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VX神经毒剂究竟有多厉害?6个问题告诉你

更新时间:2017-2-27 18:29:33 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

VX Nerve Agent: A Deadly Weapon, Rarely Seen
VX神经毒剂究竟有多厉害?6个问题告诉你

HONG KONG — The Malaysian authorities said on Friday that Kim Jong-nam, the half brother of North Korea’s leader, had been killed by VX nerve agent applied to his face. The substance, listed as a chemical weapon, was kept for decades in the arsenals of many militaries, including that of the United States. But since the Chemical Weapons Convention came into force in 1997, most stockpiles globally have been destroyed.

香港——马来西亚当局周五表示,朝鲜领导人同父异母的哥哥金正男(Kim Jong-nam)是被抹在他脸上的VX神经毒剂毒死的。这种物质被列为化学武器,过去有几十年时间,美国等很多国家军队的武器库都存储过它。但是,自从《禁止化学武器公约》(Chemical WeaponsConvention)于1997年生效以来,全球各地存储的大多数VX神经毒剂已被销毁。

What is a nerve agent?

何为神经毒剂?

A nerve agent, sometimes called nerve gas, acts on the nervous system of an organism and prevents muscles from functioning properly. The substance is derived from organophosphate pesticides, and military officials had envisioned dispersing it over a wide area — using a specialized artillery shell or bomb, for instance — to kill or incapacitate enemy forces and make the affected area impossible to safely move through.

神经毒剂有时称为神经毒气,作用于生物的神经系统,阻止肌肉的正常活动。VX来源于有机磷酸酯杀虫剂,军事官员曾设想用专门的炮弹或炸弹之类,把它散播在一大片地方,杀死敌军或让敌军失去作战能力,令人无法通过受到毒剂影响的地区。

How does it kill you?

它如何致人死亡?

The VX molecule interferes with the way glands and muscles function by blocking an enzyme that allows them to relax. That causes muscles to clench uncontrollably and, eventually, prevents a victim from being able to breathe. The lethal dose for VX ranges from about 10 milligrams via skin contact to 25 to 30 milligrams if inhaled. Early symptoms can include pinprick pupils, runny nose, wheezing and muscle twitching. Death can occur anywhere from within a few minutes to hours, depending on the dose and the method of contact.

VX分子干扰腺体和肌肉的功能,阻断一种能让它们放松的酶。这导致肌肉不可控制地收紧,最终让受害者无法呼吸。至于VX的致死剂量,通过皮肤接触约为10毫克,呼吸道吸入为25至30毫克。早期症状可能包括瞳孔缩小、流鼻涕、喘息和肌肉抽搐。受害者可能会在几分钟到几小时后死亡,具体取决于剂量和接触方法。

Are there any antidotes?

有解药吗?

Injections of atropine, if administered quickly after exposure, can counteract the lethal effects of VX. The drug prevents VX from blocking the enzyme, allowing cells to resume functioning normally. Hospitals generally have atropine on hand; it is commonly used in much less drastic situations, like dilating pupils for eye exams. Anticonvulsive drugs like diazepam may also be administered. Military forces are often equipped with autoinjectors, which can be removed from a wrapper and used directly through clothing or protective gear in the event of an attack.

如果在中毒后快速注射阿托品,就可以抵消VX的致死作用。阿托品可以令VX无法阻断酶,从而让细胞恢复正常运作。医院一般备有阿托品;它通常用于很平常的状况,比如进行眼科检查时的散瞳。VX中毒后还可以施用抗惊厥药,比如安定。军方通常配备了自动注射器,可以从包装中取出,在遭受攻击时直接刺透衣服或保护装备使用。

Has VX been used before?

VX此前被使用过吗?

Not in combat. In 1994 and 1995, the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo used homemade VX to poison three people, one of whom died. In the 1960s, testing of a nerve agent that may have been VX led to the accidental deaths of thousands of sheep in Utah. Syrian government forces are accused of using a related nerve agent, possibly sarin, against civilians in 2013.

在战场没有用过。1994年和1995年,日本邪教教团体奥姆真理教(Aum Shinrikyo)使用自制的VX毒气导致三个人中毒,其中一人死亡。在1960年代,一种神经毒剂在测试过程中导致犹他州数以千只绵羊意外死亡,可能就是VX。叙利亚政府军被指控在2013年对平民使用了相关的神经毒剂,可能是沙林。

How detectable is VX?

VX识别难度有多大?

In its purest form, VX is colorless, tasteless and odorless. But production often introduces small impurities, turning it light yellow or amber. It is slightly oily to the touch and is considered not very volatile, meaning it does not evaporate quickly. Its chemical makeup is easily detectable through testing, but if medical personnel are not expecting to encounter it, that testing may not occur. VX can also be delivered in “binary” form, meaning two relatively harmless compounds can be combined in the field to create the lethal nerve agent, which may have been the method used to kill Mr. Kim.

最高纯度的VX无色、无味和无嗅。但生产过程中经常会混入少量杂质,导致它变成浅黄色或琥珀色。VX摸上去有轻微的油感,被认为不是很容易挥发,也就是说它不会快速蒸发。其化学成分很容易在测试中被检测到,但如果医务人员没有往这方面想,可能就不会去测试它。VX还可以通过“二元”形式携带,这意味着两种相对无害的化合物可以在现场混合在一起,产生致人于死命的神经剂,凶手可能正是用这种方法杀死了金正男。

How do you make VX?

如何制作VX?

Very carefully. Many of the individual ingredients — sulfur, for instance — are easy to come by. Others, like hydrochloric acid gas, may require some hunting. Obtaining all of them would most likely draw the attention of some high-ranking law enforcement officials. Making VX is, essentially, a matter of having the right ingredients and gear like flasks, distillation equipment, aspirators and a desire to manufacture something deadly enough to kill you with a single misplaced drop.

要非常小心。制作VX的很多原料都很容易找到,例如硫。其他原料可能需要费些心思才能弄到,比如盐酸气体。弄到所有这些原料可能会引起一些高级执法官员的注意。基本上你只要有正确的原料和设备就能制作VX,比如烧瓶、蒸馏设备和吸气器,还要有强烈的制作意愿,因为操作中稍有不慎,一丁点的剂量就足以把你自己毒死。

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