.

这些(至少是可以引发质疑的)名字持续存在于美国餐厅的菜单上突出表明,非亚裔美国人长期以来一直在构建自己对亚洲的理解。希腊沙拉有一定的真实性——我的意思是你在希腊的确能找到与它类似的沙拉——凯撒沙拉据说出自20世纪20年代的餐厅老板凯撒·卡尔迪尼(Caesar Cardini)之手,而亚洲沙拉则来自一种奇怪的虚构。

As early as 1906, top New York restaurants were serving something called “Oriental salad” for 80 cents a pop, but it wasn’t clear what distinguished it. As this newspaper observed that same year: “You could save on the salad. Oriental, Russian and mixed salads are nearly all the same thing.” Recipes for “Chinese chicken salad” started appearing in American newspapers in the ’30s, but their components ranged far and wide, from mayonnaise and gelatin to pineapple chunks and celery and, in one case, French dressing.

早在1906年,纽约的顶级餐厅就以80美分一份供应“东方沙拉”,但不清楚它的独特之处是什么。正如本报当年的描述:“没必要点那道沙拉。东方沙拉、俄罗斯沙拉和混合沙拉差不多是一回事。”“中式鸡肉沙拉”的食谱从30年代开始出现在美国报纸上,但它们的配料各不相同,从蛋黄酱和果冻到菠萝块和芹菜,有一款甚至用的是法式调味汁。

At the time, it seemed that “Chinese” was merely a synonym for “new” or “different.” The tie to Chinese cuisine was already weak, since people in China did not generally eat uncooked vegetables; more common were cold chicken dishes with the vegetables blanched or stir-fried. In 1960s America, with the lifting of the cap on immigration from Asia, dressings using actual ingredients from Chinese cooking — sesame oil, soy sauce, ginger — entered the rotation. Chinese chicken salad grew popular. Pretty soon there were competing claims of origin.

在当时,“中式”似乎只是“新”或“不同”的同义词。“中式”与中国菜的联系已经很弱,因为中国人一般不用生蔬菜,而更多的是用焯过或炒过的蔬菜搭配冷鸡肉。在20世纪60年代的美国,随着亚洲移民限制的取消,使用真正来自中国烹饪的调料的调味汁开始出现,比如香油、酱油和姜。中式鸡肉沙拉越来越受欢迎。很快出现对其起源的争夺。

By the ’80s, “Asian fusion” was the name applied to what high-minded chefs like Wolfgang Puck, Roy Yamaguchi and Jean-Georges Vongerichten were doing with the marriage of traditional Asian and French ingredients. Mr. Puck’s restaurant Chinois on Main, in Santa Monica, Calif., was credited with pioneering fusion cuisine in the United States. One of his most popular dishes is the Chinois chicken salad: it features a sesame-soy-mustard vinaigrette, Napa cabbage, romaine lettuce and shredded roast chicken.

80年代的“亚洲融合菜”指的是沃尔夫冈·帕克(Wolfgang Puck)、罗伊·山口(Roy Yamaguchi )和让-乔治·冯热里什唐(Jean-Georges Vongerichten)等思想活跃的大厨将传统亚洲菜与法国元素相结合的做法。帕克在加利福尼亚州圣莫尼卡的Chinois on Main餐厅被誉为开创美国融合菜的先锋。他最受欢迎的菜肴之一是中式鸡肉沙拉:它的调味汁里包含香油、酱油和芥末,配料包括白菜、生菜和烤鸡丝。

Mr. Puck himself resisted reductive terms for his cooking — “It’s not as simple as adding ginger and soy sauce — and voilà, Asian fusion,” he told The Huffington Post — but that is, in fact, what happened. When the Asian salad fad exploded, something that was cooked up by non-Asians became, well, “Asian” in the popular imagination. A single Cheesecake Factory, Rainforest Cafe or Applebee’s could sell 500 Asian salads a week. Each chain punched up the name to seem foreign yet familiar.

帕克本人不喜欢对自己烹饪的简化描述,他在接受《赫芬顿邮报》(The Huffington Post)采访时表示:“它不只是加上姜和酱油这么简单,不是加上这些就是亚洲融合菜了”,但其实就是这样。亚洲沙拉流行开来后,这道并非由亚洲人发明的菜肴在大众的思维中成了“亚洲菜”。单是芝士蛋糕厂(Cheesecake Factory)、雨林咖啡馆(Rainforest Cafe)或苹果蜂(Applebee’s)等连锁餐厅的任何一家门店每周就能售出500份亚洲沙拉。每家餐厅都给它起了一个既具异域风情又耳熟能详的名字。

So what’s my problem with Asian salad? It’s not the salad itself, though it’s not my favorite. It’s the words — which, I think, matter. In many ways, the broad, generic terminology used to refer to an entire continent is the heart of it. Applebee’s menu features an “Oriental chicken salad” with the following description: “fresh Asian greens tossed in a tasty Oriental vinaigrette.” The “Asian greens” and “Oriental vinaigrette” are so laughably vague as to have no meaning at all. When I asked Applebee’s for more specifics on what made its Asian greens Asian and its Oriental vinaigrette Oriental, a spokesman told me the company was unable to “provide a thorough response.” No kidding.

那么,我对亚洲沙拉的不满是什么?并不是沙拉本身,虽然它也不是我最喜欢的菜肴之一。我觉得问题在于它的名字。从很多方面讲,用于指代整个大陆的宽泛通用术语是问题的核心所在。苹果蜂餐厅的菜单对“东方鸡肉沙拉”的描述如下:“用美味的东方调味汁拌制的新鲜的亚洲绿色蔬菜”。“亚洲绿色蔬菜”和“东方调味汁”在语言上非常模糊,根本没有任何意义。当我向该餐厅询问亚洲绿色蔬菜和东方调味汁的“亚洲”和“东方”具体指什么时,该公司的一位发言人表示,该公司无法“提供完整的答复”。不要开玩笑啦。

Am I taking this too seriously? The casual racism of the Asian salad stems from the idea of the exotic — who is and isn’t American is caught up wholesale in its creation. This use of “Oriental” and “Asian” is rooted in the wide-ranging, “all look same” stereotypes of Asian culture that most people don’t really perceive as being racist. It creates a kind of blind spot.

我是不是把这个问题看得太严重了?亚洲沙拉那种不经意的种族主义意味源于异国风味这个概念——与谁是美国人和谁不是美国人相关的一切都包裹在它的起源里。“东方”和“亚洲”的用法植根于认为亚洲文化“看起来都一样”的普遍刻板观念,大部分人并不认为这是种族主义。这制造了一种盲点。

And what I’ve come to understand is that the salad names are where that blind spot reveals itself. Even as the actual cuisines of Asia influence and sometimes appear to dominate American food culture — David Chang’s Momofuku restaurants, Roy Choi’s Kogi barbecue-fueled empire, ramen joints and izakaya and Mission Chinese Food by Danny Bowien — these stereotypes persist and control a lot of what’s on the menu in Middle America.

而我所了解的是,这些沙拉的名字暴露了这个盲点。即使在真正的亚洲美食影响甚至似乎主导美国美食文化时——比如戴维·张(David Chang)的Momofuku餐厅、罗伊·崔(Roy Choi)的Kogi烧烤帝国、拉面和居酒屋,以及丹尼·博温(Danny Bowien)的龙山小馆(Mission Chinese Food)——这些刻板观念继续存在并主导着美国中部餐厅菜单上的很多内容。

In the ecosystem of the American restaurant menu, the dish checks a box for geographic and flavor diversity outside what company marketers understand to be the norm for their customers. To a white audience, it reads as diverse. To actual Asian-Americans, it reads as ridiculous. The blindness to this reality, I emphasize, is not restricted to the Asian salad (see Applebee’s “Fiesta lime chicken,” served with “Mexi-ranch” dressing).

在美国餐厅菜单的生态系统中,这道菜代表着地域和风味多样性,在公司的市场推广人员看来,对其顾客来说,它在常规之外。对白人顾客来说,它是多样性。但对真正的亚裔美国人来说,它很荒谬。我需要强调的是,对这种事实的视而不见并不局限于亚洲沙拉(比如,苹果蜂餐厅的“节日酸橙鸡”用的是“墨西哥农场”调味汁)。

When I see an Oriental Chop Chop or a Secret Asian Man, I feel … weary. Because the language of the Asian salad is revealing of the dangers of bland, disembodied generalization: When you fail to see countries and cultures as discrete entities, what kind of consideration could you be expected to give to individual people?

当我看到“东方切切”或“神秘亚洲人”时,我感到……厌倦。因为关于亚洲沙拉的表述反映出乏味空洞的概化的危险:如果你不把不同的国家和文化当作独立的实体去看待,我能期望你对独立的个人给予多少考虑?

As for the dish itself — whether it’s called Asian, Chinese or Oriental — well, it’s acquired a life of its own, apart from actual Asians. The other day I tried a version of a “Chinese chicken salad” made by Wise Sons, a Jewish deli in San Francisco. The owners, Evan Bloom, Leo Beckerman and Mr. Bloom’s brother Ari, are three guys from Southern California who grew up eating Chinese chicken salad just about everywhere. Mr. Bloom’s early exposure to it? Wolfgang Puck.

至于这道菜本身——不管它被称为亚洲沙拉、中式沙拉还是东方沙拉——呃,它已经有了自己的生命,与真正的亚洲人无关。有一天,我品尝了旧金山犹太熟食店Wise Sons制作的“中式鸡肉沙拉”。店主伊万·布卢姆(Evan Bloom)、利奥·贝克尔曼(Leo Beckerman)和布卢姆的兄弟阿里(Ari)都来自加州南部,他们在成长过程中,在很多地方都吃过中式鸡肉沙拉。布卢姆最早知道的这道菜来自哪里?沃尔夫冈·帕克。

The salad has become a nostalgia trip for a whole generation of Jewish deli-goers. Mr. Bloom says that the recipe came from nowhere in particular. Sesame oil, soy sauce, mayo, sugar, sesame seeds; Napa cabbage, red cabbage, frisée, red onions, shredded carrots, thin sliced celery, chopped sushi ginger, orange segments, fried wonton skins, a little cilantro. It’s a riff on an idea, what Mr. Bloom himself tells me is “that sweet Asiany flavor that is a familiar taste to a lot of people, from Benihana or a Chinese restaurant — it’s been around for 30 years.”

对一整代犹太熟食店的顾客来说,这道沙拉充满怀旧的味道。布卢姆称,这道菜的食谱没有一个确定的来源。香油、酱油、蛋黄酱、糖、芝麻;白菜、紫甘蓝、苦苣、紫洋葱、胡萝卜丝、芹菜丝、姜末、香橙块、炸馄饨皮、一点香菜。它源自一个想法,那就是布卢姆本人对我说的:“很多人都熟悉的Benihana餐厅或某家中餐馆的甜美亚洲风味。它已经有30年历史了。”

I find something bittersweet in this nostalgia for a fake fusion cuisine. Something created in the name of Asians by non-Asians has become a touchstone for non-Asians. I understand that it’s possible to feel fondness for a dish that is deeply inauthentic and I don’t resent that one bit. It has become its own thing.

我在对这道伪融合菜的怀旧之中找到了某种苦甜参半的滋味。非亚洲人以亚洲人的名义创造的东西已经成为非亚洲人的检验标杆。我理解人们可能对一道非常不真实的菜肴产生喜爱之情,而且我对此毫不反感。它已经有了自己独立的身份。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表