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苏州山寨“伦敦塔桥”引发的尴尬与反思

更新时间:2017-3-5 11:53:52 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

10 White Houses, 4 Arcs de Triomphe, 2 Sphinxes ... Now China’s Tower Bridge Attracts Scorn
苏州山寨“伦敦塔桥”引发的尴尬与反思

BEIJING — China has at least 10 White Houses, four Arcs de Triomphe, a couple of Great Sphinxes and at least one Eiffel Tower.

北京——中国至少有10座“白宫”、四座“凯旋门”、两座“狮身人面像”和至少一座“艾菲尔铁塔”。

Now a version of London’s Tower Bridge in the eastern Chinese city of Suzhou has rekindled a debate over China’s rush to copy foreign landmarks, as the country rethinks decades of urban experimentation that has produced an extraordinary number of knockoffs of world-renowned structures.

现在,在中国东部的苏州,一座山寨的伦敦塔桥(Tower Bridge)重新激起了关于中国热衷于复制外国地标建筑的争论;几十年来的城市实验已经产生了非常多的世界知名建筑山寨版,中国正在对此进行反思。

This week, photographs of the bridge were posted online by various news outlets. One headline proclaimed: “Suzhou’s Amazing ‘London Tower Bridge’: Even More Magnificent Than the Real One.”

本周,这座桥的照片出现在了各新闻媒体的网站上。其中一个标题是《苏州惊现山寨“伦敦塔桥”:比真的更宏伟》

Indeed. Suzhou’s urban planners had clearly stepped up their game. The bridge, completed in 2012, has four towers — compared with the two spanning the Thames in London — making room for a multilane road.

确实如此。苏州的城市规划师们明显做了一些升级扩建,这座2012年竣工的桥梁有四座塔楼,为多车道提供了空间——而伦敦泰晤士河畔的塔桥只有两座塔楼。

Cars and pedestrians crowd the bridge and its observation platforms. At night, the towers are bathed in blue and yellow light. Not surprisingly, it has also attracted couples eager for a European sheen to their wedding photographs.

汽车和行人挤在这座桥梁和它的观景台上。晚上,塔楼笼罩在蓝色和黄色的灯光下。它吸引了一些热衷于拍摄欧式婚纱照的夫妇也就不足为奇了。

Suzhou, in the eastern province of Jiangsu, is probably most famous for its ancient gardens and tranquil waterside views. Often called the Venice of the East, it features some of China’s most exquisite traditional architecture, with whitewashed courtyard houses and meandering walkways above lotus-carpeted ponds. (The Astor Chinese Garden Court at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York was modeled after a house in Suzhou.)

苏州位于江苏省东部,最有名的也许是它的古代园林和宁静水景。它常常被称为东方的威尼斯,中国一些最精致的传统建筑就在这里,它们有白色的庭院建筑,荷花池上蜿蜒的步道(纽约大都会艺术博物馆的艾斯特中国庭院,就是仿造的苏州一处建筑)。

Nevertheless, Suzhou, too, has joined the scramble of Chinese cities in recent years to erect clones of famous foreign structures, partly as publicity stunts and partly to attract business.

然而,苏州近年来也加入了中国城市争相仿制著名外国建筑的潮流,这么做部分是宣传噱头,部分是为了吸引生意。

Not everyone approves. Online comments about the Suzhou bridge have been scathing.

不是每个人都赞成这种做法。网上对苏州这座桥的评论相当尖刻。

“Piracy!” wrote one.

“盗版!”一个用户写道。

“Embarrassing,” wrote another.

“尴尬,”另一个写道。

Li Yingwu, president of the OAD architecture firm in Beijing, called the bridge outright plagiarism and questioned the decision to build it in a city with its own rich architectural heritage.

北京OAD建筑设计事务所的总裁李颖悟称,这座桥是彻头彻尾的剽窃,他对于一座拥有如此丰富建筑遗产的城市做出这样的决定表示了质疑。

“I was really surprised that it got built in Suzhou, because it has preserved its culture really well,” Mr. Li said in an interview. “It shows that local officials lack confidence in their own culture. They don’t understand that architecture essentially is about culture. It’s not merely an object.”

“这个建在苏州我感到非常吃惊,因为苏州的文化算保护得很好的,”李颖悟在接受采访时说。“这说明了当地官员对自己的文化没有自信。他们不明白建筑说到底是和文化相关,它们并不是简单的物品。”

A commentary on Monday on JSChina.com.cn, a news site of the Jiangsu provincial government, read, “We don’t have any reason to give a thumbs-up to the replicated iconic building, and all Chinese architects need to reflect on this.”

周一,江苏省政府的新闻网站中国江苏网JSChina.com.cn发表评论说:“面对这样的山寨地标性建筑,我们没有理由为它点赞;我们中国所有的建筑设计师应当进行深刻反思。”

The copy, it said, would impede the promotion of traditional Chinese culture.

它说,这种山寨品将阻碍中国传统文化的推广。

According to Cheng Taining, an architect at the Chinese Academy of Engineering, many officials see foreign designs as shortcuts to achieving a look of modernity and worldliness.

据中国工程院的建筑学家程泰宁说,很多官员认为外国设计是通往现代性和国际范儿的捷径。

“Chinese officials like foreign things they’ve seen,’’ Mr. Cheng told Beijing News in 2015. “They will tell you ‘Please design a building that looks like that building overseas.’ That’s obvious in the numerous cloned buildings in China. Officials believe building a ‘White House’ or a ‘European-style’ street confers status.’’

“领导喜欢看过的国外的东西,”程泰宁2015年告诉《新京报》。“他会跟你说‘你给我设计像国外的某个建筑’。你看在中国遍地开花的山寨建筑就知道了,盖个‘白宫’,盖个欧式街区,领导觉得这个很有身份。”

It’s unclear why the Suzhou bridge, which has been in place for years, has suddenly attracted a burst of attention. But the criticism it has been receiving is in line with President Xi Jinping’s calls for a greater emphasis on China’s cultural legacy.

苏州的这座桥建成已经好几年,不清楚为什么它突然引起了人们的注意。但是它遭到的批评与习近平主席对进一步突显中国文化遗产的呼吁是一致的。

In a speech in 2014, Mr. Xi called for a halt to “weird buildings,” an appeal echoed last year when the State Council, China’s cabinet, denounced urban architecture that was “oversize, eccentric, weird” in favor of buildings that are “appropriate, economical, green and pleasing to the eye.”

在2014年的一次讲话中,习近平呼吁不要再修建“奇奇怪怪的建筑”。去年,国务院又谴责了修建“贪大、媚洋、求怪,特色缺失和文化传承堪忧”建筑物的做法,提倡“适用、经济、绿色、美观”的方针。

In December, in a speech before the Association of Literature and Art and the Chinese Writers’ Association, Mr. Xi called on artists to “consolidate confidence in Chinese culture.’’

去年12月,习近平在中国文学艺术界联合会和中国作家协会的发言中,呼吁艺术家“增强对中国文化的信心”。

The Suzhou bridge was commissioned by the city’s Xiangcheng district government around 2008, according to an employee at the Suzhou Municipal Engineering Design Institute, which built the bridge, who answered the telephone but declined to give her name. Local officials did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

这座桥由苏州市工程设计院建造,该院一名拒绝透露姓名的工作人员在电话中表示,这座桥是由相城区政府委托修建的。地方官员没有立即回应置评请求。

“I think the bridge was built just to be decorative,’’ said Zhou Qian, 36, who works at a construction company a block away from the bridge. “It doesn’t have a real use.”

“我觉得这座桥是为了装饰而修建的,它没有真正的用途。”36岁的周前(音)说。他在一家建筑公司工作,距离这座桥仅一个街区。

The version of the Tower Bridge is just one of 56 copycat bridges in Suzhou. Others include versions of the Sydney Harbor Bridge in Australia and the Alexandre III Bridge in Paris. The Western-looking structures were reportedly part of an attempt to brand Xiangcheng district as an international trade and finance center.

这座山寨的塔桥只是苏州的56座仿制桥之一。其他还包括澳大利亚的悉尼海港大桥(Sydney Harbor Bridge)和巴黎的亚历山大三世桥(Alexandre III Bridge)。据说修建这些西式建筑,是把相城区打造为国际贸易和金融中心的一部分。

Certainly, the bridge has advanced some commercial endeavors. Studios specializing in wedding photographs in Suzhou have flourished.

当然,这座桥确实推进了一些商业活动。苏州专门从事婚纱摄影的工作室的生意就很兴隆。

“The effects in the bridge shoot will be quite good, and you don’t even need to go abroad!” said a woman who answered the phone at a Suzhou studio that offers Tower Bridge wedding shoots. She gave only her surname, Su.

“桥上照出来的照片效果非常好,而且你也不用去国外!”苏州一所拍摄塔桥婚纱照的工作室接电话的女士表示。她只透露自己姓苏。

The site’s popularity is reflected in local news reports about the number of traffic accidents caused by wedding shoots at the bridge.

在当地的一些新闻报道上可以看到这个地点的受欢迎程度:在桥上拍婚纱照引发了不少的交通事故。

Even 95 miles away in Shanghai, a studio is offering a tour package with wedding photographs at Suzhou’s Tower Bridge, with a price tag of 19,999 renminbi, about $2,900.

甚至是95英里之外的上海,一家工作室也在提供苏州塔桥婚纱旅游套餐,价格为19999人民币。

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