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好动的孩子更聪明,美国学校推广“课间操”

更新时间:2017-3-24 10:58:38 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why Kids Shouldn’t Sit Still in Class
好动的孩子更聪明,美国学校推广“课间操”

Sit still. It’s the mantra of every classroom.

坐好别动——这是每个教室的常用语。

But that is changing as evidence builds that taking brief activity breaks during the day helps children learn and be more attentive in class, and a growing number of programs designed to promote movement are being adopted in schools.

但是,随着越来越多的证据表明,白天短暂的课间活动有助于儿童学习以及在课堂上集中注意力,“坐好别动”这种观念正在改变,越来越多旨在促进运动的课程正在被学校采用。

“We need to recognize that children are movement-based,” said Brian Gatens, the superintendent of schools in Emerson, N.J. “In schools, we sometimes are pushing against human nature in asking them to sit still and be quiet all the time.”

“我们需要认识到,儿童是以运动为本的,”新泽西州埃默森市的教育督学布赖恩·加滕斯(Brian Gatens)说,“在学校里,我们有时违背人性,要求他们坐着别动,一直保持安静。”

“We fall into this trap that if kids are at their desks with their heads down and are silent and writing, we think they are learning,” Mr. Gatens added. “But what we have found is that the active time used to energize your brain makes all those still moments better,” or more productive.

“我们掉进了一个陷阱,以为孩子们坐在桌边,低着头安静地写字,那是在学习,”加滕斯还说,“但是我们发现,用于活跃大脑的活动时间能让孩子们在安静的时候表现得更好”,或者说更有成效。

A 2013 report from the Institute of Medicine concluded that children who are more active “show greater attention, have faster cognitive processing speed and perform better on standardized academic tests than children who are less active.” And a study released in January by Lund University in Sweden shows that students, especially boys, who had daily physical education, did better in school.

美国医学研究院(Institute of Medicine)2013年的一项报告认为,更活跃的儿童“注意力更集中,认知处理速度更快,在标准化学业测试中的成绩优于不太活跃的儿童”。瑞典隆德大学(Lund University)今年1月发布的一项研究表明,每天进行体育锻炼的学生,尤其是男生,在学校的表现更好。

“Daily physical activity is an opportunity for the average school to become a high-performing school,” said Jesper Fritz, a doctoral student at Lund University and physician at the Skane University Hospital in Malmo who was the study’s lead author.

“每天进行体育锻炼会让成绩中等的学校有机会变成成绩优异的学校,”隆德大学的博士生、马尔默斯科讷大学医院(Skane University Hospital)的内科医生耶斯佩尔·弗里策(Jesper Fritz)说。他是这项研究的主要作者。

“Activity helps the brain in so many ways,” said James F. Sallis, a professor of family medicine and public health at the University of California, San Diego, who has done research on the association between activity breaks and classroom behavior. “Activity stimulates more blood vessels in the brain to support more brain cells. And there is evidence that active kids do better on standardized tests and pay attention more in school.”

“活动能在很多方面帮助大脑,”加州大学圣迭戈分校(University of California, San Diego)的家庭医学和公共健康教授詹姆斯·F·萨利斯(James F. Sallis)说。他对课间活动和课堂表现的关系进行了研究。“活动能刺激大脑的更多血管去支持更多脑细胞。有证据表明,活跃的孩子在标准化测试中的成绩更好,在学校注意力更集中。”

John Ratey, an associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and the author of “Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain,” said: “Movement activates all the brain cells kids are using to learn, it wakes up the brain.”

哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)的精神病学副教授约翰·瑞迪(John Ratey)说:“运动能激活孩子正在使用的所有脑细胞去学习,它能唤醒大脑。”他是《运动改造大脑》(Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain)一书的作者。

“Plus,” he added, “it makes kids want to come to school more — it’s fun to do these activities.”

“另外,”他还说,“它会让孩子们更想去上学,因为课间活动很有趣。”

But not all districts are embracing the trend of movement breaks.

然而,并不是所有地区都欢迎课间活动的这种新趋势。

“The bottom line is that with only six and a half hours during the day, our priority is academics,” said Tom Hernandez, the director of community relations for the Plainfield School District in Illinois, about 40 miles southwest of Chicago. He said that under state law, the schools provide daily physical education classes and that teachers in the district find ways to give students time during the day to refresh and recharge.

“最重要的是,白天只有六个半小时,我们的首要任务是学习,”伊利诺伊州普兰菲尔德学区(Plainfield School District)的社区关系主任汤姆·埃尔南德斯(Tom Hernandez)说。该学区位于芝加哥西南约40英里处。他说,根据该州法律,学校每天都有体育课,该区的老师们也会想办法让学生在白天有时间换换脑子,给身体充电。

“Kids aren’t meant to sit still all day and take in information,” said Steve Boyle, one of the co-founders of the National Association of Physical Literacy, which aims to bring movement into schools. “Adults aren’t wired that way either.”

“孩子们本来就不该整天坐着,去获取信息,”美国全国身体素质协会(National Association of Physical Literacy)的联合创始人史蒂夫·博伊尔(Steve Boyle)说。该协会旨在将运动带入学校。“成年人也不是那样的。”

Mr. Boyle’s association has introduced a series of three- to five-minute videos called “BrainErgizers” that are being used in schools and Boys and Girls Clubs in 15 states and in Canada, Mexico, Ireland and Australia, he said. A version of the program is available to schools at no charge.

博伊尔称,自己的协会推出了一系列三至五分钟的视频,名为《激活大脑》(BrainErgizers),正在美国的15个州以及加拿大、墨西哥、爱尔兰和澳大利亚的学校和男孩女孩俱乐部(Boys and Girls Clubs)得到使用。该项目的一个版本可供学校免费使用。

The program is designed so that three to five times a day, teachers can set aside a few minutes for their students to watch a video and follow the cues given by the instructors. In one typical video, the instructors are college students of all shapes and sizes at the University of Connecticut who do a quick warm-up and then lead kids through a mini workout involving movements from several sports: baseball, basketball and a triathlon. That’s followed by a cool-down.

该项目的设计是,每天三到五次,教师腾出几分钟时间让学生观看视频,并按照教练的指示活动。在一个典型的视频中,教练是来自康涅狄格大学(University of Connecticut)的各种体形的大学生,他们先是快速热身,然后引导孩子们完成一项迷你锻炼,其中包含几种体育项目的动作:棒球、篮球和铁人三项。之后是恢复平静。

“At the end of the week, kids have gotten an hour or more worth of movement, and it’s all done in the classroom with no special equipment,” Mr. Boyle said. “We’re not looking to replace gym classes, we’re aiming to give kids more minutes of movement per week. And by introducing sports into the videos, giving kids a chance to try sports they may not have ever tried before.”

“一周结束后,孩子们总计完成了一个小时或更长时间的运动,都是在教室里完成的,不需要特殊器械,”博伊尔说,“我们不是想取代体育课,我们的目标是让孩子们每周拥有更多的运动时间。在视频中引入体育项目的目的是让孩子们有机会尝试他们之前可能从没试过的项目。”

Julie Goldstein, principal of the Breakthrough Magnet School in Hartford, Conn., said her school has been using BrainErgizers since the spring of 2015.

康涅狄格州哈特福德市突破性吸引力学校(Breakthrough Magnet School)的校长朱莉·戈德斯坦(Julie Goldstein)表示,自2015年春季以来,她的学校一直在使用《激活大脑》。

It’s easy for the teachers to implement, and “easy for the students to follow,” Mrs. Goldstein said. She said the program has “helped them focus and bring up their energy level in the classroom.”

戈德斯坦表示,这个课程教师好执行,“学生也容易跟着做”。她还说,该项目“帮助他们集中注意力,提升了他们在课堂上的活力”。

Scott McQuigg, chief executive and a co-founder of GoNoodle, a classroom movement program used in more than 60,000 elementary schools in the United States credits Michelle Obama’s “Let’s Move” initiative with helping to bring movement and the health of children into the public consciousness.

GoNoodle是逾6万所美国小学采用的课堂运动项目。该项目的首席执行官兼联合创始人斯科特·麦奎格(Scott McQuigg)认为米歇尔·奥巴马(Michelle Obama)的“动起来”计划(Let's Move)帮助公众认识到儿童运动和健康的重要性。

“We call this the Movement movement,” Mr. McQuigg said. “If we invest three to five minutes for our kids to move in the classroom, we are actually going to optimize the next 45 minutes for learning. That small investment in time has such a big yield for teachers.”

“我们称之为‘运动’运动,”麦奎格说,“如果我们花上三五分钟时间让孩子们在教室里动起来,那么我们实际上优化了接下来45分钟的学习。很少的时间投入能给教师带来巨大回报。”

GoNoodle, which offers free and paid videos, aims to entertain kids while they are moving, Mr. McQuigg said. GoNoodle and other “brain break” videos can be found on the website for “Let’s Move! Active Schools,” part of Mrs. Obama’s “Let’s Move!” initiative.

GoNoodle提供免费和付费视频。麦奎格表示,该项目旨在让孩子们在活动中获得快乐。GoNoodle等“脑休息”视频可在“动起来!活力学校”(Let’s Move! Active Schools)的网站上找到,它是米歇尔·奥巴马的“动起来”项目的一部分。

“We have purposely not gone after this as an exercise program,” Mr. McQuigg said. “This is a digital generation that expects to be entertained, and we think we can do more good around getting them to move if they are entertained.”

“我们故意不把它弄成锻炼项目,”麦奎格说,“数字时代成长起来的这一代人希望获得娱乐,我们觉得如果能让他们获得娱乐,让他们动起来,我们的收获更大。”

For example, GoNoodle videos have kids running alongside their desks through a virtual obstacle course or following along with dance moves.

例如,GoNoodle的视频引导孩子们绕着书桌跑动,穿过虚拟障碍跑道,或着跟随舞蹈动作活动。

Joseph E. Donnelly, professor of medicine and director of the Center for Physical Activity and Weight Management at the University of Kansas Medical Center, said one of the good things about kids being more physically active in classrooms is that everyone is moving at the same time.

堪萨斯大学医学中心(University of Kansas Medical Center)身体活动和体重管理中心(Center for Physical Activity and Weight Management)主任、医学教授约瑟夫·E·唐纳利(Joseph E. Donnelly)表示,孩子们在教室里进行更多身体活动的好处之一是大家在同时运动。

“In physical education classes, there is a lot of standing around, a lot of minutes of kids waiting to do an activity, and sometimes kids are only moving for about 15 minutes during a 50-minute class,” said Dr. Donnelly, who co-authored a statement on the effects of physical activity and academic achievement in children that was published last year by the American College of Sports Medicine. “If you do movement in class a few times a day, that can add up to at least an extra 60 minutes more of movement per week.”

“在体育课上,孩子们有很多时候是站着等待参加一项活动,有时,在50分钟的课堂上,孩子们大约只活动了15分钟,”唐纳利说。他是美国运动医学会(American College of Sports Medicine)去年发表的关于儿童身体活动对学业成绩影响的一项声明的联合作者。“如果每天在课堂上运动几次,每周至少可以多运动60分钟。”

Lindsay DiStefano, an associate professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Connecticut, said the country is due for a major shift toward appreciating the benefits of physical activity in the classroom.

康涅狄格大学运动机能学系副教授琳赛·迪斯泰法诺(Lindsay DiStefano)表示,美国应该做出重大转变,重视课堂身体活动的益处。

“In 1961, President Kennedy said school kids needed physical activity to thrive, but in the past 20 years, the pendulum has totally shifted the opposite way because schools are feeling the pressure to have students do well on standardized tests,” Ms. DiStefano said. “We are not thinking about the child as an entire person, how physical activity helps them cope with the stresses of school and actually benefits them in the classroom.”

“1961年,肯尼迪总统说,学校儿童需要身体活动才能茁壮成长,但在过去20年里,重心完全放到了相反的方面,因为学校觉得面对着让学生在标准化测试中考出好成绩的压力,”迪斯泰法诺说,“我们没把孩子当成一个完整的人来思考问题,没考虑到身体活动能帮助他们应对学校的压力,并让他们在课堂上获益。”

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