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特朗普效应?近四成美国大学国际学生申请数下降

更新时间:2017-3-18 11:31:39 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Amid ‘Trump Effect’ Fear, 40% of Colleges See Dip in Foreign Applicants
特朗普效应?近四成美国大学国际学生申请数下降

The president of Portland State University, Wim Wiewel, met last week with 10 prospective students in Hyderabad, India. But what started as a get-acquainted visit quickly turned into more of a counseling session, as the students expressed fears about coming to the United States this fall.

波特兰州立大学校长维姆·维维尔(Wim Wiewel)上周在印度海德拉巴与10名申请该校的学生会面。但是,见面会很快变得更像咨询会,因为学生们对于今秋去往美国表示担心。

One student, who is Muslim, said his father was worried that America had an anti-Muslim attitude, Mr. Wiewel recounted. “Several others said they were concerned about the ‘Trump effect,’” he said in an email.

一个穆斯林学生说他的父亲担心美国有反穆斯林态度,维维尔说。“其他几个人说他们担心‘特朗普效应,’”他在电子邮件中写道。

“I’d say the rhetoric and actual executive orders are definitely having a chilling effect,” Mr. Wiewel wrote, referring to the Trump administration’s travel ban.

“我得说,激烈言辞和实际中的行政命令肯定会产生寒蝉效应,”维维尔写道,他这里指的是特朗普政府的旅行禁令。

Like many universities across the country, the Oregon university is getting fewer international applications.

与全国许多大学一样,俄勒冈大学接到的国际申请也越来越少。

Nearly 40 percent of colleges are reporting overall declines in applications from international students, according to a survey of 250 college and universities, released this week by the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. The biggest decline is in applications from the Middle East.

根据美国大学注册招生办公室协会(American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers)本周公布的关于250所学院和大学的调查,近40%的大学出现了国际学生申请数目的整体下降。下降最大的是来自中东的申请。

Many officials cited worries among prospective students about Trump administration immigration policies. “International student recruitment professionals report a great deal of concern from students all over the globe,” the study said.

许多官员提及了申请美国大学的学生对特朗普政府移民政策的担忧。“国际学生招生专业人士报告了全球各地学生的很多忧虑,”研究说。

On Wednesday, the federal judge in Hawaii who blocked the latest version of the administration’s travel ban cited the financial harm the executive order posed to the state’s university system, which recruits students and hires faculty members from the six target countries. (Washington State officials raised similar concerns in successfully challenging the first travel ban.)

周三,夏威夷联邦法官阻止了最新版的旅行行政禁令,列出了该命令对该州大学系统造成的财务损失,这一系统会从禁令中的六个目标国家招收学生并招聘教职员工(华盛顿州官员在成功挑战第一次旅行禁令时提出了类似的忧虑。)

Graduate schools appear to be feeling the worst pinch, with nearly half reporting drops. “Our deans describe it as a chilling effect,” said Suzanne Ortega, president of the Council of Graduate Schools.

研究生院似乎是受限最严重的,其申请几乎下降了一半。美国研究生院委员会(Council of Graduate Schools)主席苏珊·奥尔特加(Suzanne Ortega)说:“院长们将之描述为一种寒蝉效应。”

The numbers — while not yet final — are provoking anxiety in some programs that rely on international students, who bring more than $32 billion a year into the United States economy. International enrollment at American colleges has been on the rise over the past decade, and for the first time exceeded one million students last year.

这些数字虽然还不是最终数据,但在一些有赖于国际学生的专业中引起了焦虑,这些学生每年为美国经济带来超过320亿美元。过去十年中,美国大学的国际招生一直在上升,去年第一次超过100万名。

Still, despite the steady increase, the movement of students from one country to another is sensitive to fluctuations tied to political and economic forces. So some officials cautioned that a “Trump effect’ is just one possible explanation for this year’s application figures. Beyond that, many schools, including New York University, the University of Southern California and Northeastern University, reported that their international numbers are up. Purdue University reported a 1.2 percent decline in graduate school applications.

然而,尽管学生数量稳步增加,但是学生从一个国家到另一个国家的流动却很容易受到政治和经济力量波动的影响。因此,一些官员警告说,“特朗普效应”只是今年申请数字下降的可能解释之一。除此之外,包括纽约大学、南加州大学和东北大学在内的许多学校都表示他们的国际学生数量出现上升。普渡大学的研究生申请下降了1.2%。

Mr. Wiewel made his trip to Hyderabad not long after residents of the city held funeral services for a young Indian man who was killed in a bar in Olathe, Kan., where he worked as an engineer. The shooting is being investigated as a hate crime.

维维尔动身去往海德拉巴不久之前,堪萨斯州奥拉西市的人们刚刚为一个年轻的印度男子举行了葬礼。此人生前在该市从事工程师工作,在当地一家酒吧里遭到枪杀。经调查,该事件是一起仇恨犯罪。

Mr. Wiewel reassured the students — all admitted to Portland State’s graduate engineering program — that his university’s environment was safe and welcoming. He was a bit surprised by their concerns, he said, because students he visited earlier in New Delhi and Bangalore had been more anxious about financing their graduate studies, apparently a reaction to India’s recent currency shortage. Other economic factors may also be involved in the application declines, Ms. Ortega said, including crude oil prices in Saudi Arabia.

维维尔会见的学生们都已作为工程专业研究生被波大录取,他向他们保证,自己大学里的环境很安全,而且乐于欢迎他们。他对他们的忧虑感到有点惊讶,他说,因为他之前在新德里和班加罗尔会见的学生更担心研究生课程的资金问题,这显然是对印度最近现金短缺的反应。奥尔特加说,学生申请下降也可能同其他经济因素有关,包括沙特阿拉伯的原油价格。

Also at play: uncertainty about the future of a visa program called H-1B that international graduates frequently rely on to remain in the United States to work.

此外,名为H-1B签证项目的未来存在不确定性,国际研究生要留在美国工作,往往需要依靠该项目,这也是因素之一。

For several graduate schools, the Trump administration’s travel ban, which initially affected seven predominantly Muslim countries, could not have been more poorly timed. It was announced in late January as deadlines loomed for applications to some graduate programs, and it came on the heels of Mr. Trump’s virulently anti-immigrant rhetoric during the campaign.

特朗普政府的旅行禁令最初影响了七个以穆斯林为主体的国家,对于若干研究生院来说,它公布的时机不可能更糟了。该禁令是在1月下旬宣布的,这正是申请一些研究生课程的最后期限,而且它是随特朗普在竞选期间强烈的反移民言论而来的。

Slumping graduate school applications can now be seen at universities ranging from giant Big Ten public universities like Ohio State and Indiana University to regional programs such as Portland State, with just over 27,000 students, including more than 1,900 international students.

从俄亥俄州立大学和印第安纳大学这样的十大公立大学等巨头,到波特兰州立大学这样的区域性高校,研究生入学申请数量暴跌是随处可见的。波特兰州立大学只有2.7万多名学生,包括1900多名国际学生。

At Indiana University, international applications for undergraduate programs increased 6 percent, but graduate applications for some programs are posting big drops, said David Zaret, vice president for international affairs.

在印第安纳大学,申请就读本科课程的国际学生增加了6%,但是一些专业的研究生申请人数大幅下降,该校负责国际事务的副校长戴维·扎雷特(David Zaret)说。

Mr. Zaret said international applications to the masters program in business were down 20 percent, and down 30 percent in both the master of law program and at the School of Informatics and Computing. The university will not have problems filling the programs, but the drop might affect the overall quality of the applicant pool, he said.

扎雷特说,在商业硕士专业方面,国际学生申请下降了20%,在法学硕士专业以及信息学与计算机学院,国际学生申请均下降了30%。这所大学的各项专业课程仍然都可以招满学生,但是他说,这种下降可能会影响申请者的整体质量。

Because application deadlines at several larger colleges had passed before Mr. Trump’s travel ban was announced, some universities are more worried about the “yield” — the number of students offered admission who end up enrolling, said Frances Leslie, vice provost for the graduate division at the University of California, Irvine.

几所规模更大的大学的申请截止日期是在特朗普的旅行禁令宣布之前,因此一些学校更加担心“放弃”问题——也就是被准许入学的学生最终不来就读的人会有多少,加州大学欧文分校负责研究生部的副校长弗朗西斯·莱斯利(Frances Leslie)说。

Applications at Irvine are not down, but students have expressed concerned about coming to the United States, Ms. Leslie said. “We’re hearing from students, even beyond the seven countries, expressing concern,” Ms. Leslie said, referring to Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen, which were singled out in the first travel ban. “This year, even when students are admitted, they may not be willing to accept the offers.”

申请欧文分校的人数没有下降,但学生表示对于来到美国感到担心,莱斯利说。“我们听到学生们表示担心,甚至不止于那七个国家,”她是指第一次旅行禁令中所提到的伊朗、伊拉克、利比亚、索马里、苏丹、叙利亚和也门这七国。“今年,即使学生被录取,他们也可能不愿意接受。”

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