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睡眠是成功的关键

更新时间:2017-4-11 9:31:49 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Sleep Is the New Status Symbol
睡眠是成功的关键

At M.I.T.’s Media Lab, the digital futurist playground, David Rose is investigating swaddling, bedtime stories and hammocks, as well as lavender oil and cocoons. Mr. Rose, a researcher, an inventor-entrepreneur and the author of “Enchanted Objects: Design, Human Desire and the Internet of Things,” and his colleagues have been road-testing weighted blankets to induce a swaddling sensation and listening to recordings of Icelandic fairy tales — all research into an ideal sleep environment that may culminate in a nap pod, or, as he said, “some new furniture form.”

在麻省理工学院(MIT)的媒体实验室——一个未来主义数字乐园——戴维·罗斯(David Rose)正在研究襁褓、睡前故事和吊床,以及薰衣草油和蚕茧。罗斯是一名研究员、发明家兼创业者,也是《魔法物品:设计、人类欲望与物联网》(Enchanted Objects: Design, Human Desire and the Internet of Things)的作者。他和同事们在试验用厚重的毯子创造一种被襁褓裹住的感觉,同时倾听冰岛童话故事的录音——这些研究都是为了创造一种理想的睡眠环境,可能最终做出一种小睡舱,或者就像他说的,“某种新的家具形式”。

“For me, it’s a swinging bed on a screened porch in northwestern Wisconsin,” he said. “You can hear the loons and the wind through the fir trees, and there’s the weight of 10 blankets on top of me because it’s a cold night. We’re trying a bunch of interventions.”

“我的设定是威斯康辛州西北部一个包了纱窗的露台上的吊床,”他说,“我能听见潜鸟和风穿过冷杉林。我身上盖着10条毯子,因为晚上很冷。我们在尝试各种干预措施。”

Meanwhile, at the University of California, Berkeley, Matthew P. Walker, a professor of neuroscience and psychology and the director of the Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory there, is working on direct current stimulation as a cure for sleeplessness in the aging brain. Dr. Walker is also sifting through the millions of hours of human sleep data he has received from Sense, a delicately lovely polycarbonate globe designed to look like the National Stadium in Beijing that measures air quality and other intangibles in your bedroom, then suggests tweaks to help you sleep better.

与此同时,在加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley),神经科学与心理学教授、睡眠与神经影像实验室主任马修·P·沃克(Matthew P. Walker)正在研究使用直流电刺激治疗老化大脑的失眠问题。沃克博士还在筛选他通过Sense收集的数百万小时的人类睡眠数据。Sense是一个精巧可爱的聚碳酸酯球,外观像北京的国家体育场,它可以监测卧室空气质量等无形的东西,然后提供一些调整建议,帮你睡得更好。

“I’ve got a mission,” he said. “I want to reunite humanity with the sleep it is so bereft of.” Sense is the first product made by Hello Inc., a technology company started by James Proud, a British entrepreneur, for which Dr. Walker is the chief scientist.

“我有一个使命,”他说,“我想用睡眠重新团结人类,人们现在严重缺乏睡眠。”Sense是英国创业者詹姆斯·普劳德(James Proud)开创的技术公司Hello Inc.制造的第一款产品,沃克是该公司的首席科学家。

In Paris, Hugo Mercier, a computer science engineer, has invested in sound waves. He has raised over $10 million to create a headband that uses them to induce sleep. The product, called Dreem, has been beta-tested on 500 people (out of a pool of 6,500 applicants, Mr. Mercier said) and will be ready for sale this summer.

在巴黎,计算机科学工程师雨果·默西埃(Hugo Mercier)在声波方面进行投资。他筹集了1000多万美元,创造了一款用声波诱导睡眠的头带。该产品名为Dreem,已在500人(默西埃说,他们是从6500名申请者中挑选出来的)中进行了贝塔测试,将于今夏上市。

That is when Ben Olsen, an Australian entrepreneur, hopes to introduce Thim, a gadget you wear on your finger that uses sound to startle you awake every three minutes for an hour, just before you go to sleep. Sleep disruptions, apparently, can cure sleep disruption (and Mr. Olsen, like all good sleep entrepreneurs, has the research to prove it). It is his second sleep contraption. His first, the Re-Timer, a pair of goggles fitted with tiny green-blue lights that shine back into your eyes, aims to reset your body’s clock. He said that since 2012, he had sold 30,000 pairs in 40 countries.

澳大利亚企业家本·奥尔森(Ben Olsen)也希望在那个时候推出Thim,它是可以戴在手指上的一个小装置,它每隔三分钟发出响声,就在你快要入睡时把你惊醒。原来睡眠中断是可以治愈睡眠中断的(和所有优秀的睡眠创业者一样,奥尔森也有相关研究作为依据)。这是他的第二款睡眠装置。第一款产品Re-Timer是一副配备微小的绿蓝色光的眼镜,它可以向你的眼睛发光,重置你的生物钟。他说,自2012年以来,他在40个国家销售了3万副眼镜。

For years, studies upon studies have shown how bad sleep weakens the immune system, impairs learning and memory, contributes to depression and other mood and mental disorders, as well as obesity, diabetes, cancer and an early death. (Sedated sleep — hello Ambien — has been shown to be as deleterious as poor sleep.)

多年来,许多研究表明,睡眠不良会损害免疫系统,影响学习和记忆,导致抑郁等情绪和精神障碍,以及肥胖、糖尿病、癌症和过早死亡(使用镇静剂的睡眠——说你呢,安必恩[Ambien]——已被证明和睡眠不良一样有害)。

The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention calls sleeplessness a public health concern. Good sleep helps brain plasticity, studies in mice have shown; poor sleep will make you fat and sad, and then will kill you. It is also expensive: Last year, the RAND Corporation published a study that calculated the business loss of poor sleep in the United States at $411 billion — a gross domestic product loss of 2.28 percent.

联邦疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)将失眠列为公共健康问题。在小鼠身上进行的研究表明,良好的睡眠有助于大脑的可塑性;睡眠不良会让你变得肥胖、忧伤,并可导致死亡。它也让我们付出了沉重的代价:去年,兰德公司(RAND Corporation)发表了一项研究,称它估计美国公司因睡眠不良而损失了4110亿美元,占国内生产总值的2.28%。

Companies now fight “presenteeism,” a neologism that describes the lackluster performance of foggy-brained, sleep-deprived employees, with sleep programs like Sleepio, an online sleep coach, and sleep fairs, like the one hosted last month in Manhattan by Nancy H. Rothstein, director of Circadian Corporate Sleep Programs and otherwise known as the Sleep Ambassador, for LinkedIn. For the last few years, Ms. Rothstein has been designing sleep education and training programs for a number of Fortune 500 companies. At the LinkedIn sleep fair, she taught attendees how to make a bed (use hospital corners, please) and gave out analog alarm clocks. (It was her former husband’s snoring, she said, that led her to a career as a sleep evangelist.)

很多公司现在通过一些睡眠项目来对抗“出勤主义”(presenteeism),这是一个新词,指的是睡眠不足、昏头昏脑的员工无精打采的表现。那些睡眠项目包括在线睡眠教练Sleepio和睡眠博览会——比如南希·H·罗思坦(Nancy H. Rothstein)上个月在曼哈顿举办的那场。罗思坦是生理节奏公司(Circadian Corporate)睡眠项目的总监,她也是领英(LinkedIn)的“睡眠大使”。在过去几年里,罗思坦为许多财富500强公司设计了睡眠教育和培训项目。在领英的睡眠博览会上,她向与会者介绍如何铺床(请使用医院床单折角法),并分发了模拟闹钟(她说是前夫的鼾声让她走上了睡眠传道者的职业道路)。

If sleep used to be the new sex, as Marian Salzman, a trend spotter and chief executive of Havas PR North America, proclaimed 10 years ago, today it is a measure of success — a skill to be cultivated and nourished — as a “human potential enhancer,” as one West Coast entrepreneur told me, and life extender.

正如潮流预测者、哈瓦斯北美公关公司(Havas PR North America)首席执行官玛丽安·萨尔兹曼(Marian Salzman)10年前宣布的,曾经的说法是睡眠是新的性爱,如今,睡眠是衡量成功的指标——一种需要培养的技能——正如西海岸的一位创业者在接受采访时说的,它是“人类潜力增强剂”,具有延年益寿的作用。

“Sleep is the single most effective thing you can do to reset your brain and body,” Dr. Walker of U.C. Berkeley said. “We have a saying in medicine: What gets measured, gets managed.”

“睡眠是你重置大脑和身体最有效的方法,”加州大学伯克利分校的沃克说,“我们在医学中有一句话:能被测量的才能被控制。”

Sleep entrepreneurs from Silicon Valley and beyond have poured into the sleep space, as branders like to say — a $32 billion market in 2012 — formerly inhabited by old-style mattress and pharmaceutical companies.

硅谷等地的睡眠企业家已经涌入睡眠空间(品牌推广者喜欢用这个词),2012年,这个市场的价值为320亿美元,过去它由老式床垫和制药公司主导。

But the growing pile of apps, gizmos and gurus — some from unlikely corners — has led to “pandemonium in the bedroom,” Ms. Rothstein said.

不过罗思坦说,越来越多的应用程序、小设备和大师——有的来自一些意想不到的领域——已经导致“卧室里一片混乱”。

Mr. Mercier sent me his Dreem headset, a weighty crown of rubber and wire that he warned would be a tad uncomfortable. The finished product, about $400, he said, will be much lighter and slimmer. But it wasn’t the heft of the thing that had me pulling it off each night. It skeeved me out that it was reading — and interfering with — my brain waves, a process I would rather not outsource.

默西埃给我寄来了他的Dreem耳机,是个由橡胶和线组成的沉重王冠,他提醒我说它会有点不舒服。他表示,成品要轻巧得多,售价约为400美元。但是,每天晚上我并不是因为它的沉重而把它取下的。令我不安的是,它在读取和干扰我的脑电波,而我并不想把这个过程外包出去。

I was just as wary of the Re-Timer goggles, $299, which make for a goofy/spooky selfie in a darkened room. My eye sockets glowed a deep fluorescent green, and terrified the cat.

我对299美元的Re-Timer眼镜同样感到担忧,戴上它在黑暗的房间里能拍出傻乎乎或吓人的自拍。我的眼窝发出深色荧光绿,把我的猫给吓坏了。

The Ghost Pillow, $85, has “patent-pending thermo-sensitivity technology” designed to keep your head cool. It is wildly comfy, but when I read what it is made from, a polyurethane foam, I lost sleep. I bought a Good Night Light LED Sleep bulb, $28, which comes with its own “patented technology” to support your body’s melatonin production. I can’t tell if that’s what happened, but since the bulb is too dim for my middle-aged eyes, I struggled to read my go-to sleep aid, a worn copy of “The Pursuit of Love,” by Nancy Mitford, and knocked off a good half-hour earlier than usual. I was up again at 3 a.m., however, as my new Sense pod alerted me the next day, through an app on my phone. And again at 5 a.m., when the cat swatted the pod off the night stand and it glowed red in protest. “There was a noise disturbance,” the app explained.

85美元的“幽灵枕头”(Ghost Pillow)拥有“专利待审的热感技术”,旨在保持头部凉爽。它特别舒适,但是当我看到它的材质是聚氨酯泡沫时就失去了睡意。我花28美元买了一个“晚安LED光睡眠”灯泡(Good Night Light LED Sleep),它拥有自己的“专利技术”,促进你身体的褪黑素生成。我不知道到底是怎么回事,但是由于对我这个中年人的眼睛来说,它的灯光太暗,所以我在读一本破旧的南希·米特福德(Nancy Mitford)的《爱的追求》(它是我的助眠工具)时觉得很吃力,比平常早半个小时入睡。但是我在凌晨3点就醒来了,因为我的新Sense设备通过手机上的应用程序提醒我第二天到了。早上5点,我又醒了,因为猫把那个设备从床头柜上碰到了地上,它发出红光,表示抗议。应用程序解释说:“有噪音干扰。”

My so-called sleep summary, as provided by Sense, was both compelling and off-putting. Why is my air quality “not ideal”? And how comfortable am I sharing my sleep habits with a Silicon Valley start-up?

Sense提供的我的所谓睡眠摘要既吸引人,又令人不快。为什么我的空气质量“不理想”?我愿意与硅谷初创公司分享我的睡眠习惯吗?

Ms. Rothstein taught me her relaxation recipe, a practice that mixed gratitude with body awareness and breathing. Start with your toes, she said, and thank your body parts for their hard work. (My favorite: “Knees, I know it’s not always easy for you. You can rest now.”)

罗思坦教给我她的放松方法,就是把感激与身体意识和呼吸相结合。她说,从你的脚趾开始,感谢你的身体部位付出的辛劳(我最喜欢的一句是:“膝盖,我知道这对你来说并不总是轻松。现在你可以休息了”)。

Still, the best sleep I’ve had in weeks cost $22, and lasted 33 minutes. It was a Deep Rest “class” at Inscape, a meditation studio in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan designed by Winka Dubbeldam, the sought-after Dutch architect, to evoke the temple at Burning Man, and other esoteric spaces, and created by Khajak Keledjian, a founder, with his brother, Haro, of Intermix, which they sold to the Gap for $130 million in 2013.

不过,我几周内最好的睡眠花了我22美元,持续了33分钟。那就是Inscape的深度休息“课堂”。Inscape包括曼哈顿切尔西社区的一个冥想工作室和其他一些神秘空间。那个工作室是由很受欢迎的荷兰建筑师温卡·杜贝尔丹(Winka Dubbeldam)设计的,让人想起了火人节(Burning Man)的寺庙。该公司是卡雅克·克勒德吉安(Khajak Keledjian)和他的兄弟哈罗(Haro)共同创立的。2013年,他们以1.3亿美元把自己的Intermix公司卖给了Gap。

Mr. Keledjian, a meditator, aims to make the practice both secular and modern: a “mindful luxury,” he said. Though there are human “facilitators” in each class, who gently touch the feet of snoring attendees if they get too loud, the practice is guided by a recording made by an Australian female member of Mr. Keledjian’s company. “We call her ‘Skye,’” he said. It was lunchtime on a rainy Tuesday, and I settled onto a soft mat outfitted with a bolster, a pillow and a cozy fleece blanket. “Skye” urged me to stay awake, and then delivered a script like Ms. Rothstein’s, in mellifluous antipodean tones. I drifted once or twice, and from the muffled snorts of the other attendees, they did too. That night, I slept until dawn.

克勒德吉安是一位冥想者,他的目标是让这个练习既世俗又现代:他称之为“用心的奢侈品”。虽然每个班级都有真人“辅导员”——如果参与者的鼾声太大,辅导员会轻触他们的脚——但练习实际上是跟着克勒德吉安公司的一位澳大利亚女职员的录音进行的。“我们称她为‘斯凯’(Skye),”他说。那是一个下着雨的周二的午餐时间,我躺在一个软垫上,它配有长枕、枕头和舒适的羊毛毯。斯凯敦促我保持清醒,然后用悦耳的澳大利亚语调说了一段与罗思坦的指导类似的话。我迷迷糊糊地睡着了一两次,从其他参与者深沉的鼻息声来看,他们也睡着了。那天晚上,我一觉睡到了天亮。

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