您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 观点 >> 正文

为何女子体操运动成了性虐的温床?

更新时间:2017-4-2 10:56:41 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How Gymnastics Culture Breeds Sexual Abuse
为何女子体操运动成了性虐的温床?

Jamie Dantzscher told the members of the Senate Judiciary Committee on Tuesday that, starting when she was 12 years old, a man who was supposed to be looking out for her well-being did just the opposite: He sexually abused her. She was an elite gymnast. He was the team doctor.

周二,杰米·丹切(Jamie Dantzscher)告诉参议院司法委员会(Senate Judiciary Committee)的成员,自她12岁开始,一名本该照顾她健康的男子做了恰恰相反的事:对她进行性虐待。她是一名优秀的体操运动员。他则是队医。

Ms. Dantzscher, who was a member of the bronze-medal-winning 2000 women’s Olympic gymnastics team, was speaking at hearing on a bill with potential to check the culture of a sport in which young girls are too often victimized, by requiring that the adults who work with them report suspected sexual abuse.

丹切是2000年奥运女子体操团体项目铜牌获得者,她正在一项议案的听证会上发言,该议案有可能会仔细审视一个令年轻女孩经常成为受害者的体育项目的文化,要求与她们共事的成年人报告可疑的性虐待行为。

Her testimony, which was at times delivered through tears, left me feeling a familiar sense of dread. As a former elite gymnast and the 1986 national champion, I understand all too well the dynamics that have been brought to light by the recent onslaught of public allegations of sexual misconduct against young athletes.

她那不时杂夹着泪水的证词,让我产生了一种熟悉的恐惧感。作为一名前优秀体操运动员和1986年的全国冠军,我对最近遭到公众猛烈抨击的性骚扰年轻运动员的指控所暴露出的问题,再清楚不过。

Women’s gymnastics is a sport in which the athletes are very young and barely clothed, and many of the coaches are male. It is a sport in which screaming insults at children is considered an accepted motivational technique, in which competing with severe injuries is the norm, in which discouraging athletes from eating is common practice and in which abuse, broadly defined, is standard.

女子体操是一项运动员非常年轻且衣着轻薄的运动,许多的教练又是男性。在这项运动中,对儿童大声辱骂的行为被看作可以接受的激励技巧;带着严重的伤痛比赛属于常规;鼓励运动员禁食的情况司空见惯;广义上的虐待行为成为了标准做法。

This is widely known within the sport, and now the even more sinister side of the world of gymnastics is getting broader attention.

在这项运动的圈子内,这是众所周知的事情。现在,体操界更加险恶的一面正在引发更为广泛的关注。

Larry Nassar, the former team doctor for USA Gymnastics, faces multiple sexual assault and pornography charges involving at least seven gymnasts.

前美国体操协会(USA Gymnastics)的队医拉里·纳萨尔(Larry Nassar)面临多项性侵和色情指控,其中涉及至少七名体操运动员。

“Dr. Nassar abused me at the U.S. national training center in Texas,” Ms. Dantzscher, who’s now 34, said at Tuesday’s hearing. “He abused me in California at meets and all over the world. Many times the abuse took place in my own room and my own bed. Worse, he abused me in my hotel room in Sydney at the Olympic Games.”

“纳萨尔曾经在德克萨斯州的美国国家训练中心虐待我,”现年34岁的丹切在周二举行的听证会上说道。“他在加州的比赛期间,在世界各地进行的比赛期间虐待我。有许多次,就发生在我的房间、我的床上。更恶劣的是,他还在悉尼奥林匹克运动会期间在我的酒店房间里对我进行虐待。”

She said in a February interview with “60 Minutes” that, under the guise of treating her back pain and other injuries, he would insert his hand into her vagina. It’s a procedure that Dr. Nassar’s attorney maintains is a standard osteopathic treatment. In an interview with Sports Illustrated, a spokeswoman for the American Osteopathic Association disagreed.

她在今年2月接受《60分钟》(60 Minutes)节目采访时表示,他会以治疗她的背痛及其他伤痛为借口,把手伸进她的阴道。纳萨尔的律师坚称这项程序是一种标准的正骨疗法。在接受《体育画报》(Sports Illustrated)采访时,美国骨疗协会(American Osteopathic Association)的一名发言人对此表示异议。

Dr. Nassar has pleaded not guilty to all of the charges against him; USA Gymnastics has denied any wrongdoing in the matter and emphasized that it reported him to the F.B.I.

纳萨尔拒绝接受针对他的任何指控;美国体操协会否认自身在这个件事中有任何不当行为,还强调是它将纳萨尔报告给了联邦调查局(FBI)的。

The problems within gymnastics culture are much bigger than the allegations against this doctor. An investigation by IndyStar has revealed that between 1996 and 2006, USA Gymnastics failed to immediately ban some of the 54 coaches who had sexual abuse convictions. (In a March 3 statement, USA Gymnastics said that of the 54 coaches whose sexual abuse complaint files were in the court documents obtained by IndyStar, it had banned 37, and “48 of the matters involved law enforcement.”)

体操文化内部的问题比针对这名医生的指控要大得多。《印第安纳波利斯星报》(IndyStar)所做的一个调查显示,在1996至2006年间,美国体操协会没有立即对54名被判性虐待罪的教练中的一些人颁布禁令。(美国体操协会在3月3日发布的声明中表示,在那54名教练——《印第安纳波利斯星报》拿到的法庭文件中有关于他们的性侵投诉存档——中,它对37人发出了禁令,“其中有48起涉及执法”。)

But in a 2015 deposition, Steve Penny, then the C.E.O. of the gymnastics organization, suggested that it was not obligated to make such reports. “To the best of my knowledge, there’s no duty to report if you are — if you are a third party to some allegation,” he said.

然而在2015年的一份证词中,时任该体操组织首席执行官的史蒂夫·彭尼(Steve Penny)曾表示,协会没有义务报告此类事件。“据我所知,如果你是某项指控的第三方,是没有责任举报它的,”他说。

At Tuesday’s hearing, Rick Adams, chief of Paralympic sports for the United States Olympic Committee, said, “The athletes have spoken very clearly to what is a flawed culture where the brand and the sport and the results are given a higher priority than the health and well-being of the athletes.”

在周二进行的听证会上,美国奥委会(United States Olympic Committee)残奥会主管里克·亚当斯(Rick Adams)表示,“运动员们非常明确地谈到了一种有缺陷的文化,在其中,品牌、运动和比赛结果被认为高于运动员的健康和福祉。”

He’s right. And I know this environment well. When I was training, I blackened my eyes when I fell on my head on the beam after fasting for three days before a competition. “I don’t coach fat gymnasts,” was a common refrain from coaches antagonizing me about my weight. I competed on an injured ankle swollen to the size of a baseball. At one point, I required monthly cortisone injections to limp through my floor routine.

他说的没错。我非常了解这种环境。以前训练时,我曾因为在一场比赛前禁食三天,头朝下栽到了平衡木上,撞得眼睛淤青。“我不训练胖体操运动员”是教练们经常挂在嘴边的话,令我一直和自己的体重对抗。在脚踝肿成棒球那么大时,我依然参加比赛。我一度要求每月注射一次可的松,好让自己能一瘸一拐地完成地板动作。

After I broke my femur at the 1985 world championships, I had the cast removed early under pressure from my coaches so that I could train for the next national championships. I competed and won, but not without breaking the opposite ankle in the process.

在1985年的世界锦标赛上大腿骨折后,我在教练施加的压力下,早早拆除了石膏,以便为参加下一届全国锦标赛进行训练。我后来参加了那次比赛,也赢得了奖项,但我的另一个脚踝也在这个过程中骨折。

The message I got was that if you couldn’t take it, you were weak. If you complained, you didn’t deserve to be on the team. In fact, if you perceived it as abuse, rather than just plain old tough coaching, you were delusional.

我得到的信息是,如果你不能忍受,那你就是弱者。如果你抱怨,就没资格在这个队里待下去。实际上,如果你把它看作虐待,而不仅仅是严酷的老式训练手法,那你就是患上了妄想症。

I wasn’t the victim of sexual misconduct. But the consequences of the culture that allowed the kind of treatment I endured can’t be overstated. In such an environment, you learn to focus only on achievement and to disregard your own sense of right and wrong, along with your own well-being. Because of this, I can understand how young gymnasts might be confused about whether and how to speak up for themselves when they’ve been mistreated.

我不是性行为不端的受害者。但是,这种使得我经历那种遭遇的文化,其影响怎么说都不为过。在这样的环境中,你学会了只关注成就,忽视自己的对错感和幸福感。因此,我可以理解,年轻的体操运动员在受到虐待的时候,对于是否以及如何为自己说话感到困惑。

But there’s no excuse for adults to turn a blind eye to sexual misconduct.

但是,成年人没有任何借口对性行为不检视而不见。

That’s why the new bill — which would require amateur-athletics governing bodies and those who work at their facilities to report sex-abuse allegations to local or federal law enforcement, or a child-welfare agency designated by the Justice Department — is so important.

这就是为什么这项新的法案如此重要的原因——它要求业余体育管理机构和相关工作人员向当地或联邦执法机构,或者司法部指定的儿童福利机构举报性虐待事件。

While the attention of lawmakers and Penny’s March 16 resignation are encouraging signs of change, they are just the beginning. To dramatically shift the culture that has allowed abuse to go unchecked, wholesale change in leadership is required. That includes the board of directors and other key leadership positions at USA Gymnastics.

立法者的关注和彭尼3月16日的辞职显示了令人鼓舞的转变迹象,但这只是一个开始。要大幅度改变这种“不对虐待进行抑制”的文化,就需要在领导层进行全面变革。其中包括美国体操协会的董事和其他重要领导职位。

In addition, the organization should more stringently mandate education programs for coaches and athletes, covering topics like what is acceptable touching and what is not. When it comes to suspected sexual assault, reporting protocol must be well outlined and adhered to, and the consequence of noncompliance should be loss of membership.

此外,该组织应该更严格地对教练和运动员实施教育计划,主题应该包括哪些接触是可接受的,哪些是不可接受的。对于举报疑是性攻击的行为,必须好好制定和遵守举报细则,不合规就应该取消会员资格。

The strength and discipline of our gymnasts shouldn’t cause us to forget that most of them are children for a majority of their careers. The coaches, officials and other adults charged with harnessing their talents must also stand up for their well-being.

体操运动员的力量和控制力不应该让我们忘记在他们职业生涯的大多数时间里,大多数人都还是孩子。负责磨练他们才华的教练、官员和其他成年人也必须维护他们的福祉。

I wish I’d had someone to stand up for me.

我多么希望当年曾有人出来维护我的利益。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表