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防护服加纸面罩,时报记者亲身探访福岛核电站

更新时间:2017-3-15 18:47:03 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

A Reporting Team’s Nuclear Stress Test: Hazmat Suits, Face Masks and 9 Flights of Stairs
防护服加纸面罩,时报记者亲身探访福岛核电站

FUKUSHIMA, Japan — We were all a little bit nervous as we entered the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that had suffered a meltdown six years ago after a major earthquake and tsunami. We had surrendered our cellphones and our passports, given digital prints of our middle fingers and sat in radiation scanners to take note of our baseline levels.

日本福岛——进入福岛第一核电站的时候,我们都感到有点紧张,这座核电站在六年前的大地震和海啸中发生了熔毁。我们交出了手机和护照,留下中指的数码指纹,坐在辐射扫描仪里记录下我们的基线水平。

So it cut the tension when Ko Sasaki, a photographer who regularly works for The Times, pointed out a sign in front of the security gates that warned employees and visitors, “Absolutely no playing Pokemon Go on the premises!”

所以,当经常为《纽约时报》工作的摄影师佐佐木光(Ko Sasaki)指着安全门前的一个警告员工和游客“绝对不能在里面玩《精灵宝可梦》(Pokemon Go)!”的标识时,我们的紧张情绪松弛了下来。

Along with Veda Shastri, a videographer who had flown in from New York, and Hisako Ueno, a researcher in the Tokyo bureau, we were visiting the Fukushima plant to chronicle the continuing cleanup process.

我和从纽约飞来的摄像师维达·萨斯利(Veda Shastri)、东京分社的研究员上乃久子(Hisako Ueno)一起访问了福岛工厂,记录下进行中的清理过程。

Tokyo Electric Power Company, or Tepco, which operates the plant and is overseeing the cleanup, has made progress toward reducing radiation levels on the plant grounds by paving over much of the site (to cut down on radioactive dust swirling around) and storing waste in cement or steel containers. Still, we all wondered about the risk to our health.

负责这家核电站运营的东京电力公司(Tokyo Electric Power Company,简称东电)负责监督清理工作,该公司把很大一部分场地铺平了(减少周围飞扬的放射性灰尘),还把废料储存在水泥或钢容器中,从而减少了工厂地表的辐射水平。然而,我们还是想知道自己的健康究竟面临怎样的风险。

I had consulted a security adviser who has visited Chernobyl multiple times, and he assured me that on a short visit we would be safe as long as we followed precautions and wore protective clothing.

我咨询了一位曾多次前往切尔诺贝利的安全顾问,他向我保证,只要我们采取预防措施,穿着防护服,一次短暂访问是很安全的。

It was my second trip to the plant; the first time around, about three months earlier, I had been restricted to seeing the plant from the inside of a bus, and was required to wear only a vest, gloves and plastic shoe covers.

这是我第二次去这家工厂;第一次是大约三个月前,当时我只能坐在巴士里看这家工厂,并且只要求穿一件无袖防护衣,戴上手套和塑料鞋套。

This time, we were going to be escorted to parts of the plant on foot and would need more protection. Our first stop was the roof of a new building that Tepco had built to house offices, dressing rooms, a canteen and rest facilities for the 6,000 workers on the site.

这一次我们采取了步行的方式,有人会护送我们到部分厂区,这就需要更多的防护措施。我们的第一站是一座新建筑的屋顶,东电建造这栋建筑为6000名在这里工作的工人提供了办公室、更衣室、食堂和休息设施。

We were given vests, white cloth gloves and personal dosimeters (devices that measure exposure to ionizing radiation). Tokyo Electric staff members gave the women in the group pink-trimmed vests clearly marked “Ladies,” as well as hard hats, paper masks and glasses.

我们分到了无袖防护衣、白色布手套和个人剂量计(测量电离辐射暴露量的装置)。东电的工作人员为访问团的女性准备了有粉红色镶边的背心,上面明确标记着“女式”,还有安全帽、纸面罩和护目镜。

We exited through a side door, and a press officer pointed to a metal staircase attached to the side of the building. It was about 40 degrees outside (5 degrees Celsius) and windy. The roof was nine flights up.

我们从一个侧门出来,一名官方发言人指着建筑物外侧的金属楼梯。室外温度为5摄氏度,刮着大风。上屋顶要爬九段楼梯。

Climbing while breathing into a bulky mask made me feel lightheaded. Veda, who was carrying her camera, said she thought she might pass out.

戴着笨重的面罩爬楼,让我感到头晕眼花。维达还背着相机,她觉得自己要晕倒了。

The wind was biting on the roof. Veda and Ko were outfitted with weighted belts so they wouldn’t fall off or fly away while shooting with their cameras.

屋顶刮着刺骨的寒风。维达和佐佐木光戴着加重腰带,这样他们用相机拍照时就不会掉下去或被风卷走了。

It was a good place to start our tour, to give us a visceral sense of the scale of the cleanup. In every direction, we could see the tanks (1,000 in total) that contain contaminated water, as well as the sea that had wreaked so much damage on the plant that March day in 2011.

这是开始行程的好地方,让我们对清理规模有了一个直观的印象。在每个方向上,我们都可以看到装有被污染的水的水池(总共1000个),还有2011年3月那天给工厂造成如此大破坏的大海。

After climbing down from the roof, we loaded onto a bus with grimy windows and duct-taped seats. A Tokyo Electric employee held up a large Geiger counter to monitor radiation levels as we bumped along the roads winding around the reactors where the meltdowns occurred.

从屋顶下来,我们坐上一辆巴士,它的窗户落满了灰尘,座位用胶布缠了起来。当我们沿着发生熔毁的反应堆周围的道路颠簸前进时,东电的一个员工拿着一个大型的盖革计数器,监测辐射水平。

We were allowed to get out briefly about 80 meters from Reactor 3, where the monitor spiked to show radiation of 260 microsieverts per hour. (Microsieverts measure the health effects of low levels of radiation on the human body.) At that level, if we stood still in that spot for 16 days straight without any protection, we could be exposed to enough radiation to increase our risk of cancer.

我们获准在3号反应堆的80米外做短暂停留,在那里,辐射量显示器上的数字猛增到每小时260微西弗(微西弗是测量低水平的辐射对人体健康影响的单位)。在那个水平上,如果我们静止不动地站在那个地方16天,没有任何保护,我们可能就会暴露在足够多的辐射中,导致患癌风险增加。

To see as much of the cleanup as possible, we had asked for permission to go into the building that houses a large pool where spent nuclear fuel rods are stored.

为了尽可能多地看到清理的情况,我们要求进入存放乏燃料棒的大水池所在的那个建筑。

For that, we were ushered into a parked trailer, where we donned thick paper hazmat suits with hoods over our winter coats; two pairs of socks; cotton gloves covered by two pairs of rubber gloves; paper head covers and hard hats; filtered gas masks, and rubber boots. As we marched off to the spent-fuel pool, we looked like padded body doubles on the “Ghostbusters” set.

为此,我们被带到一个停放的房车里,在冬季大衣外面穿上了厚厚的纸质连帽防护服;两双袜子;两双橡胶手套加一双棉手套;纸头罩和安全帽;过滤防毒面罩和橡胶靴。我们走向乏燃料池时,看起来像《捉鬼敢死队》(Ghostbusters)里穿着衬垫的替身演员。

After we entered the spent-fuel building, we changed out of the boots we had worn to walk there and put on another pair to go inside.

进入存放乏燃料的那幢建筑后,我们脱掉路上穿的那双靴子,换上了另一双。

Once in the large room with the pool, which was dark and spookily quiet, Tepco officials debated among themselves what, exactly, Veda and Ko could photograph or film. It seemed an odd time to have that discussion.

一走进乏燃料池所在的那个大房间——那里很黑,安静得令人心悸——东电的官员们之间开始争论维达和佐佐木光具体能拍摄什么。这时候才讨论这个问题似乎很奇怪。

A sign next to the pool warned visitors not to get too close to the edge, and, rather absurdly, to hold the hands of any children.

池子旁边的牌子警告访客不要太靠近池边,荒唐的是,它还警告要拉着孩子的手。

Veda approached the side of the pool. “Please don’t drop your camera in the water,” a press officer cautioned. I am pretty sure she was entirely sincere underneath her mask.

维达走近池边。“请不要把相机掉到水里,”一名新闻官员警告说。我相当肯定她面具下的脸肯定是真诚的。

We finished the rest of our tour on the bus. After we returned to the main building to take off our gear, most of which went into the garbage, we returned to the radiation scanners and checked our personal dosimeters. After about five hours touring the plant, all four of us had absorbed 30 microsieverts or less of radiation, about .06 percent of the annual allowable dose for workers.

剩下的旅程是在巴士上完成的。我们返回主楼脱掉防护装备后——那些装备大多进了垃圾堆——再次用辐射扫描仪测量个人暴露剂量。在工厂参观约五小时后,我们四个人都吸收了30微西弗或更少的辐射,大约是工人年允许剂量的0.06%。

That night I emailed the security consultant again with a report on our visit and a question about whether we should throw away our shoes and the clothes we’d worn underneath our hazmat suits. Despite his reply — “NO NEED TO THROW OUT” — I had lingering fears.

那天晚上,我给安全顾问发了一封邮件,汇报我们的访问情况,并询问我们是否应该丢弃防护服里面穿的鞋子和衣服。尽管他回答说“完全没必要扔掉”,我还是心有余悸。

That feeling stayed with me the next day as we toured several evacuated towns and filmed in abandoned neighborhoods. I could understand why so many people are still afraid to return, even as scientists reassure them that the radiation has declined to safe levels.

第二天,我们参观了几个被疏散的城镇,拍摄被遗弃的社区,这种感觉依然存在。我可以理解为什么那么多人依然不敢回来,尽管科学家向他们保证,辐射已经降至安全水平。

My heart broke to see all that was left behind. Peering into the windows of one family home, I could see piles of clothes, books, DVDs and magazines. In the living room, a stuffed pink bunny lay on a coffee table. In the kitchen, a little girl’s first-grade calligraphy prize, dated 2008, still hung on the wall, next to a photograph of a boy in his baseball uniform.

看着那些被留下的东西,我感到心碎。透过一个家庭的窗户,我能看见成堆的衣服、书籍、DVD和杂志。在客厅里,一个粉色毛绒兔躺在咖啡桌上。在厨房里,一个小女孩2008年上一年级时获得的书法奖状还挂在墙上,旁边挂着一个男孩穿着棒球服的照片。

And out in the back garden, a yuzu tree bloomed with ripe orange fruit.

在后院里,一棵香橙树结满了成熟的果实。

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