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更新时间:2017-3-11 8:03:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

South Korea Removes President Park Geun-hye

SEOUL, South Korea — A South Korean court ousted the president on Friday, a first in the nation’s history, rattling the delicate balance of relationships across Asia at a particularly tense time.


Her removal capped months of turmoil, as hundreds of thousands of South Koreans took to the streets, week after week, to protest a sprawling corruption scandal that shook the top echelons of business and government.


Park Geun-hye, the nation’s first female president and the daughter of the Cold War military dictator Park Chung-hee, had been an icon of the conservative establishment that joined Washington in pressing for a hard line against North Korea’s nuclear provocations.

作为这个国家的首位女性总统、冷战期间的军事独裁者朴正熙(Park Chung-hee)的女儿,朴槿惠一直是保守建制派的一个象征。她与华盛顿携手施压,要求对朝鲜的核挑衅行为采取强硬立场。

Now, her downfall is expected to shift South Korean politics to the opposition, whose leaders want more engagement with North Korea and are wary of a major confrontation in the region. They say they will re-examine the country’s joint strategy on North Korea with the United States and defuse tensions with China, which has sounded alarms about the growing American military footprint in Asia.


Ms. Park’s powers were suspended in December after a legislative impeachment vote, though she continued to live in the presidential Blue House, largely alone and hidden from public view, while awaiting the decision by the Constitutional Court. The house had been her childhood home: She first moved in at the age of 9 and left it an orphan nearly two decades later after her mother and father were assassinated in separate episodes.


With the immunity conferred by her office now gone, Ms. Park, 65, faces prosecutors seeking to charge her with bribery, extortion and abuse of power in connection with allegations of conspiring with a confidante, her childhood friend Choi Soon-sil, to collect tens of millions of dollars in bribes from big businesses like Samsung.

随着与职务对应的豁免权的丧失,65岁的朴槿惠面临起诉。检方试图指控她受贿、敲诈勒索和滥用权力,这与另一些指控有关,即她与童年好友、闺蜜崔顺实(Choi Soon-sil)合谋从三星等大公司收取数千万美元贿赂。

By law, the country must elect a new president within 60 days. The acting president, Hwang Kyo-ahn, an ally of Ms. Park’s, will remain in office in the interim. The Trump administration is rushing a missile defense system to South Korea so that it can be in place before the election.

依据法律,这个国家必须在60天内选出一位新总统。在此期间,朴槿惠的盟友、代理总统黃教安(Hwang Kyo-ahn)会继续留任。特朗普政府在急着将一套导弹防御系统运往韩国,以便能赶能在选举之前将它部署到位。

The last time a South Korean leader was removed from office under popular pressure was in 1960, when the police fired on crowds calling for President Syngman Rhee to step down. (Mr. Rhee, a dictator, fled into exile in Hawaii and died there.)

韩国总统上一次迫于公众压力被免职是在1960年,当时警方曾向要求李承晚(Syngman Rhee)下台的民众开枪。(独裁者李承晚流亡至夏威夷,在那里去世。)

In a sign of how far South Korea’s young democracy has evolved, Ms. Park was removed without any violence, after large, peaceful protests in recent months demanding that she step down. In addition to the swell of popular anger, the legislature and the judiciary — two institutions that have been weaker than the presidency historically — were crucial to the outcome.


“This is a miracle, a new milestone in the strengthening and institutionalizing of democracy in South Korea,” said Kang Won-taek, a political scientist at Seoul National University.

“这是一个奇迹,在加强韩国的民主和将之制度化方面堪称一个新的里程碑,”首尔大学(Seoul National University)政治学家姜元泽 (Kang Won-taek)说。

When crowds took to the streets, they were not just seeking to remove a leader who had one year left in office. They were also rebelling against a political order that had held South Korea together for decades but is now fracturing under pressures both at home and abroad, analysts said.


Ms. Park’s father ruled South Korea from 1961 to 1979. He founded its economic growth model, which transformed the nation into an export powerhouse and allowed the emergence of family-controlled conglomerates known as chaebol that benefited from tax cuts, anti-labor policies and other benefits from the government.


Ms. Park was elected in 2012 with the support of older conservative South Koreans who revered her father for the country’s breakneck economic growth.


But the nexus of industry and political power gave rise to collusive ties, highlighted by the scandal that led to Ms. Park’s impeachment.


The scandal also swept up the de facto head of Samsung, Lee Jae-yong, who was indicted on charges of bribing Ms. Park and her confidante, Ms. Choi.

受这起丑闻波及的还有三星实际上的掌门人李在镕(Lee Jae-yong),他被控向朴槿惠及其心腹崔顺实行贿。

Samsung, the nation’s largest conglomerate, has been tainted by corruption before. But the company has been considered too important to the economy for any of its top leaders to spend time behind bars — until now. The jailing of Mr. Lee, who is facing trial, is another potent sign that the old order is not holding.


In the wake of the Park scandal, all political parties have vowed to curtail presidential power to pardon chaebol tycoons convicted of white-collar crimes. They also promised to stop chaebol chairmen from helping their children amass fortunes through dubious means, like forcing their companies to do exclusive business with the children’s businesses.


With the conservatives discredited — and no leading conservative candidate to succeed Ms. Park — the left could take power for the first time in a decade.


The dominant campaign issues will probably be North Korea’s nuclear weapons program and South Korea’s relations with the United States and China.


If the opposition takes power, it may try to revive its old “sunshine policy” of building ties with North Korea through aid and exchanges, an approach favored by China. That would complicate Washington’s efforts to isolate the North at a time other Asian nations like the Philippines are gravitating toward Beijing.


Moon Jae-in, the Democratic Party leader who is leading in opinion surveys, has said that a decade of applying sanctions on North Korea has failed to stop its nuclear weapons programs. He has said that sanctions are necessary, but that “their goal should be to draw North Korea back to the negotiating table.”

在民调中领先的民主党领袖文在寅(Moon Jae-in)表示,长达十年的对朝制裁未能阻止其实施核武器计划。他说制裁措施是必要的,但“它们的目标应该是把朝鲜拉回谈判桌旁”。

He believes that Ms. Park’s decision to allow the deployment of the American missile defense system — known as Terminal High Altitude Area Defense, or Thaad — has dragged the country into the dangerous and growing rivalry between Washington and Beijing; China has called the system a threat to its own security and taken steps to punish South Korea economically for accepting it.

他认为,朴槿惠同意部署美国导弹防御系统,也就是末段高空区域防御系统(Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense,简称“萨德”)的决定,把韩国拖入了华盛顿和北京之间日益升级的危险对峙;中国称这一系统对自己的安全构成了威胁,并已采取措施在经济上惩罚同意部署该系统的韩国。

Conservative South Koreans see the deployment of the antimissile system not only as a guard against the North but also as a symbolic reaffirmation of the all-important alliance with the United States. Mr. Moon’s party demands that the deployment, which began this week, be suspended immediately. If it takes power, it says it will review the deployment of the antimissile system to determine if it is in South Korea’s best interest.


As South Korea has learned in painful fashion, it cannot always keep Washington and Beijing happy at the same time, as in the case of the country’s decision to deploy the American missile defense system.


Yet Ms. Park’s impeachment was also a pushback against “Cold War conservatives” like her father, who seized on Communist threats from North Korea to silence political opponents and hide their corruption, said Kim Dong-choon, a sociologist at Sungkonghoe University in Seoul.

但首尔圣公会大学(Sungkonghoe University)的社会学家金东椿(Kim Dong-choon,音)表示,对朴槿惠的弹劾,也是对她父亲那样的“秉持冷战思维的保守派人士”的一次抗议——他们曾利用来自朝鲜的共产主义威胁让政治对手噤声,并掩盖其腐败行径。

Ms. Park’s father tortured and even executed dissidents, framing them with spying charges. Now, his daughter faces charges that her government blacklisted thousands of unfriendly artists and writers, branding them pro-North Korean, and denied them access to government support programs.


“Her removal means that the curtain is finally drawing on the authoritarian political and economic order that has dominated South Korea for decades,” said Ahn Byong-jin, rector of the Global Academy for Future Civilizations at Kyung Hee University in Seoul.

“她被罢免意味着主导韩国数十年的威权式政治经济秩序正在退场,”首尔庆熙大学(Kyung Hee University)全球未來文明学院(Global Academy for Future Civilizations)院长安炳镇(Ahn Byong-jin,音)说。

Analysts cautioned that political and economic change will come slowly.


As Mr. Moon put it recently: “We need a national cleanup. We need to liquidate the old system and build a new South Korea. Only then can we complete the revolution started by the people who rallied with candlelight.”