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美国务卿访日,称对朝鲜政策需改弦更张

更新时间:2017-3-18 11:06:33 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Rex Tillerson, in Japan, Says U.S. Needs ‘Different Approach’ to North Korea
美国务卿访日,称对朝鲜政策需改弦更张

TOKYO — At a time of multiplying tensions in Asia, Rex W. Tillerson, the American secretary of state, began his first major foreign trip in Japan and said on Thursday that the United States needed a “different approach” to North Korea’s escalating nuclear threat, though he declined to give specifics.

东京——在亚洲紧张局势加剧之际,美国国务卿雷克斯·W·蒂勒森(Rex W. Tillerson)从日本开始了自己的首次重要外访,他在周四表示,美国在应对朝鲜不断增长的核威胁方面需要一种“不同的方法”,但他拒绝详细说明。

Speaking to reporters in Tokyo after talks with Japan’s foreign minister, Fumio Kishida, Mr. Tillerson said that “the diplomatic and other efforts of the past 20 years to bring North Korea to a point of denuclearization have failed,” noting that during those 20 years, the United States had provided $1.35 billion in assistance to North Korea to encourage it to abandon its nuclear program.

与日本外相岸田文雄(Fumio Kishida)会谈后,蒂勒森在东京对记者说,“过去20年让朝鲜走向无核化的外交和其他努力都失败了。”他指出,在这20年里,美国为了鼓励朝鲜放弃核计划,向其提供了13.5亿美元的援助。

“Part of the purpose of my visit to the region is to exchange views on a new approach,” Mr. Tillerson added, saying he would highlight the issue in Seoul and Beijing, the next stops on his trip.

“我访问这个地区的目的之一是就寻找新方法交换意见,”蒂勒森还说,并表示,他将在首尔和北京重点讨论这个问题,那是他行程的下两站。

On the eve of President Trump sending a federal budget to Congress that proposes a 29 percent cut in the State Department’s budget, Mr. Tillerson, who took questions only from reporters who had been preselected by one of his press advisers, said he would take on the challenge of the cutbacks “willingly.”

特朗普总统即将向国会提交的联邦预算建议将国务院的预算削减29%,蒂勒森回答记者提问时说,他会“乐意”接受削减预算的挑战;只有那些被他的一名新闻顾问预先选定的记者才能向他提问。

“The level of spending that the State Department has been undertaking, particularly in the past year, is simply not sustainable,” Mr. Tillerson said, explaining that current spending reflected the “level of conflicts that the U.S. has been engaged in around the world as well as disaster assistance.”

蒂勒森说,“国务院一直以来的开支水平,特别是过去一年的开支水平,简单地说是不可持续。”他解释说,目前的支出反映了“美国在全世界各地涉及的冲突的水平,以及所提供的救灾援助。”

He said the department would undergo a review of programs and would “be much more effective, much more efficient, and be able to do a lot with fewer dollars.”

他说,国务院将对其各个项目进行审查,并做到“更有效、更有效率,用更少的钱做更多的事。”

The most pressing issue for the United States and its allies in Asia is the advancing threat from North Korea, which has launched ballistic missiles twice in three weeks and has said that it is close to testing a missile that could reach the United States.

对美国及其在亚洲的盟国来说,最紧迫的问题是朝鲜不断增长的威胁,朝鲜在三周内发射了两次弹道导弹,并称其即将测试一枚可到达美国的导弹。

In prepared remarks, Mr. Tillerson said he hoped to deepen cooperation among the United States, Japan and South Korea “in the face of North Korea’s dangerous and unlawful nuclear and ballistic missile programs.”

蒂勒森在事先准备好的讲话中表示,“面对朝鲜危险且不合法的核武器与弹道导弹计划”,他希望能加深美国、日本和韩国之间的合作。

Policy makers and American reporters were eager to hear Mr. Tillerson speak, given that in his more than 50 days in office he had not expanded on the Trump administration’s foreign policy. Critics have questioned how much influence he has with the president, as he has been absent from meetings with world leaders at the White House.

考虑到蒂勒森在就职50天以来不曾详细阐述特朗普政府的外交政策,政策制定者和美国记者急于听到蒂勒森的讲话。批评人士质疑他能对总统有多大影响力,因为他一直缺席白宫举行的与世界领导人的会面。

The secretary’s trip, which will also include stops in Seoul and Beijing, comes as the region is grappling not only with the North Korean threat, but also with increased tensions between China and South Korea, where the United States is deploying a missile defense system that China vigorously opposes.

国务卿这次出访也将在首尔和北京停留,此时此刻该地区不仅要艰难应对朝鲜威胁问题,也面临着中国与韩国关系日益紧张的难题——美国正在这里部署一套导弹防御系统,中国对此表示强烈反对。

South Korea is without a president after the removal of Park Geun-hye last week, and Japan and South Korea have yet to repair a diplomatic rift after Tokyo recalled its envoy to Seoul more than two months ago to protest a statue commemorating Korean women who were forced into sexual slavery for Japanese soldiers during World War II.

在朴槿惠(Park Geun-hye)上周被免职之后,韩国现在处于没有总统的状态,而日本和韩国还有一道外交裂痕需要修补——东京在两个月前召回了日本驻首尔大使,以抗议一座纪念二战期间韩国慰安妇的塑像。

“It’s pretty clear that there’s a perfect storm brewing for mischief in East Asia right now,” said Richard Samuels, a Japan specialist and the director of the Center for International Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

“很明显,东亚目前正在酝酿一场大风暴,会带来接二连三的问题,”麻省理工大学国际问题研究中心主任、日本问题专家(Center for International Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology)理查德·塞缪尔斯(Richard Samuels)说。

Analysts were hoping to use Mr. Tillerson’s remarks as guidance on the options that the United States might consider in responding to the nuclear threat from North Korea. American officials are reviewing options that could include a pre-emptive military strike and renewed talks with North Korea.

分析人士期待能从蒂勒森的讲话中获得一些信息,好知道美国在应对朝鲜核威胁时有可能做出什么选择。美国官员正在评估的选项包括先发制人实施军事打击和重启与朝鲜的对话。

But when asked for details of a new approach, he did not answer.

但是当被问到一项新举措的细节时,他没有做出回应。

In his prepared remarks, Mr. Tillerson took a markedly different tone than the secretary of defense, Jim Mattis, who said on a visit to Seoul in February that the use of nuclear weapons by North Korea would be met with an “overwhelming” response.

蒂勒森在准备好的演讲中发出了一种与国防部长吉姆·马蒂斯(Jim Mattis)截然不同的论调,后者在2月访问首尔时曾表示,朝鲜如果使用核武器,将遭到“压倒性”的反击。

Mr. Tillerson said “North Korea and its people need not fear the United States or their neighbors in the region who seek only to live in peace with North Korea.” He added, “With this in mind the United States calls on North Korea to abandon its nuclear and ballistic missile program and refrain from any further provocations.”

蒂勒森表示,“朝鲜及其民众不需要担心美国或它在该地区的邻国,大家只想与朝鲜和平共处。”他还提到,“基于这一点,美国呼吁朝鲜放弃核武器和弹道导弹计划,避免做出任何进一步的挑衅行为。”

Experts in the region said that while the United States had so far emphasized expanded missile defense with the deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system, or Thaad, they wanted to hear what Mr. Tillerson had to say about diplomatic options, as well as cooperation within the region.

这一地区的专家们表示,尽管美国目前通过部署末段高空区域防御系统(Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system,简称萨德)来强调扩大导弹防御,但他们想听听蒂勒森在外交选择和在该地区的合作上会有什么样的观点。

“It was very important to show the deterrence capability,” said Tsuneo Watanabe, a senior research fellow at the Sasakawa Peace Foundation in Tokyo. “But at the same time we need to create a carrot-and-stick type signal to North Korea.”

“显示威慑能力固然十分重要,”东京笹川和平财团(Sasakawa Peace Foundation)高级研究员渡边恒雄(Tsuneo Watanabe)说。“但与此同时我们也需要向朝鲜释放出胡萝卜加大棒的信号。”

Mr. Watanabe said that in addition to coordination among the United States, Japan and South Korea, “we also need coordination with China.”

渡边恒雄表示,除了美国、日本和韩国之间的合作,“我们也需要与中国配合。”

In Japan, government officials are eager to build a relationship with Mr. Tillerson, who is relatively inexperienced in matters pertaining to Asia and who currently has a depleted staff at the State Department to advise him on the region.

在日本,政府官员急于和蒂勒森建立关系,后者在与亚洲有关的事务上相对缺乏经验,而且在国务院里也没什么人能就该地区的问题给他提供建议。

Japan has been somewhat reassured after Mr. Mattis visited Tokyo and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited President Trump in Washington and Mar-a-Lago in Florida, with each American official stating that the United States would support its allies. Mr. Tillerson again reaffirmed the United States’ commitment to the defense of Japan.

在马蒂斯访问了东京、日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)在华盛顿和佛罗里达的马阿拉歌(Mar-a-Lago)庄园会见了特朗普之后,日本似乎吃了定心丸。所有美国官员都声称美国会支持自己的盟友。蒂勒森又一次重申美国在维护日本安全方面的承诺。

Still, given that President Trump suggested during the campaign that he might pull back from American security commitments to allies in Asia, both Japan and South Korea are likely to remain anxious about American resolve.

不过,考虑到特朗普曾在竞选期间暗示他有可能收回美国对亚洲盟友的安全承诺,日本和韩国或许依然对美国的决定存在担忧。

“There’s that sense that they are assured for the moment,” said Bruce Klingner, a senior research fellow for Northeast Asia at the Heritage Foundation in Washington, “but Japan and South Korea are like skittish small dogs that need constant reassurance and are constantly nervous.”

“目前的感觉是它们在眼下感到安心,”华盛顿传统基金会(Heritage Foundation)东北亚研究中心(Northeast Asia)高级研究员布鲁斯·克林纳(Bruce Klingner)说,“但日本和韩国就像容易受惊的小狗,需要持续的安慰,会不断感到紧张。”

Japan has been especially wary after North Korea launched four missiles simultaneously earlier this month that landed within 125 miles of the western coast of Akita Prefecture. North Korea said at the time that the tests were designed “to strike the bases of the U.S. imperialist aggressor forces in Japan in contingency.”

在朝鲜于本月早些时候同时发射四枚落入距离秋田县西海岸125英里(约合200公里)以内海域的导弹之后,日本尤其感到担心。朝鲜当时表示,这些测试是为了“在紧急情况下打击美帝国主义侵略者驻日本军队的基地”。

The Japanese government is currently discussing upgrades to its missile defense, including acquiring its own Thaad system. And some lawmakers have suggested that Japan needs to consider obtaining the ability to make pre-emptive strikes against missile launches. Mr. Kishida said that “Japan will assume larger roles and responsibilities,” but when asked by Adriana Diaz, Asia correspondent for CBS News, about pre-emptive capabilities, he said he did not understand the question and declined to allow her to clarify.

日本政府目前正在讨论升级自身的导弹防御系统,包括获取自己的萨德系统。一些议员认为,日本需要考虑获得先发制人阻止导弹发射的能力。外向岸田文雄表示“日本将承担更大的角色和责任”,然而当CBS新闻频道(CBS News)亚洲记者阿德里安娜·迪亚斯(Adriana Diaz)问起先发制人的能力时,他表示他不明白这个问题,并拒绝让她澄清自己的问题。

Mr. Tillerson continued the cloistered style of his previous brief foreign trips, to Bonn, Germany, and Mexico City. He did not visit the American Embassy to meet State Department staff, choosing instead to rest and take briefings at his hotel in the morning before his meeting with Mr. Kishida.

蒂勒森延续了他之前前往德国波恩以及墨西哥城的外交之旅那种与外界隔绝的风格。在上午与岸田文雄会晤之前,他没有去美国大使馆和那里的国务院工作人员见面,而是在自己的酒店里休息和听取简报。

While Mr. Tillerson is the highest-ranking member of the Trump administration to visit Japan, the Japanese news media on Thursday initially seemed more interested in the interest rate increase by the United States Federal Reserve and the Dutch election results.

尽管蒂勒森是特朗普政府中访问日本的职位最高的官员,但日本的新闻媒体在周四一开始似乎对美联储加息的消息和丹麦选举结果更感兴趣。

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