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特朗普退出TPP,劳工权益或成牺牲品

更新时间:2017-3-2 18:35:16 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Workers Who Regret Trump’s Scrapping of a Trade Deal
特朗普退出TPP,劳工权益或成牺牲品

HO CHI MINH CITY, Vietnam — Do Thi Minh Hanh, a labor activist, had grown accustomed to being beaten, hospitalized and jailed for her work in a country where independent trade unions are banned.

越南胡志明市——在这个禁止独立工会的国家,劳工活动人士杜氏明杏(Do Thi Minh Hanh)已习惯了遭殴打、入院治疗,以及坐牢。

So it gave her hope for a reprieve when Vietnam reached a trade deal with the United States and other countries that called for its members to bolster workers’ rights and protect independent unions.

因此,当越南与美国以及其他国家达成一个贸易协议,要求成员国支持工人的权利、保护独立工会时,她看到了情况缓解的希望。

That hope fizzled in late January, when President Trump pulled the United States out of the trade deal, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, with the stroke of a pen.

但这个希望在今年1月下旬破灭了,因为特朗普总统大笔一挥,让美国撤出了这个“跨太平洋伙伴关系协定”(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)。

“The Vietnamese government will use this as an excuse to suppress the labor movement,” Ms. Hanh said. “They never wanted to have independent unions in Vietnam.”

“越南政府将以此为理由,继续压制劳工运动,”杜氏明杏说。“他们从来不希望越南有独立的工会。”

That labor-rights promise has become collateral damage as the United States turns inward under Mr. Trump. As the new president vows to rip up or rethink relations with trading partners, he could also abandon accompanying pledges the United States has won from other countries to protect workers’ rights and the environment.

随着美国在特朗普任内转向关注本国事务,对劳工权利的承诺也连带受到损害。鉴于特朗普誓言要推倒或者重新考虑美国与贸易伙伴的关系,他可能也会放弃美国从其他国家获得的关于保护工人权利及环境的相关承诺。

Critics of the labor and environmental protections in the T.P.P. and other trade agreements consider them a political sop that amount to unenforceable window dressing. Still, America’s new trade retreat could allow countries like China to set the terms of global commerce.

有些人批评TPP和其他贸易协议中关于劳动和环境保护的规定是政治安慰品,是无法执行的橱窗布置。然而美国撤出这个贸易协议,可能会让中国这样的国家获得制定全球商业条款的机会。

For example, America’s withdrawal from T.P.P. paves the way for China to advance its own Asian free-trade deal, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. The China-led deal, said Rajiv Biswas, the Asia-Pacific chief economist at IHS Global Insight, “is less ambitious in its scope of coverage, and does not include major reforms to labor protection standards.”

例如,美国从TPP中撤出,给中国推进自己的亚洲自由贸易协定“区域全面经济伙伴关系”铺平了道路。环球通视(IHS Global Insight)亚太首席经济学家拉吉夫·比斯瓦斯(Rajiv Biswas)说,中国牵头的这个协议“在涵盖范围上没有那么雄心勃勃,并且不要求在劳动保护标准上进行重大改革”。

American negotiators in recent years have added labor and environmental protections to trade deals as anti-globalization sentiment rose in the United States. Over the past 24 years, the United States has struck 13 free-trade agreements covering 19 countries that include worker and environmental protections. In most cases, the deals merely call for the countries to follow their own laws.

随着美国的反全球化情绪高涨,美国谈判者近年来为贸易协定增加了劳动和环境保护内容。在过去24年中,美国已经达成了13项对工人和环境保护有要求的自由贸易协定,涵盖19个国家。在大多数情况下,这些协定仅仅是呼吁各国遵守自己的法律。

Supporters of these measures argue that they can have an impact. Following the American example, the European Union has started adding similar requirements to its trade deals. American negotiators have also strengthened the language somewhat in more recent trade deals, including the T.P.P.

这种做法的支持者认为,它确实可以产生影响。欧盟已经开始效仿美国的做法,在自己的贸易协定里增加类似的要求。美国谈判者最近也在更多的贸易协定中多少强化了这些立场,包括TPP。

Those agreements had “real teeth in terms of trade sanctions” said David A. Gantz, a law professor at the University of Arizona in Tucson who is an expert on international trade agreements. “They might have made a real difference had T.P.P. gone forward.”

位于图森的亚利桑那大学法学教授戴维·A·甘兹(David A. Gantz)是国际贸易协定方面的专家,他说,这些协议“在贸易制裁方面具有切实的意义”,“如果TPP继续推进,它们可能已经产生了切实效果”。

He added, “These provisions in U.S. free-trade agreements can be more than fig leaves, but with an important caveat: The U.S. government in particular has to be willing to be active in enforcing them.”

他还说,“美国自由贸易协定中的这些条款可以超越装饰品的作用,但一个重要提醒是:美国政府尤其得有强烈的执行意愿才行。”

That can be tough, given that the country on the other end of the treaty may have to pass new laws to comply, labor groups say.

劳工组织说,这可能会很困难,因为协定另一方的国家若是要遵守协议相关条款,恐怕得先通过一些新的法律。

“Any trade agreement must have strong labor provisions to mitigate a race to the bottom,” said Sharon Waxman, the president of the Fair Labor Association. “But what we find is that trade agreements are often wrongly viewed as a substitute for national laws that protect workers’ rights and ensure they are compensated fairly.”

“任何贸易协定都必须带有强有力的劳工条款,以减少向下竞争的现象。”公平劳工协会(Fair Labor Association)主席沙伦·韦克斯曼(Sharon Waxman)说:“但是我们发现,贸易协定常常被错误地视为一种替代品,用来代替保护工人权利、确保他们获得公平报酬的国家法律。”

In a 10-page side agreement, the T.P.P. would have required Vietnam to criminalize the use of forced labor and broaden enforcement to apply to cases of debt bondage. On labor unions, workers would be allowed to form their own grass-roots unions that could bargain collectively and lead strikes. Vietnam has started drafting some of these changes but timing on their execution is uncertain, said Oliver Massmann, a partner at the law firm Duane Morris Vietnam. A separate trade agreement between Vietnam and the European Union will also target labor conditions when it takes effect in January, but it lacks the stronger enforcement measures of the T.P.P.

在一份长达10页的补充协议中,TPP要求越南将强迫劳动定为刑事犯罪,并将扩大执法以适用于债役案件。关于工会,工人将可以形成自己的基层工会,进行集体谈判并领导罢工。越南杜安—莫里斯律师事务所(Duane Morris Vietnam)的合伙人奥利弗·马斯曼(Oliver Massmann)表示,越南已开始起草一些法律变更,但执行时间尚不确定。越南和欧盟之间的单独贸易协定将在明年1月生效,它也包含针对劳动条件的内容,但缺乏TPP那种更加强有力的执行措施。

Vietnam’s economy has taken off as China’s labor costs have risen, sending factory owners to look for cheaper labor elsewhere. Labor activists say many of its factories have improved from the blatant sweatshops that prevailed in the 1990s, prompting companies like Nike to impose monitoring and compliance standards on suppliers in Vietnam.

随着中国劳动力成本升高,工厂所有者前往其他地方寻找更便宜的劳动力,越南的经济已经开始起飞。劳工活动人士表示,很多工厂的前身都是1990年代盛行的那种赤裸裸的血汗工厂,这促使像耐克这样的公司给越南供应商制定了监管和合规标准。

Still, Vietnam remains plagued with labor problems. A 2015 survey of its garment industry found that most of the factories that were inspected suppressed independent unions and failed health and safety checks.

然而,越南仍然存在许多劳工问题。2015年对该国服装行业的一项调查发现,参加检查的大多数工厂都对独立工会进行压制,而且通不过健康和安全检查。

In Vietnam, organizing is done quietly. To pave the way for one strike at a shoe factory, a colleague spent weeks in the area talking to workers and building contacts. Ms. Hanh wrote fliers and taught a core group of workers how to organize and strike. She counts the resulting January 2010 strike of 10,000 workers as a victory because it resulted in big pay raises for workers, even though she and two of her colleagues were thrown in prison.

在越南,组织工作是悄然进行的。为了给一家鞋厂的罢工铺平道路,一位同事花了数周时间在该地区和工人交谈并建立联系。杜氏明杏写了传单,教一组核心工人如何组织和开展罢工。她将2010年1月的万名工人大罢工视为一大胜利,因为尽管她和两个同事被关进监狱,工人们获得了大幅加薪。

Released four years later, Ms. Hanh found grass-roots organizing had become much harder. She said she was often followed now, making it difficult to meet with timid workers. One of the last times she went to a worker protest, in late 2015, she was beaten by police. Now, she said, she devotes most of her time to campaigning on social media and raising concerns with big Western companies.

杜氏明杏在四年后获释,她发现基层组织工作变得更加困难了。她说自己现在经常被人跟踪,因此难以和胆小的工人见面。在她最后几次参加的工人抗议活动中,2015年年底的那一次她遭到了警察的殴打。她说,现在自己把大部分时间都用在社交媒体上开展宣传活动上,正在引起西方大企业的关注。

She was skeptical that local authorities would have complied with the toughest labor protections in T.P.P., adding that chances were good they would have sought out loopholes. Still, she says, the pact could have given her a tool to use when pushing labor issues with lawmakers and factory bosses alike.

她对于地方当局是否遵守TPP中最严格的劳动保护条款表示怀疑,觉得他们很可能会找到漏洞。不过她说,这个协议本来可以给她提供一个工具,便于她敦促立法者和工厂老板推动劳工问题的时候使用。

“I would have used the clause of T.P.P. about the right to form independent unions — unions that are not controlled by the company and the government,” she said.

“我本来可以使用TPP中关于组建独立工会权利的条款——这种工会不受公司和政府的控制,”她说。

“Maybe now because of Trump, our dream about independent unions in Vietnam has yet to come true,” she added. “But we will still try to help the workers, because if they fight alone they will not succeed.”

“也许现在是因为特朗普,我们对越南独立工会的梦想还没有实现,”她说。“但我们仍然会努力帮助工人,因为如果他们靠自己独自战斗,是不会成功的。”

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