Kim Jong-nam Was Killed by VX Nerve Agent, Malaysians Say
KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia — The poison used to kill Kim Jong-nam, the half brother of the North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, was VX nerve agent, which is listed as a chemical weapon, the Malaysian police announced Friday.
马来西亚吉隆坡——马来西亚警方周五宣布，用于杀死朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong-en)同父异母哥哥金正男(Kim Jong-nam)的毒药是VX神经毒剂，这是一种被列为化学武器的物质。
In a brief statement, Khalid Abu Bakar, the national police chief, said the substance was listed as a chemical weapon under Chemical Weapons Conventions of 1997 and 2005, to which North Korea is not a party.
马来西亚警察总长卡立德·阿布·巴卡(Khalid Abu Bakar)在一项简短的声明中表示，该毒剂在1997年和2005年的《禁止化学武器公约》 (Chemical Weapons Convention)中被列为化学武器。朝鲜并非该公约的缔约国。
Samples were taken from Mr. Kim’s skin and eye. The poison was identified in preliminary analysis by the Centre for Chemical Weapons Analysis of the Chemistry Department of Malaysia, Mr. Khalid said.
毒剂样本取自金正男的皮肤和眼睛。 该毒剂是由马来西亚化学部化学武器分析中心(Centre for Chemical Weapons Analysis of the Chemistry Department of Malaysia)初步分析确定的，卡立德说。
The Chemical Weapons Convention bans the use and stockpiling of chemical weapons, and North Korea is among the world’s largest possessors of such weapons. In 2014, the South Korean Defense Ministry said the North had stockpiled 2,500 to 5,000 tons of chemical weapons and had a capacity to produce a variety of biological weapons. (The North has conducted five nuclear tests since 2006.)
VX is part of a family of nerve agents created decades ago during research into pesticides. It is tasteless and odorless and kills by causing uncontrollable muscle contractions, which eventually stop the victim from breathing. A dose of about 10 milligrams is enough to kill by skin contact, according to the Federation of American Scientists.
VX是一种神经毒剂，几十年前在研究农药的过程中被发现。这种毒剂无臭无味，通过引起不可控的肌肉收缩，最终阻止受害者呼吸致人死亡。根据美国科学家联盟(Federation of American Scientists)，约10毫克的剂量就足以通过皮肤接触致命。
Several world powers, including the United States and the former Soviet Union, once had large stockpiles of the nerve agent. American stores of VX were destroyed under the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1997, with incineration completed in 2012.
In 1994 and 1995, the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo used homemade VX to attack three people, one of whom died.
North Korea is estimated to have a chemical weapons production capability of up to 4,500 metric tons during a typical year and 12,000 tons during a period of extended crisis. It is widely reported to possess a large arsenal of chemical weapons, including mustard, phosgene and sarin gas, a United States Congressional Research Service report said last year.
据估计，朝鲜在一个典型年份的化学武器生产能力高达4500公吨，在危机持续时期为1.2万吨。美国国会研究服务局(United States Congressional Research Service)去年的一份报告指出，据广泛报道，朝鲜拥有大量化学武器，包括芥子毒气、光气和沙林。
The police chief’s announcement came just a day after North Korea denied any responsibility for Mr. Kim’s death, accusing the Malaysian authorities of fabricating evidence of Pyongyang’s involvement under the influence of the North’s archrival, South Korea.
With the North’s reclusive government on the defensive about the Feb. 13 killing of Mr. Kim, the estranged half brother of the country’s leader, Kim Jong-un, at the airport in the Malaysian capital, Kuala Lumpur, a statement attributed to the North Korean Jurists Committee said that the greatest share of responsibility for the death “rests with the government of Malaysia” because he died there. And in what could be seen as a threat to Malaysia, the statement noted that North Korea is a “nuclear weapons state.”
对于朝鲜领导人金正恩不相往来的同父异母哥哥金正男于2月13日在马来西亚首都吉隆坡的机场遭暗杀一事，与世隔绝的朝鲜政府采取守势的同时，一份被认为出自朝鲜法律专家委员会(North Korean Jurists Committee)的声明表示，该死亡事件最大的责任“在于马来西亚政府”，因为金正男是死在这个国家的。声明还指出朝鲜是一个“核武国家”，这被看作是在对马来西亚进行威胁。
But in a case that has been filled with mysteries and odd plot twists, North Korea still would not acknowledge that the man killed was indeed Kim Jong-nam. And it gave no indication that it would agree to Malaysia’s demands to question a senior staff member at the North Korean Embassy in Kuala Lumpur in the investigation into Mr. Kim’s death.
Meanwhile, relatives and acquaintances of the two women Malaysia has accused of carrying out the killing — by applying poison to Mr. Kim’s face as North Korean agents looked on — insisted that they must have been duped into doing so, though the Malaysian authorities say otherwise.
“I don’t believe Huong did such a thing,” said Doan Van Thanh, father of Doan Thi Huong, a 28-year-old Vietnamese woman being held in Malaysia. “She was a very timid girl. When she saw a rat or frog, she would scream.”
“我不相信香做了这样的事，”被拘押在马来西亚的28岁越南女子段氏香（Doan Thi Huong，音）的父亲段文盛（Doan Van Thanh，音）说。“她是个很胆小的女孩。看见老鼠和青蛙都会尖叫。”
Mr. Thanh, a 63-year-old veteran who was wounded in 1972 during the war with the United States, said he had seen little of his daughter in recent years. He said she left the family’s home, in a small farming village south of Hanoi, at 17 to attend community college, where she studied to be a pharmacist.
She later left Vietnam to work in Malaysia without telling her family, Mr. Thanh said. He said she rarely visited. When she returned home in January for the Tet holiday, he said, she had little money for the customary gifts and stayed only a few days.
On Thursday in Nghia Binh, Ms. Huong’s hometown, her brother, Doan Van Binh, said that she posted on Facebook under the alias Ruby Ruby. Her Facebook photographs and the attached location information appear to show that she has visited Malaysia twice since January, and her Facebook friends include several people who write in Korean.
周四，段氏香的哥哥段文炳（Doan Van Binh，音）在她的家乡义平表示，她用Ruby Ruby（意为红宝石——译注）的化名在Facebook上发帖子。Facebook上的照片和附带的地址信息似乎显示自1月以来她去过马来西亚两次，她在Facebook上的好友包括几名用朝鲜语发帖的人。
Mr. Binh said that Ms. Huong had also appeared briefly in a singing contest on the Vietnamese television show “Vietnam Idol” in 2016. In a short video clip of the performance, a panel of judges rejected Ms. Huong after she sang just one line: “I want to stop breathing gloriously so that the loving memory will not fade.”
North Korea has called for the release of Ms. Huong, an Indonesian woman and a North Korean man who are being held by Malaysia in connection with the death of Mr. Kim.
The statement on Thursday from the Jurists Committee was cited by the state-run Korean Central News Agency, in the first comment on the killing from the North’s official news media. The statement accused the Malaysian authorities of pursuing a case “full of loopholes and contradictions” that proved that its investigators “intended to frame us.” It said Malaysia had done so under South Korean influence.
朝鲜官方通讯社朝中社(Korean Central News Agency)援引了法律专家委员会周四发出的声明，这是朝鲜官方媒体对这起死亡事件的首次置评。那份声明指控马来西亚当局追查一起“充满漏洞和矛盾之处”的案件，表明调查人员“有意构陷我们”。文中还表示，马来西亚这么做是受到了韩国的影响。
According to the statement, the Malaysian Foreign Ministry and the local hospital first told the North Korean Embassy in Kuala Lumpur that Mr. Kim had died of “heart stroke,” asking North Korea to take the body and cremate it.
But Malaysian officials’ attitude began changing after the South Korean news media, citing anonymous sources, reported that Mr. Kim had been poisoned, according to the North Korean statement.
“The Malaysian secret police got involved in the case and recklessly made it an established fact” that the death had been a poisoning, according to the North Korean statement, which did not refer to Mr. Kim by name.
The statement questioned how Ms. Huong and the Indonesian woman accused in the killing, Siti Aisyah, 25, could have survived if, as Malaysian officials said, they used their hands to administer a deadly poison to Mr. Kim.
Ms. Siti grew up in Indonesia in similar circumstances to Ms. Huong’s, in a small farming village called Sindangsari, about four hours east of Jakarta. She went to school through sixth grade, married at 16 and divorced at 20, according to family members and official documents.
Family members and Indonesian officials have said they believe she was tricked into thinking that the attack on Mr. Kim was part of a comedy video, involving spraying liquid on unwitting victims in public. The Malaysian authorities have said that both women were aware that the liquid was toxic.
Rahmat Yusri, the head of the Jakarta neighborhood where Ms. Siti lived while she was married, said she was an unlikely assassin. He recalled that she did not have close friends.
“She is village girl, a naïve girl with a low education,” he said. “How can I believe that she’s a murderer? Particularly that she killed a famous person?”
The Malaysian authorities have said that four North Koreans were believed to have directed the attack and that they fled to their homeland after it was carried out. On Wednesday, the Malaysian police said they were seeking to question an official at the North Korean Embassy, Hyon Kwang Song, in the case.
马来西亚当局说，据信有四个朝鲜人指挥了这次攻击，行动实施后他们就逃回国了。周三，马来西亚警方说，他们正在试图询问朝鲜大使馆官员玄光城（Hyon Kwang Song，音）。
Channel NewsAsia, a Singaporean news agency, reported on Thursday that Mr. Hyon had been recorded on closed circuit cameras at the airport after the killing, seeing off the four North Koreans as they boarded a flight on the journey back to their homeland.