您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

金正男案困局:被“滥用”的外交豁免权?

更新时间:2017-3-2 11:06:22 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

North Korean Suspects Join Long Tradition of Holing Up in Embassies
金正男案困局:被“滥用”的外交豁免权?

KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia — For years, North Korea has enjoyed the freedom for its citizens to visit, work and live in Malaysia, a rare privilege for a nation considered an outlaw by most of the world.

马来西亚吉隆坡——多年来,朝鲜一直享受着其公民访问马来西亚、在马来西亚工作和生活的自由。对于一个被世界上大多数国家视作不合法的国家来说,这是一种罕见的特权。

Now that freedom is in danger, with the North Korean Embassy in a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysian capital, at the center of a murder investigation that is upending the cozy diplomatic relationship between the two countries.

现在,位于马来西亚首都吉隆坡郊区的朝鲜大使馆在一起谋杀案调查中扮演的核心角色,让这两个国家之间的密切外交关系受到了挑战,这一自由也面临着危险。

Two North Korean men accused of participating in the Feb. 13 assassination of Kim Jong-nam, the half brother of North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, have taken refuge in the embassy and are refusing to cooperate with the police. Their stance is presenting the Malaysian authorities with a daunting challenge as they try to crack a case with major international ramifications.

被指控参与了2月13日暗杀金正男一事的两名朝鲜男子一直在朝鲜大使馆避难,拒绝与警方合作,金正男是朝鲜领导人金正恩的同父异母哥哥。就在马来西亚当局试图破获这个具有重大国际影响的案件之时,这两人的态度对马来西亚当局构成了一个艰巨的挑战。

One of the two men, Hyon Kwang-song, is a high-ranking embassy employee who claims diplomatic immunity and, as a result, is untouchable by the police. The other, Kim Uk-il, an employee of the state-owned airline, Air Koryo, is safe from arrest as long as he remains on the embassy grounds.

两人中的一位叫玄光城(Hyon Kwang Song,音),他是使馆的高级员工,声称享有外交豁免权,因此,警察不能碰他。另一位是朝鲜国有航空公司高丽航空(Air Koryo)的雇员金旭一(Kim Uk-il,音),只要他不离开大使馆的院子,就不会被逮捕。

“The embassy is considered the sovereign territory of the country concerned, so the authorities cannot enter without permission,” said Sivananthan Nithyanantham, a Malaysian lawyer who has served as counsel at the International Criminal Court in The Hague. “To do so would be akin to entering foreign soil without consent and would be a serious breach of diplomatic protocol.”

“大使馆被视作有关国家的主权领土,所以当局在未经准许的情况下不能进入,”在海牙国际刑事法院担任过律师的马来西亚律师斯冯纳森·斯瓦南萨安(Sivananthan Nithyanantham)说。“那样做类似于未经许可踏上外国土壤,会严重违反外交公约。”

The Vienna Convention of 1961 gives diplomats and embassies a special protected status designed to safeguard the conduct of international affairs. But over the years there have been several high-profile cases of diplomats and citizens who have sought to use these protections to avoid prosecution for serious, nondiplomatic crimes.

为保障国际事务的进行,1961年签订的维也纳公约使外交官和大使馆享有特殊的受保护地位。但是,这些年来,已发生过几起外交官和公民在情节严重、与外交无关的罪行中寻求使用这些保护措施,以躲避起诉的知名案件。

During a tense standoff with the United States, Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega, the former Panamanian dictator, took refuge in the de facto Vatican embassy in Panama City in 1989 to avoid capture by United States troops who had come to seize him. He was forced to leave after 10 days when the Vatican declined to give him asylum.

在与美国紧张对峙期间,巴拿马前独裁者曼努埃尔·安东尼奥·诺列加将军(Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega)曾在1989年在当时巴拿马城的梵蒂冈大使馆避难,以免被前来抓他的美国军队逮捕。但他在10天后被迫离开,因为梵蒂冈拒绝为他提供庇护。

And Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the former head of the International Monetary Fund, unsuccessfully sought to invoke diplomatic immunity to avoid a lawsuit alleging that he sexually assaulted a hotel maid in Manhattan in 2011. But his claim of immunity was rejected by a New York State judge because Mr. Strauss-Kahn had already left that post before the suit was filed.

国际货币基金组织前总裁多米尼克·斯特劳斯-卡恩(Dominique Strauss-Kahn)为了避免一场官司,曾试图引用外交豁免权,但未成功,他于2011年遭指控,称他对曼哈顿的一名酒店女佣进行了性侵犯。他声称的豁免权被纽约州的一名法官判为无效,因为斯特劳斯-卡恩在遭起诉之前就已经不再担任货币基金组织的总裁。

One of the best-known diplomatic asylum seekers is Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks founder who has been holed up at the Ecuadorean Embassy in London for five years to avoid rape charges in Sweden. Although he is not a diplomat, Ecuador has granted him asylum and allowed him to stay at the embassy.

最有名的寻求外交庇护者之一是维基解密的创始人朱利安·阿桑奇(Julian Assange),他为了避免瑞典对他的强奸罪起诉,已经被困在厄瓜多尔驻伦敦的大使馆长达五年。虽然他不是外交官,但厄瓜多尔同意给予他庇护,并允许他留在大使馆。

Like Mr. Assange, Kim Uk-il, the North Korean airline employee, is vulnerable to arrest should he ever leave the embassy grounds — or, in his case, if relations sour to the point that Malaysia and North Korea cut diplomatic ties and the embassy closes.

与阿桑奇一样,朝鲜航空公司员工金旭一如果一旦离开大使馆,逮捕他将很容易,对后者来说,如果马来西亚与朝鲜的关系恶化到断绝外交关系、关闭大使馆的程度,他也可能被逮捕。

Intelligence services, including the C.I.A., routinely assign agents to work in foreign embassies in the guise of diplomats, largely because of the protections of diplomatic immunity. Governments sometimes expel these agents when espionage is uncovered. But it is rare for someone working under diplomatic cover to be linked to a murder and for a government to seek an arrest.

包括美国中央情报局在内的情报部门常常派特工以外交官的名义在驻外使馆工作,主要是因为有外交豁免权的保护。有时他们被发现从事间谍活动后,外国政府会将这些特工驱逐出境。但是,很少有人在外交掩护下因涉及谋杀,从而受到当地政府的通缉。

The police say Kim Jong-nam was assassinated by two women who rubbed VX nerve agent on his face. Siti Aisyah, 25, of Indonesia, and Doan Thi Huong, 28, of Vietnam, were charged Wednesday with his murder. They have said they thought they were participating in a harmless prank.

马来西亚警方说,金正男是被两名女子暗杀的,她们在他的脸上涂抹了VX神经毒剂。25岁的印度尼西亚女子西蒂·艾莎(Siti Aisyah)和28岁的越南女子段氏香(Doan Thi Huong,音)已在周三被控犯有谋杀罪。她们说,她们以为自己参加了一个无害的恶作剧。

South Korea has blamed the North Korean government for Mr. Kim’s assassination, and the Malaysian police have identified eight North Korean men, including Mr. Hyon, an embassy second secretary, and Kim Uk-il as participants in the plot.

韩国指责朝鲜政府暗杀金正男,马来西亚警方已经确认了八名参与作案的朝鲜男子,包括在大使馆担任二等秘书的玄光城,还有金旭一。

North Korea said on Wednesday that the conclusion that Mr. Kim had been killed by VX nerve agent was “the height of absurdity” because such a poison is so powerful that it would have killed more than just one person.

朝鲜在周三表示,金正男被VX神经毒剂杀死的结论是“荒谬的顶点”,因为这种毒剂极为厉害,致死人数应不止一人。

The poisoning in the middle of Kuala Lumpur’s busy international airport has prompted some Malaysians to call for an examination of their country’s role in helping North Korea connect with the outside world — and to question whether the North should be allowed to have an embassy in Malaysia.

在吉隆坡繁忙的国际机场下毒一事,已促使一些马来西亚人要求审查自己的国家在帮助朝鲜与外部世界联系上所起的作用,也有人对是否应该允许朝鲜在马来西亚设立大使馆提出质疑。

Dennis Ignatius, a former Malaysian ambassador to several Western Hemisphere countries, called Malaysian officials “naïve and gullible” in dealing with North Korea and questioned why the rogue state had ever been allowed to open its embassy in the first place.

曾担任马来西亚驻几个西半球国家大使的丹尼斯·伊格纳修斯(Dennis Ignatius)称,马来西亚官员在对待朝鲜上“天真、善良”,他对为什么这个流氓国家当初被允许在马来西亚设立大使馆表示了疑问。

He urged the government — sometimes known by the same name as its geographic location, Putrajaya — to downgrade relations with North Korea. He suggested expelling North Korea’s ambassador, revoking the visas of North Koreans working in Malaysia and closing Malaysia’s embassy in Pyongyang, the North Korean capital. Malaysia has already recalled its ambassador there for consultations.

他敦促政府降低与朝鲜外交关系的级别,马来西亚联邦政府有时因其所在的地理位置,被称为布特拉再也(Putrajaya)。他建议驱逐朝鲜大使,取消在马来西亚工作的朝鲜人的签证,关闭马来西亚驻朝鲜首都平壤的大使馆。马来西亚已以回国磋商的名义召回了其驻平壤大使。

“The real question is why Putrajaya has allowed North Korea to turn Malaysia into one of its most important bases of operation in the region from which to carry out clandestine activities, circumvent U.N. sanctions and engage in all sorts of illicit enterprises to earn hard currency for the regime,” he wrote in a blistering blog post this week.

本周,伊格纳修斯在一篇措辞强烈的博客文章中写道,“真正的问题是,为什么布特拉再也允许朝鲜将马来西亚变成其在附近地区开展秘密活动的基地,朝鲜利用这个基地规避联合国制裁,从事各种非法经营,为其政权赚取外汇。”

Under the Vienna Convention, countries can declare a foreign diplomat “persona non grata.” Malaysia is said to be considering that designation for Mr. Hyon and his superior, Ambassador Kang Chol, who issued a strongly worded statement last week accusing Malaysia of colluding with South Korea in the Kim case.

根据维也纳公约,一个国家可以将一名外国外交官宣布为“不受欢迎的人”。马来西亚据说正在考虑对玄光城及其上司姜哲大使做出这种宣布,姜哲上周曾发表措辞强硬的声明,指责马来西亚在金正男案上与韩国勾结。

Both Malaysia and North Korea are signatories to the Vienna agreement, which allows a country to waive immunity for its own diplomats.

马来西亚和朝鲜都是维也纳公约的缔约国,该公约允许一个国家对自己的外交官放弃豁免权。

This happens only rarely. Malaysia waived immunity in the case of its military attaché, Muhammad Rizalman bin Ismail, who was arrested in New Zealand in 2014 on suspicion of sexually assaulting a young woman.

这种情况很少发生。马来西亚曾在驻外武官穆罕默德·里扎尔曼·本·伊斯梅尔(Muhammad Rizalman bin Ismail)的案子中放弃了他的豁免权,2014年,该人因涉嫌对一名年轻女子进行性侵犯在新西兰被逮捕。

He claimed diplomatic immunity and left New Zealand to avoid prosecution. But given the nature of the charges, Malaysia revoked his immunity and returned him to face trial in New Zealand, where he pleaded guilty.

他声称享有外交豁免权,并为避免起诉,离开了新西兰。但考虑到该指控的性质,马来西亚取消了他的豁免权,并将他送回新西兰受审,他在那里认了罪。

In another unusual case, in 1997, President Eduard A. Shevardnadze of Georgia revoked the immunity of Gueorgui Makharadze, a high-ranking diplomat at the embassy in Washington, who was then tried and convicted in the drunken-driving death of a 16-year-old girl in Maryland.

在另一个不寻常的案子中,1997年,格鲁吉亚总统爱德华·A·谢瓦尔德纳泽(Eduard A. Shevardnadze)取消了该国驻华盛顿大使馆的一位高级外交官Gueorgui Makharadze的豁免权,之后,该外交官因醉酒驾驶、致马里兰州一名16年女孩死亡而受审,并被判有罪。

In 2011, American officials argued that Raymond A. Davis, a C.I.A. contractor who killed two Pakistanis on a crowded street in the city of Lahore, was entitled to diplomatic immunity, a claim rejected by the Pakistani government. He was eventually freed and left the country after the victims’ families were promised millions of dollars in “blood money.”

2011年,美国官员曾辩称说,中央情报局合同工雷蒙德·A·戴维斯(Raymond A. Davis)享有外交豁免权,戴维斯在拉合尔市一条拥挤的街道上开枪打死了两名巴基斯坦人,但巴基斯坦政府拒绝了豁免权的声称。在受害者的家属得到将向他们支付数百万美元“赎罪金”的承诺后,戴维斯最终获释,离开了巴基斯坦。

In Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysian government, which declined to discuss the case, could face a protracted standoff with North Korea over the two suspects in the embassy.

吉隆坡的马来西亚政府拒绝讨论这起谋杀案,政府可能因两名嫌疑人躲进大使馆的问题与朝鲜发生长期对峙。

About 1,000 North Koreans live and work in Malaysia, where their companies have rare access to global markets and the international banking system. For their part, Malaysians can visit North Korea without a visa, but few have reason to go. With such an imbalanced relationship, Malaysia may have little to lose by severing ties with North Korea if it continues to deny the police access to the suspects.

约有1000名朝鲜人在马来西亚居住和工作,他们的公司在那里有进入全球市场和国际银行系统的难得机会。对马来西亚来说,该国公民可享受免签证访问朝鲜的特权,但很少有人有去朝鲜的理由。如果朝鲜继续拒绝警方接触嫌疑犯的话,这种不平衡的关系让马来西亚在断绝与朝鲜的外交关系上也许没有多少可损失的。

“This is certainly one of the world’s most secretive and ostracized countries, and probably for good reasons,” said Oh Ei Sun, a former secretary to Prime Minister Najib Razak and an adjunct senior fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore. “We should really think twice about letting them come in freely.”

“朝鲜当然是世界上最神秘、最受排斥的国家之一,这也许是有充分理由的,”马来西亚总理纳吉布·拉扎克(Najib Razak)的前秘书胡逸山(Oh Ei Sun)说,胡逸山现在新加坡南洋理工大学拉惹勒南国际研究院担任高级客座研究员。“我们应该重新考虑让朝鲜人自由出入的问题。”

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表