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福岛的鬼城,回不去的家

更新时间:2017-3-15 11:41:40 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Lonely Towns of Fukushima
福岛的鬼城,回不去的家

Thousands of people fled from their homes, offices and schools six years ago after a devastating earthquake and tsunami caused a meltdown at a nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. To this day, few have returned, leaving behind ghost towns where eerie signs of the departed linger under a caking of dust.

六年前,毁灭性的地震和海啸导致日本福岛核电站发生熔融事故,令成千上万人逃离家园、办公室和学校。如今几乎没有人能够回来,留下一座座鬼城,灰尘笼罩着废墟,出现了种种奇异恐怖的迹象。

Tomioka, a little more than six miles south of the Fukushima Daiichi plant, was home to 15,830 people before the accident. They left in a hurry. At this ramen restaurant on the main road through town, dishes were left in the sink.

事故发生前,距离福岛第一核电站以南6英里处的富冈町有15830人居住。他们匆匆离开了。贯穿镇子的主干道上有一家拉面馆,可以看到就餐器皿被留在水槽里。

Some towns, like most of Futaba, just four miles from the nuclear plant, may never be reoccupied. Wandering its deserted streets, catching a glimpse of a piece of a child’s artwork here, a worker’s old Rolodex file there, I am hit by an unstinting sense of loss and devastation.

双叶町的大部分地区距离核电厂只有四英里,可能永远不会再被居住,其他一些镇子也是这样。徘徊在双叶町荒无人烟的街道上,我瞥见一个孩子的艺术作品,还有一个工人的旧文件夹,巨大的丧失感和受创感震撼着我。

Evidence of sudden flight is everywhere. The earthquake shook an elementary school so vigorously that students could not even stay standing. When the children left, they assumed they would return a few days later. Instead, they left and never came back.

仓促逃离的迹象无处不在。地震强烈地撼动了一座小学,学生当时甚至无法站立。当孩子们离开时,他们认为几天后就能回来了。相反,他们离开后就再也没有回来过。

The portraits of past principals lay scattered on the floor, the forgotten history of an abandoned school.

历任校长们的肖像散落在地上,这是废弃的学校被遗忘的历史。

Most of the 21,434 people who lived in the town of Namie have put down roots elsewhere. They are now asking that the town simply demolish their homes. A little over 800 houses and shops have been knocked down already; another 1,280 are on a waiting list.

住在浪江町的21434名居民大多数已在别处落地生根。他们现在只是要求镇上把他们的家园拆掉。有800多座房子和商店已经被拆除;另有1280座还在轮候名单上。

In Tomioka, I met Chiharu Matsumoto, 68, a former resident who volunteers at a rest center in town for people returning just to clean out or get things from their homes. She lives in a city to the west now and said she did not plan to move back. Her grown children have not visited Tomioka since evacuating after the disaster. “They do not know how much radiation they might receive,” she said.

在富冈町,我走访了68岁的松本原幸(Chiharu Matsumoto,音),她在市内的一个支持中心做志愿者,该中心的目的是帮助那些从家里清理东西或者取回物品的人们。她现在住在西边的一个城市,并说自己没有计划搬回来。她成年的孩子们自灾难撤离后便没有再回富冈看过。“他们不知道自己可能受到多少辐射,”她说。

The government says it will be safe for residents to return in April. So far, 304 people have moved back on temporary permits. With so few people returning, it makes little sense for many commercial operations to restart. Many of the convenience stores, restaurants and pachinko gambling parlors, like this one, have yet to be cleaned up or repaired.

政府说,到4月,居民就可以安全回家。到目前为止,有304人已经持临时许可证回来。由于回来的人太少,许多商业运营也没有必要重新启动。许多便利店、餐馆和弹子球赌场,比如这一个,还没有被清理或修缮。

Some scientists say radiation in many towns has fallen to levels that should not cause long-term health problems; others ask whether even low doses are safe. But “the situation is much beyond science,” said Dr. Otsura Niwa, chairman of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, who has conducted extensive sampling in Fukushima since the disaster. “It’s the human element which is playing the biggest role,” he said.

一些科学家说,许多城镇的辐射已经下降到不会导致长期健康问题的水平;其他人还在询问是否低剂量辐射也是安全的。但是,“情况远远超出了科学范畴,”广岛辐射效应研究基金会主席丹羽太贯(Otsura Niwa)博士说,自灾难发生以来,他在福岛进行了大量采样。“人的因素发挥着最大的作用,”他说。

The people most likely to return are the elderly. Ichiro Tagawa, 77, moved back to Namie on a special permit in September and reopened the bicycle repair shop that has been in his family for 80 years. “I am so old I don’t really care about the radiation levels,” he said, “and in fact it is very low.”

最有可能返回的人是老人。77岁的田川一郎(Ichiro Tagawa,音)于9月持特别许可证搬回浪江,重新开放了自家已有80年的自行车维修店。“我太老了,我真的不在乎辐射水平,”他说,“事实上辐射水平也是非常低的。”

Another reason he wanted to return was to be near his family’s grave sites. One large cemetery near the coastline was heavily damaged by the tsunami.

他回来的另一个原因是想靠近家人的坟墓。海岸线附近的一个大型墓地遭到海啸严重破坏。

“We want to visit our ancestors’ graves,” Mr. Tagawa said. “But we are living in a very lonely town.”

“我们想拜祭先人的坟墓,”田川说。“但我们住在一个非常孤独的小镇。”

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