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优步的14条核心价值观

更新时间:2017-2-25 8:14:59 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Inside Uber’s Aggressive, Unrestrained Workplace Culture
优步的14条核心价值观

SAN FRANCISCO — When new employees join Uber, they are asked to subscribe to 14 core company values, including making bold bets, being “obsessed” with the customer, and “always be hustlin’.” The ride-hailing service particularly emphasizes “meritocracy,” the idea that the best and brightest will rise to the top based on their efforts, even if it means stepping on toes to get there.

旧金山——新雇员加入优步(Uber)时,会被要求接纳公司的14条核心价值观,其中包括敢于放手一搏、顾客“至上”,以及“永远奔忙”。这家召车公司尤其强调“任人唯贤”,也就是说,基于其付出的努力,最优秀、最聪明的人会青云直上,即便这意味着要得罪别人才能做到。

Those values have helped make Uber one of Silicon Valley’s biggest success stories. The company is valued at close to $70 billion by private investors and operates in more than 70 countries.

在这些价值观的助力下,优步为硅谷贡献了一个上佳的成功故事。该公司被私人投资者赋予了将近700亿美元的估值,业务遍及70多个国家。

Yet the focus on pushing for the best result has also fueled what current and former Uber employees describe as a Hobbesian environment at the company, in which workers are sometimes pitted against one another and where a blind eye is turned to infractions from top performers.

不过,把重心放在不懈追求卓越上,也滋长了该公司内部一种被现员工和前员工形容为霍布斯式的氛围,员工们有时会相互对立,绩效优异者的违规行为会被忽略。

Interviews with more than 30 current and former Uber employees, as well as reviews of internal emails, chat logs and tape-recorded meetings, paint a picture of an often unrestrained workplace culture. Among the most egregious accusations from employees, who either witnessed or were subject to incidents and who asked to remain anonymous because of confidentiality agreements and fear of retaliation: One Uber manager groped female co-workers’ breasts at a company retreat in Las Vegas. A director shouted a homophobic slur at a subordinate during a heated confrontation in a meeting. Another manager threatened to beat an underperforming employee’s head in with a baseball bat.

通过采访30多名优步现员工和前员工,以及核查内部邮件、聊天记录和会议录音,我们描绘出了一种百无禁忌的职场文化的轮廓。这些员工作为见证者或当事人做出了极为惊人的指控,但碍于签有保密协议或担心遭到报复,均要求匿名。其指控包括:优步的一名经理在拉斯维加斯的野外拓展活动中摸了一名女同事的胸部;一名总监开会时与一名下属激烈对峙,竟然把诋毁同性恋的言词甩向对方。另一名经理扬言要用棒球棒敲一名表现不佳的员工的头。

Until this week, this culture was only whispered about in Silicon Valley. Then on Sunday, Susan Fowler, an engineer who left Uber in December, published a blog post about her time at the company. She detailed a history of discrimination and sexual harassment by her managers, which she said was shrugged off by Uber’s human resources department. Fowler said the culture was stoked — and even fostered — by those at the top of the company.

本周以前,对这种文化的议论只在硅谷范围内悄悄进行。但周日,于去年12月离开优步的工程师苏珊·福勒(Susan Fowler)发布了一篇博文,讲述她在该公司的遭遇。她描绘了自己遭到经理们歧视和性骚扰的种种细节,说优步的人力资源部门对此不予理睬。福勒说,公司高层的那些人为这种文化推波助澜,甚至可以说是其缔造者。

“It seemed like every manager was fighting their peers and attempting to undermine their direct supervisor so that they could have their direct supervisor’s job,” Fowler wrote. “No attempts were made by these managers to hide what they were doing: They boasted about it in meetings, told their direct reports about it, and the like.”

“似乎每一名经理都在对抗自己的同级人员,并设法暗中打击上司,这样一来他们就可以坐直属上司的位子,”福勒写道。“这些经理对自己的所作所为从不遮遮掩掩:他们在会议上夸夸其谈,跟直接下属说这些事,等等。”

Her revelations have spurred hand-wringing over how unfriendly Silicon Valley workplaces can be to women and provoked an internal crisis at Uber. The company’s chief executive, Travis Kalanick, has opened an internal investigation into the accusations and has brought in board member Arianna Huffington and former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. to look into harassment issues and the human resources department.

她的揭露文章让很多人忧心于硅谷的职场竟对女性如此不友好,并引发了优步的内部危机。该公司首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)已经就这些指控启动了内部调查,还让董事会成员阿里安娜·赫芬顿(Arianna Huffington)和前司法部长小埃里克·H·霍尔德(Eric H. Holder Jr.)对骚扰问题以及人力资源部展开调查。

To contain the fallout, Kalanick also began more disclosure. On Monday, he said that 15.1 percent of Uber’s engineering, product management and scientist roles were filled by women and that those numbers had not changed substantively over the past year.

为了降低负面影响,卡兰尼克开始披露更多信息。他于周一表示,在优步,工程、产品管理和科学家岗位上的工作人员有15.1%是女性,这些数字在过去一年中没有出现大的变动。

Kalanick also held a 90-minute all-hands meeting Tuesday, during which he and other executives were besieged with dozens of questions and pleas from employees who were aghast at — or strongly identified with — Fowler’s story and demanded change.

卡兰尼克还于周二召开了一场全员大会,会上,被福勒的文章惊呆或对文章有着强烈认同感的员工,向他和其他高管提出了数十个问题和请求,敦促公司做出改变。

In what was described by five attendees as an emotional moment, and according to a video of the meeting reviewed by The New York Times, Kalanick apologized to employees for leading the company and the culture to this point.

《纽约时报》查看的会议视频显示,卡兰尼克就其任由公司和公司文化发展到这步田地向员工道了歉。有五名参会者称这是令人动容的一刻。

“What I can promise you is that I will get better every day,” he said. “I can tell you that I am authentically and fully dedicated to getting to the bottom of this.”

“我可以向你们承诺,我每一天都会做得更好,”他说。“我可以告诉你们,我会实心实意、全心全力地弄清真相。”

Some Uber employees said Kalanick’s speedy efforts were positive.

一些优步雇员称,卡兰尼克的快速响应具有积极意义。

“I am pleased with how quickly Travis has responded to this,” Aimee Lucido, an Uber software engineer, wrote in a blog post. “We are better situated to handle this sort of problem than we have ever been in the past.”

“我很高兴特拉维斯能如此快速地对这件事作出回应,”优步软件工程师艾梅·卢奇多(Aimee Lucido)在一篇博文中写道。“在处理这类问题方面,我们占据了比以往任何时候都更良好的位置。”

As chief executive, Kalanick has long set the tone for Uber. Under him, Uber has taken a pugnacious approach to business, flouting local laws and criticizing competitors in a race to expand as quickly as possible. Kalanick, 40, has made pointed displays of ego: In a GQ article in 2014, he referred to Uber as “Boob-er” because of how the company helped him attract women.

作为首席执行官,卡兰尼克一直都是为优步定调的人。在他领导下,优步采取了一种具有挑衅性的业务模式,在以尽快开疆拓土为目标的竞赛中违反当地法律、批评竞争对手。现年40岁的卡兰尼克曾经直白地展示过真实的自我:在《GQ》2014年的一篇文章中,他管优步叫“妞步”(Boob-er),因为该公司令他桃花大增。

That tone has been echoed in Uber’s workplace. At least two former Uber workers said they had notified Thuan Pham, the company’s chief technical officer, of workplace harassment at the hands of managers and colleagues in 2016. One also emailed Kalanick.

这种调子一直回荡在优步的工作场所。至少两名前优步员工说自己曾在2016年告知公司首席技术官范顺(Thuan Pham),一些经理和同事有职场骚扰之举。其中一人还给卡兰尼克发了邮件。

Uber also faces at least three lawsuits in at least two countries from former employees alleging sexual harassment or verbal abuse at the hands of managers, according to legal documents reviewed by The Times. Other current and former employees said they were considering legal action against the company.

此外,时报查看的法律文件显示,优步在至少两个国家面临着不少于三桩诉讼,均由前员工就经理人员实施性骚扰或语言暴力提起。其他现员工和前员工称,他们正考虑对该公司采取法律行动。

Liane Hornsey, Uber’s chief human resources officer, said in a statement, “We are totally committed to healing wounds of the past and building a better workplace culture for everyone.”

优步首席人力资源官利亚纳·霍恩西(Liane Hornsey)在一份声明中表示,“我们将全力弥合过去的创伤,为所有人打造一种更好的职场文化。”

While Uber is now the dominant ride-hailing company in the United States, and is rapidly growing in South America, India and other countries, its explosive growth has come at a cost internally. As Uber hired more employees, its internal politics became more convoluted. Getting ahead, employees said, often involved undermining departmental leaders or colleagues.

优步目前是美国占主导地位的召车公司,且在南美、印度以及其他国家迅速扩张,但爆炸式的增长是以出现内部问题为代价的。随着优步雇用的员工越来越多,其内斗也变得愈发复杂。员工们表示,要出人头地,常常得给部门领导或同事下绊子。

Workers like Fowler who went to human resources with their problems said they were often left stranded. She and a half-dozen others said human resources often made excuses for top performers because of their ability to improve the health of the business. Occasionally, problematic managers who were the subject of numerous complaints were shuffled around different regions; firings were less common.

像福勒一样向人力资源部门反映过问题的员工说,他们常常被搁到了一边。她和另外六人均表示,人力资源部门常常给绩效优异者找借口,因为那些人拥有让公司业务健康发展的能力。有时候,遭到大量投诉的经理会被调到别的地区;但因此被解雇的情况十分罕见。

One group appeared immune to internal scrutiny, the current and former employees said. Members of the group, called the A-Team and composed of executives who were personally close to Kalanick, were shielded from much accountability over their actions.

现员工和前员工说,有一个群体似乎对内部审查免疫。这个群体名叫“A队”(A-Team),由一些和卡兰尼克有着密切的私人关系的高管构成,其成员常常不必为自己的行为承担责任。

One member of the A-Team was Emil Michael, senior vice president for business, who was caught up in a public scandal over comments he made in 2014 about digging into the private lives of journalists who opposed the company. Kalanick defended Michael, saying he believed Michael could learn from his mistakes.

A队成员之一、商务高级副总裁埃米尔·迈克尔(Emil Michael)曾卷入一桩尽人皆知的丑闻——他在2014年放话,要调查跟优步对着干的那些记者的私生活。卡兰尼克为迈克尔做了辩护,说他可以从错误中汲取教训。

Since Fowler’s blog post, several Uber employees have said they are considering leaving the company. Some are waiting until their equity compensation from Uber, which is restricted stock units, is vested. Others said they had started sending résumés to competitors.

自从福勒发表博文以来,几名优步员工表示他们正考虑离职。一些人等着拿到优步给他们的股权报酬,这些通常是限制性股票。另一些人说他们已经开始向优步的竞争对手投简历了。

Still other employees said they were hopeful that Uber could change. Kalanick has promised to deliver a diversity report to better detail the number of women and minorities who work at Uber, and the company is holding listening sessions with employees.

不过其他员工表示,他们希望优步能有所改变。卡兰尼克已经承诺,会发布一份多样性报告,更详细地介绍在优步工作的女性和少数族裔的人数;此外,该公司正举行面向员工的聆听会。

At the Tuesday all-hands meeting, Huffington, the Uber board member, also vowed that the company would make another change. According to attendees and video of the meeting, Huffington said there would no longer be hiring of “brilliant jerks.”

在周二的全员大会上,优步董事会成员赫芬顿还公开宣布,该公司将做出另一项改变。根据与会者的话和会议视频,赫芬顿说公司不会再雇用“出色的混蛋”。

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