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让华盛顿捉摸不透的特朗普

更新时间:2017-3-2 11:44:54 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Ever a Showman, Donald Trump Keeps Washington Guessing
让华盛顿捉摸不透的特朗普

WASHINGTON — The speech was written, the rollout strategy was set. And then President Trump began talking and the plan went out the window. Unless that was the plan all along.

华盛顿——演讲稿已写好,实施策略也定了。然后,特朗普总统一张嘴,原计划就被扔出窗外。搞不好这恰恰就是原计划。

When Mr. Trump sat down with television anchors at the White House for an off-the-record lunch on Tuesday, he was supposed to preview his first address to Congress. Instead, he suddenly opened the door to an immigration bill that would potentially let millions of undocumented immigrants stay in the country legally.

周二,当特朗普和电视节目主持人坐在白宫,一起吃非正式的午餐时,他本该提前演练一下要在国会发表的第一次演说。但他转而突然说起了一项移民议案。该议案可能会让数百万非法移民合法地留在美国。

Such legislation from the “build the wall” president would roil politics in the capital, and Mr. Trump told the anchors that nothing like that was actually in the speech as it was then drafted. But he turned to aides and suggested that maybe they should include it. After the lunch was over, aides rushed off to alert their colleagues, including Stephen K. Bannon and Stephen Miller, the architects of the president’s immigration crackdown.

从这位“修墙”总统嘴里说出来的这样一项立法,会震动首都政坛。特朗普对主持人表示,其实在当时起草的演讲稿中并没有这样的内容。但他转向助手,建议他们也许应该把这项内容放进演讲稿中。午餐结束后后,助手匆匆离开,去通知他们的同事,包括总统打击移民计划的设计师史蒂芬·K·班农(Stephen K. Bannon)和史蒂芬·米勒(Stephen Miller)。

Once again, the unlikeliest of presidents had torn up the script and thrown his young administration into upheaval. Once again, Washington was left trying to fathom what his strategy was. Was it mad genius, an improvisational leader proposing a Nixon-goes-to-China move to overhaul immigration after making a point of deporting “bad hombres”? Or was it simply madness, an undisciplined political amateur unable to resist telling guests what he thinks they want to hear even at the expense of his own political base?

这位最不可能成为总统的总统又一次撕碎演讲稿,让自己年轻的政府陷入了混乱。华盛顿又一次试图弄清楚他的战略是什么。是一个即兴发挥的疯狂天才在大谈驱逐“坏蛋”后,提出了一项堪比尼克松访华的举措,对移民政策进行大改革?还是仅仅是疯狂,不过是一个不守纪律的政治外行忍不住和客人说了自以为人家想听的内容,即便这么做背叛了他自己的核心支持者?

In the end, he did not include it in the speech. And yet, rising to the occasion, Mr. Trump on Tuesday night sounded as presidential as he ever has since taking office. He invoked Abraham Lincoln and Dwight D. Eisenhower, heralded Black History Month, condemned anti-Semitic vandalism, celebrated American entrepreneurs like Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison and promised a “renewal of the American spirit.” He followed the written text on the teleprompters more closely than any major speech of his presidency.

最终,他并没有把相关内容加进演讲里。但周二晚上,特朗普表现十分得体,是他上任以来最有总统风范的一次讲话。他提到亚伯拉罕·林肯(Abraham Lincoln)和德怀特·D·艾森豪威尔(Dwight D. Eisenhower)、谈及黑人历史月(Black History Month)即将到来、谴责反犹破坏活动、称赞亚历山大·格雷厄姆·贝尔(Alexander Graham Bell)和托马斯·爱迪生(Thomas Edison)等美国发明家,并承诺“复兴美国精神”。在他任内的所有重要讲话中,这是他最尊重提词器上的文字的一次。

Still, the paradox remained. He called for working “past the differences of party,” just hours after he called Representative Nancy Pelosi, the House Democratic leader from California, “incompetent.” He declared that “the time for trivial fights is behind us” just weeks after engaging in a public Twitter war with Arnold Schwarzenegger over the ratings for “Celebrity Apprentice.” He paid emotional tribute to a slain Navy SEAL on the same day he blamed his death on “the generals.”

但矛盾依然存在。他呼吁“放弃党派分歧”,但就在几个小时前,他还称来自加利福尼亚州的众议院民主党领袖南希·佩洛西(Nancy Pelosi)“无能”。他声称“进行鸡毛蒜皮的争斗的时候已经过去了”,但就在几周前,他还因《名人学徒》(Celebrity Apprentice)的评分而在Twitter上和阿诺德·施瓦辛格(Arnold Schwarzenegger)开战。他深情地缅怀了一名阵亡的海豹突击队员,但就在同一天,他将这位士兵的死归咎于“将军们”。

And then there was that immigration trial balloon. If nothing else, Donald Trump the showman kept the attention right where he wanted it — squarely on himself. By the time he took the rostrum in the House chamber on Tuesday night for the functional equivalent of a State of the Union address, he had generated considerable suspense around what he would actually say and how it would be received.

然后便是那番试探性的移民言论。别的说不好,至少爱出风头的唐纳德·特朗普把众人的注意力吸引到了他希望的地方——他自己。到他周二晚上走上众议院的讲台,发表在作用上相当于国情咨文演说的演讲时,他已经围绕他究竟会说什么,以及台下会作何反应制造了相当大的悬念。

As lawmakers strained to listen for a potential shift, Mr. Trump boasted of deporting “gang members, drug dealers and criminals,” saying that “bad ones are going out as I speak.” He introduced guests in the first lady’s box whose families had suffered at the hands of criminals in the country illegally.

在议员们竭尽全力地想听到潜在的转变期间,特朗普高声谈论着驱逐“黑帮成员、毒贩子和犯罪分子”,称“就在此时此刻,坏人正被赶出去”。他介绍了坐在第一夫人包厢里的嘉宾,他们的家人深受非法留在美国的犯罪分子之害。

But he talked about “reforming our system of legal immigration,” saying as he has before that the United States should base its admission of foreigners on merit. “I believe that real and positive immigration reform is possible as long as we focus on the following goals,” he added, “to improve jobs and wages for Americans, to strengthen our nation’s security and to restore respect for our laws.”

但他谈到了“改革我们的合法移民制度”,一如既往地称美国应该根据一个人的价值来接纳外国人。“我相信,只要我们把重点放在以下目标上,进行真正有益的移民改革是有可能的,”他接着说,“改善美国民众的就业和工资水平,加强我国的安全并恢复对法律的尊重。”

Whether this was all an intentional distraction remained unclear by the time he wrapped up and headed back down Pennsylvania Avenue. This is, after all, a White House that revels in what its current occupants refer to as the “head fake,” where the president gives the impression of moving one way when he is really moving in a completely different direction, even diverting attention from one controversy by creating another.

直到他结束演讲并沿宾夕法尼亚大道返回时,我们仍不能确定这一切是否是有意在分散注意力。这毕竟是一个陶醉在它目前的主人所说的“假动作”中的白宫。在这里,总统在让人觉得他要朝一个方向迈步时,他真正要走的其实是一个截然不同的方向。他甚至会为了转移对一场争论的关注而再制造一场争论。

That leaves allies and adversaries alike scratching their heads about what Mr. Trump really believes. In private discussions, a mystified Senator Mitch McConnell, the Republican majority leader from Kentucky, has said Mr. Trump appears uncertain about precisely where he stands on critical issues. Thus, many search for ways to influence a malleable president prone to spouting out off-the-cuff ideas depending on his audience.

这导致盟友和对手都摸不准特朗普的真实想法。在私下的讨论中,困惑不解的肯塔基州参议员、共和党多数党领袖米奇·麦康奈尔(Mitch McConnell)说,特朗普似乎不确定自己在关键问题上的立场到底是什么。因此,很多人试图想办法影响一位容易受人影响,并且容易因为听众的原因而大谈特谈即兴想法的总统。

Mr. Trump’s advisers have said privately that they wanted this speech to be more optimistic than his Inaugural Address, an 18-minute jeremiad against what he called “American carnage” and the establishment he blamed for it. Mr. Trump’s daughter Ivanka Trump has privately expressed concern about the harsh tone of her father’s rhetoric over many months.

特朗普的顾问在私底下表示,他们想让这次演讲比就职演说更乐观。在发表就职演说的18分钟里,特朗普悲观地指责他所谓的“美国浩劫”和他认为应对其负责的权势集团。特朗普的女儿伊万卡·特朗普(Ivanka Trump)也在私下里表示了对她父亲过去数月里的强硬语气的担忧。

No president in modern times had shown up for his first speech to Congress with approval ratings so low — just 42 percent in the latest Gallup poll. His 40 days of careening from one crisis to another, many of them self-created, had sowed deep doubts about his leadership not only among Democrats and independents but even among many Republicans. His challenge for this address was to move beyond these moments and establish himself as a president.

在盖洛普(Gallup)的最新民调中,特朗普的支持率仅为42%。现代历史上,没有哪位总统在首次对国会发表演讲时支持率如此之低。他上台后的40天里,危机此起彼伏,其中很多都是他自己造成的。这导致不仅是民主党人和无党派人士,就连很多共和党人也深深怀疑他的领导能力。对于这次演说,他的挑战是超越这些时刻,并确立自己的总统地位。

The speechwriting was described by one senior administration official as an “accordionlike process,” stretching to include multiple contributors inside and outside the administration, and then shrank back to include just a few people. In addition to Mr. Bannon and Mr. Miller, they included Vince Haley, a former adviser to Newt Gingrich, and Mario Loyola, a conservative writer, according to two senior administration officials. Other advisers like Kellyanne Conway also were involved.

一名本届政府高官形容讲稿的写作是“拉手风琴般的过程”——拉开,让政府内外的多位撰稿人加入进来,然后合上,仅保留少数几个人。据两名政府高官称,除了班农和米勒,还包括纽特·金里奇(Newt Gingrich)的前顾问文斯·黑利(Vince Haley)和保守派作家马里奥·洛约拉(Mario Loyola)。凯莉安·康维(Kellyanne Conway)等顾问也参与其中。

One official said Mr. Trump had taken ownership of this speech in a way that he had not before. He practiced it repeatedly, adjusting once again to a teleprompter format that has never felt totally comfortable to him. As the hour went on, Mr. Trump grew more comfortable.

一名官员称,特朗普准备这次演讲时前所未有地投入。他反复练习,再次去适应这种从来都让他不自在的提词器形式。随着时间的推移,特朗普显得更自如了。

Immigration was one area where he was evidently still trying to calibrate. After all, Mr. Trump was not always so strident on the issue. After the 2012 election, he denounced Mitt Romney for supporting what he called “self-deportation,” calling it “a crazy policy” that cost Mr. Romney the Hispanic vote. The Democrats, he said then, did not have a policy “but what they did have going for them is they weren’t meanspirited about it.”

移民显然是他仍在努力调整的一个领域。毕竟,特朗普在这个问题上并不总是那么坚定。在2012年总统选举后,他谴责米特·罗姆尼(Mitt Romney)支持的所谓“自我驱逐”,称之为“疯狂的政策”,认为是它导致罗姆尼失去了西语裔的支持。后来他又说,民主党人没有政策,“但他们的优点是这方面心胸没那么狭窄”。

So perhaps it was not so surprising that Mr. Trump pivoted at the lunch with anchors. Asked about efforts to deport immigrants in the country illegally, Mr. Trump, without prompting, raised the idea of legislation, noting that there had not been anything comprehensive on the subject since Ronald Reagan’s amnesty program in the 1980s.

所以,特朗普在与主播们共进午餐时突然转变立场也许并不奇怪。当被问及驱逐美国非法移民的问题时,特朗普主动提出了立法的想法,并指出自从罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)20世纪80年代的大赦计划以来,在这个问题上从来都没有全面计划。

Mr. Trump told the anchors it was time for a bill that would grant legal status to many of those in the country illegally as long as both sides compromised. He said he recognized that it would cause him political problems with his conservative base voters, according to people in the room, but added that he thought he could keep them happy since they had stuck with him throughout last year’s Republican primaries.

特朗普对主播们表示,是时候该提出一项议案,给予美国的许多非法移民合法地位——只要双方都能做出妥协。据在场的人称,他说他认识到,这会给他带来政治问题,影响他的保守派选民基础,但他又说,他认为他可以让他们满意,因为在去年的共和党初选中,他们一直支持他。

When Mr. Trump offered the idea, he let the word “compromise” hang in the air, gauging the reaction. The president’s aides glanced at each other, then moved quickly to alert Mr. Bannon and Mr. Miller.

特朗普提出这个想法时,说完“妥协”这个词就打住了,观察人们的反应。总统的助手们相互看了一眼,然后迅速通知了班农和米勒。

That the proposal did not ultimately make it into the speech may speak to the influence of Mr. Bannon’s wing. But the town was confused and off balance, just the way Mr. Trump likes it.

该提议最终未能进入演讲稿,这也许表明了班农一派的影响力。不过,众人再次陷入迷惑和混乱,这正是特朗普想要的。

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