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福特向中国出口皮卡

更新时间:2017-4-12 11:33:13 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Ford Pushes Pickup Trucks in China
福特向中国出口皮卡

SHANGHAI — Liu Qipeng has a passion for rock climbing and camping, but for those activities, a Chinese-branded vehicle just won’t do.

上海——刘启鹏喜欢攀岩和露营,但对这些活动,国产汽车品牌派不上用场。

So even in this era of rising trade tensions between Washington and Beijing, Mr. Liu, 38, a chemicals recycling entrepreneur in southeastern China, chose to wait for the chance to buy what might be the most American of rides: a Ford F-150 Raptor pickup truck imported from the United States.

因此,即便是在华盛顿与美国之间的贸易紧张关系日渐升级的时期,在中国东南部从事化学制品回收行业的38岁企业家刘启鹏仍选择等待,希望有机会买一辆从美国进口的福特F-150猛禽皮卡。这也许是最具美国特色的车了。

“I like this model because it is very masculine and powerful,” Mr. Liu said, adding that his friends “start to lean toward Ford when they plan to change their cars.”

“我喜欢它这个车够霸气吧,”刘启鹏说,并表示身边的朋友“在考虑换车的时候慢慢开始向福特这个品牌靠近了”。

Ford Motor is putting the premium version of the F-150 on sale on Saturday in a country where pickup trucks are virtually unheard-of except on farms. Detroit’s automakers see a potential new world of Chinese drivers, who in recent years have embraced sport utility vehicles and want to drive bigger, beefier cars.

周六,福特汽车(Ford Motor)将在一个除了农场地区之外,皮卡几乎没人听说过的国家开始销售高配版的F-150。底特律的车企在中国的驾驶者身上看到了一个潜在的新世界。近年来,中国的司机已接受运动型多功能车,并希望驾驶更大、更结实的车。

As President Trump and President Xi Jinping of China meet in Florida this week to address growing trade tensions, Ford’s interest in sending American-made pickup trucks to China underlines the debate’s complexities. Despite lopsided trade between the countries, Chinese consumers show a persistent and lucrative appetite for American brands.

在特朗普总统和中国国家主席习近平本周在佛罗里达州进行会面,以应对日渐加剧的贸易冲突之际,福特把美国制造的皮卡卖给中国的意愿,突显了这场会谈的复杂性。尽管两国之间存在贸易不平衡,但中国消费者对美国的品牌表现出了持久且利润可观的需求。

Fords and Chevrolets — mostly made in China, but profitable either way for Detroit — are common sights on the streets. “They think American-brand vehicles are reliable, strong and tough,” said Yale Zhang, the managing director of Automotive Foresight, a consulting firm in Shanghai.

福特和雪弗兰汽车——大多在中国生产,但对底特律来说不管怎样都是有利可图的——在街头很常见。“他们认为美国牌子的汽车可靠、强悍、结实,”上海咨询公司汽车前瞻(Automotive Foresight)董事总经理张豫(Yale Zhang)说。

It goes beyond cars. Apple’s iPhone has faced growing competition but remains a sign of affluence and success. Chinese consumers wear Nikes and buy lattes at Starbucks. For many buyers, the brands connote sophistication and an indication that they have made it.

不仅汽车是如此。苹果(Apple)的iPhone虽说面临着越来越激烈的竞争,但仍然是富有和成功的象征。中国消费者会穿耐克(Nike),在星巴克(Starbucks)买拿铁。对很多消费者而言,这些品牌代表着精致品位,意味着他们取得了成功。

Ford, which will import the pickups from Dearborn, Mich., is not alone. General Motors this year began to import Chevrolet Silverado full-size pickup trucks from Flint, Mich., and the Chevrolet Colorado midsize pickup from Wentzville, Mo. Ford plans to start importing the Ford Ranger midsize pickup next year as well. Both have modest expectations compared with the United States, where nearly 2.7 million pickup trucks were sold last year, almost eight times as many as in China last year, according to LMC Automotive, a global consulting firm.

福特即将把产自密歇根州迪尔伯恩的皮卡出口到中国,它这样的做法并不是特例。通用汽车从今年开始出口产自密歇根州弗林特的雪佛兰西尔维拉多(Chevrolet Silverado)全尺寸皮卡,以及产自密苏里州温茨维尔的雪弗兰科罗拉多(Chevrolet Silverado)中尺寸皮卡。福特还计划从明年开始出口福特游骑兵(Ford Ranger)中尺寸皮卡。比起美国市场,中国市场并未让两者抱有多高的期望——来自全球咨询公司LMC Automotive的数据显示,美国去年的皮卡销量为270万辆,几乎是中国的八倍。

For years, Chinese consumers saw pickup trucks as polluting rural rattletraps suitable only for bringing in produce from the farm. Pickups made in the country sell for as little as $7,000. Many provinces ban trucks, including pickups, from being driven in cities by day.

在很多年里,中国消费者眼中的皮卡一直是乡间那种又老又破、容易造成污染的车辆,只适合运送来自农场的农产品。产于中国的皮卡售价可以低至7000美元。很多省份都禁止卡车白天在城里行驶,其中也包括皮卡。

Interest in the cars began to grow early last year, when central government officials urged Chinese provinces to lighten restrictions on pickups as part of a broad plan to encourage consumption in the economy, including purchases of automobiles. Chinese-brand automakers had also called for a relaxation of the rules as a way to develop their pickup truck businesses.

人们对皮卡的兴趣从去年初开始上升,当时,中央政府官员敦促中国各省放松对皮卡的限制,以便推进一个更为宏大的计划:通过鼓励消费,包括购买汽车,来拉动经济。中国本土汽车生产商也呼吁放宽相关规则,以便它们发展皮卡业务。

Ford plans to introduce its “Built Ford Tough” marketing campaign in China this spring, said Peter Fleet, the company’s vice president for marketing, sales and service in Asia and the Pacific. Its marketers experimented with various Mandarin translations of the phrase before concluding that the English version worked.

福特亚太区市场营销、销售和售后服务副总裁彼得·弗利特(Peter Fleet)说,福特计划把“Built Ford Tough”(打造强悍福特)市场营销活动引入中国。其营销人员曾拿这句话的各种普通话译本做试验,最后认定还是用英文版比较好。

“The research came back resoundingly clear: No, we understand ‘Built Ford Tough,’” Mr. Fleet said.

“研究结论非常清楚:不,我们明白‘Built Ford Tough’是什么意思,”弗利特说。

Cars are a particular sticking point between the United States and China because Beijing charges heavy taxes and duties on imported cars. While Ford has not released the official price for the Raptor, Mr. Liu said that he had been told it would be about $81,000. A similarly equipped Raptor sells for $50,000 in the United States. Chinese import and value-added taxes would make up most — but not all — of the difference.

由于北京对进口汽车征收高额税赋,汽车是中美关系中一个尤为突出的症结。福特尚未公布猛禽的官方价格,但刘启鹏表示,他听说售价将是8.1万美元。在美国,简装版猛禽的售价仅为5万美元。其间的大部分差额——但并非全部——是由中国的进口税和增值税造成的。

The price could be even higher if Ford were importing cars from the United States instead of pickup trucks. China classifies pickup trucks as trucks and not as passenger vehicles, a category that in the country encompasses cars, sport utility vehicles and minivans. That truck classification exempts pickups from a Chinese consumption tax on passenger vehicles with large engines that can go as high as 40 percent.

如果福特出口的不是皮卡,而是小汽车,税赋还会更高。中国把皮卡归类为卡车,而非乘用车,后者在中国是一个包含小汽车、运动型多功能汽车(SUV)和面包车的范畴。被归类为卡车,让皮卡得以避开中国对大引擎乘用车征收的、可高达40%的消费税。

Mr. Liu said that if he faced a consumption tax like that, he would not buy the Ford pickup.

刘启鹏说,如果要交很高的消费税,他不会考虑购买福特皮卡。

“If it has a 20 percent tax, I wouldn’t consider buying it, because one of the major motives for me to buy it is that it’s a very cost-effective model,” he said. “It’s a toy for me after all, not a must-have.”

“如果这个车有额外20%的税的话,我肯定不会考虑了。因为它这个车一个很大的吸引我的点就是它性价比很高吧,而且怎么说呢,这个车总归对我来说就是个玩具,不是刚需嘛。”

China also exempts pickup trucks entirely from fuel economy averages. It sets a much higher corporate fuel-economy average — 38 miles per gallon — than the United States for all the cars, minivans and S.U.V.s that each automaker sells in the country.

在中国,皮卡还完全不受平均燃油经济性标准的限制。中国针对每家汽车生产商在中国销售的所有小汽车、面包车和SUV,制定了高于美国的综合平均燃油经济性标准——每加仑38英里。

This has forced manufacturers to design and sell models with engines that are much smaller and less powerful than in the United States but also more fuel efficient.

这就迫使生产商设计和销售那些与美国市场上的车辆相比引擎较小、性能不那么强劲,但燃油效率更高的车型。

By contrast, Mr. Trump announced last month that he would roll back increases in American fuel economy averages that President Barack Obama had mandated.

与此形成鲜明对照的是,特朗普于上月宣布,他将把被贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)总统提高的美国平均燃油经济性标准降下来。

Attitudes toward pickups are softening in parts of China. Ford said six provinces had exempted pickups from urban driving restrictions widely imposed on trucks in the country.

在中国部分地区,对皮卡的态度正在软化。中国各地普遍限制卡车在城里行驶,但福特说,已经有六个省份取消了对皮卡的相关限制。

That liberalization could help the fight against air pollution. It could shift the mix of vehicles purchased by farmers away from heavily polluting tractors and toward pickups instead, said Hui He, a senior researcher in the San Francisco office of the International Council on Clean Transportation, a nonprofit research group based in Washington best known for its role in exposing Volkswagen’s diesel emissions deception.

这种松动或许有助于对抗空气污染。总部位于华盛顿的非营利研究机构国际清洁交通委员会(International Council on Clean Transportation)旧金山办公室的高级研究员何卉(音)说,这可能会让农民在购买车辆时把目光从严重污染环境的拖拉机转向皮卡。该委员会因其在揭露大众柴油车排放作弊丑闻过程中发挥的作用而为世人所知。

Mr. Liu lives in the southern city of Guangzhou, in Guangdong Province, which has not changed its rules. He said that while he owned other vehicles, he planned to drive his pickup around town sometimes as though it were a car and would see whether the police tried to stop him.

刘启鹏生活在南方城市广州,其所隶属的广东省尚未改变规则。他说,虽然还拥有其他车辆,但他打算偶尔像开小汽车一样开着皮卡在城里转转,看警察是否会试图加以阻拦。

“As long as the local authorities don’t ban me from driving it here,” he said, “I’ll drive it.”

“只要地方政府有关部门没有出台禁令的话,那我肯定会开的,”他说。

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