您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

我们能逃离关于特朗普的新闻洪水吗?

更新时间:2017-2-23 18:26:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

I Ignored Trump News for a Week. Here’s What I Learned.
我们能逃离关于特朗普的新闻洪水吗?

I spent last week ignoring President Donald Trump. Although I am ordinarily a politics junkie, I didn’t read, watch or listen to a single story about anything having to do with our 45th president.

上周我无视了唐纳德·特朗普总统。虽然通常我对政治很着迷,但上周我却没有阅读、观看或收听任何和美国第45届总统有关的事情。

What I missed, by many accounts, was one of the strangest and most unpredictable weeks of news in modern political history. Among other things, there was the resignation of the national security adviser, Michael T. Flynn, and an “Oprah Winfrey Show” tape that led to the downfall of the nominee for labor secretary, Andrew F. Puzder.

在很多人看来,我错过的这一个星期,是现代政治史上充满最奇怪、最不可预测新闻的星期之一。国家安全顾问迈克尔·T·弗林(Michael T. Flynn)辞了职,一盘《奥普拉脱口秀》(Oprah Winfrey Show)磁带导致安德鲁·F·普兹代尔(Andrew F. Puzder)的劳工部长提名泡了汤,此外还有别的事情。

It wasn’t my aim to stick my head in the sand. I did not quit the news. Instead, I spent as much time as I normally do online (all my waking hours), but shifted most of my energy to looking for Trump-free zones.

我这么做不是为了把头埋在沙子里。我没有把新闻拒之门外。恰恰相反,我平常花多少时间在网上(所有我醒着的时候),上个星期也花了多少,只不过我把大部分精力放在了不涉及特朗普的地方。

My point: I wanted to see what I could learn about the modern news media by looking at how thoroughly Trump had subsumed it. In one way, my experiment failed: I could find almost no Trump-free part of the press.

我的意图是想看看,通过观察特朗普在现代新闻媒体的渗透程度,可以了解到些什么。从某种程度上说,我的实验失败了:我几乎找不到不涉及特朗普的新闻。

But as the week wore on, I discovered several truths about our digital media ecosystem. Coverage of Trump may eclipse that of any single human being ever. The reasons have as much to do with him as the way social media amplifies every big story until it swallows the world. And as important as covering the president may be, I began to wonder if we were overdosing on Trump news, to the exclusion of everything else.

但是在上周,随着时间流逝,我发现了数字媒体生态中的几条真理。对特朗普的报道可能超过了历史上对任何一个人的报道。出现这种现象的原因既和他有关,也和社交媒体有关,社交媒体放大了每一件大事,直到它吞噬了这个世界。虽然报道特朗普的事情很重要,但我开始怀疑,我们是否对特朗普进行了过度报道,把其他一切排除在外了。

President Trump is inescapable.

特朗普总统是避不开的。

The new president doesn’t simply dominate national and political news. During my week of attempted Trump abstinence, I noticed something deeper: He has taken up semipermanent residence on every outlet of any kind, political or not. He is no longer just the message. In many cases, he has become the medium, the ether through which all other stories flow.

新总统不仅仅霸占着国家和政治新闻。在我试图避开他的那一周,我注意到了更深层的东西:他在任何一个政治或非政治媒体上都占据了半永久居住权。他不再是信息。在很多情况下,他已经成为了媒体,成为所有其他故事流动的平台。

It wasn’t just news. Trump’s presence looms over much more. There he is off in the wings of “The Bachelor” and even “The Big Bang Theory,” whose creator, Chuck Lorre, has taken to inserting anti-Trump messages in the closing credits. Want to watch an awards show? Say the Grammys or the Golden Globes? Trump Trump Trump. How about sports? Yeah, no. The president’s policies are an animating force in the NBA. He was the subtext of the Super Bowl: both the game and the commercials, and maybe even the halftime show.

而且还不仅仅是新闻。特朗普的存在感打破了更多界限。他在《单身汉》(The Bachelor)甚至《生活大爆炸》(The Big Bang Theory)中都沾上了边,因为该剧集的主创查克·洛瑞(Chuck Lorre)在片尾字幕中插入了反特朗普的信息。想观看颁奖礼吗?比如格莱美奖或金球奖?特朗普、特朗普、特朗普。体育运动怎么样?也一样。总统的政策是NBA的一股动力。他还是超级碗的潜台词:这种运动本身及其广告,甚至可能还包括半场演出。

Where else could I go? Snapchat and Instagram were relatively safe, but the president still popped up. Even Amazon.com suggested I consider Trump toilet paper for my wife’s Valentine’s Day present. (I bought her jewelry.)

我还能去哪里?Snapchat和Instagram相对安全,但总统的话题仍然会出现。甚至亚马逊都建议我考虑买特朗普卫生纸给妻子当情人节礼物。(我给她买的首饰。)

Trump’s fame may break all records.

特朗普的名气可能会打破所有的记录。

All presidents are omnipresent. But it is likely that no living person in history has ever been as famous as Trump is right now. It’s possible that not even the most famous or infamous people of the recent or distant past — say, Barack Obama, Osama bin Laden, Bill Clinton, Richard Nixon, Michael Jackson, Muhammad Ali or Adolf Hitler — dominated media as thoroughly at their peak as Trump does now.

所有总统的存在感都很强。但是在历史上很可能没有哪个人在世的时候像特朗普这么有名。而且很有可能,即使是远远近近的过去中最负盛名或者恶名的人,例如贝拉克·奥巴马、奥萨马·本·拉登、比尔·克林顿、理查德·尼克松、迈克尔·杰克逊、穆罕默德·阿里,或者阿道夫·希特勒——可能也不如特朗普现在霸占媒体的能力这么强。

I’m hedging because there isn’t data to directly verify this declaration. (Of course, there are no media analytics to measure how many outlets were covering Hitler the day he invaded Poland.) But there is some pretty good circumstantial evidence.

我只是说可能,因为没有直接的数据来验证这个说法。(当然,没有媒体分析人士来衡量希特勒入侵波兰的那一天有多少媒体在报道他。)但是有一些很好的间接证据可以看看。

Consider data from mediaQuant, a firm that measures “earned media,” which is all coverage that isn’t paid advertising. To calculate a dollar value of earned media, it first counts every mention of a particular brand or personality in just about any outlet, from blogs to Twitter to the evening news to The New York Times. Then it estimates how much the mentions would cost if someone were to pay for them as advertising.

来看看mediaQuant的数据,该公司衡量的是“免费媒体报道”,即没有付广告费而获得的所有报道。为了把免费媒体报道的价值折算成美元,它首先计算各种媒体提及一个特定品牌或人士的次数,这些媒体从博客到Twitter,从晚间新闻到《纽约时报》。然后它估算如果有人为此付费,那会需要花多少钱。

In January, Trump broke mediaQuant’s records. In a single month, he received $817 million in coverage, higher than any single person has ever received in the four years that mediaQuant has been analyzing the media, according to Paul Senatori, the company’s chief analytics officer. For much of the past four years, Obama’s monthly earned media value hovered around $200 million to $500 million. The highest that Hillary Clinton got during the presidential campaign was $430 million, in July.

今年1月,特朗普打破了mediaQuant的记录。该公司首席分析官保罗·森纳托利(Paul Senatori)表示,在这个月里,特朗普获得了8.17亿美元的报道,比mediaQuant过去四年中分析的任何一个人都高。在过去四年的大部分时间里,奥巴马每月的媒体价值徘徊在大约2亿美元到5亿美元之间。希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)在总统竞选期间获得的最高记录是去年7月的4.3亿美元。

It’s not just that Trump’s coverage beats anyone else’s. He is now beating pretty much everyone else put together. Senatori recently added up the coverage value of 1,000 of the world’s best known figures, excluding Obama and Trump. The list includes Hillary Clinton, who in January got $200 million in coverage, Tom Brady ($38 million), Kim Kardashian ($36 million), and Vladimir Putin ($30 million), all the way down to the 1,000th most-mentioned celebrity in mediaQuant’s database, actress Madeleine Stowe ($1,001).

还不仅仅是特朗普打败了所有人。现在其他人加在一起似乎也不是他的对手了。森纳托利最近把奥巴马和特朗普之外世界上名气最高1000人的报道价值加总在了一起。这个名单中有希拉里·克林顿,她在1月获得了2亿美元的报道,汤姆·布雷迪(Tom Brady)3800万美元,金·卡戴珊(Kim Kardashian)3600万美元,普京3000万美元,往下直到mediaQuant数据库中最常被提到的第1000人,女演员玛德琳·斯托(Madeleine Stowe),1001美元。

The coverage those 1,000 people garnered last month totaled $721 million. In other words, Trump gets about $100 million more in coverage than the next 1,000 famous people put together. And he is on track to match or beat his January record in February, according to Senatori’s preliminary figures.

上个月,这1000个人获得的报道价值总计7.21亿美元。换句话说,特朗普获得的报道价值比他之后的1000位名人的总和还多约1亿美元。根据森纳托利的初步统计,他有望在2月份保持或超越1月份的记录。

Trump is a historically unusual president, and thus deserves plenty of coverage. Yet there’s an argument that our tech-fueled modern media ecosystem is amplifying his presence even beyond what’s called for.

从历史角度讲,特朗普是一位不同寻常的总统,理应获得大量报道。不过有人认为,我们以科技为动力的现代媒体生态正在扩大他的曝光率,超过了必要水平。

On most days, Trump is 90 percent of the news on my Twitter and Facebook feeds, and probably yours, too. But he’s not 90 percent of what’s important in the world. During my break from Trump news, I found rich coverage veins that aren’t getting social play. ISIS is retreating across Iraq and Syria. Brazil seems on the verge of chaos. A large ice shelf in Antarctica is close to full break. Scientists may have discovered a new continent submerged under the ocean near Australia.

在大部分日子里,我的Twitter和Facebook推送新闻中90%都是关于特朗普,你的很可能也是这样。但世界上90%最重要的事并不都是关于他。在我回避特朗普新闻的日子里,我发现了很多没有得到社交网络关注的报道。伊斯兰国在伊拉克和叙利亚节节败退。巴西似乎马上会发生骚乱。南极洲的一大块冰架即将全面崩溃。科学家们可能发现了一块沉入澳大利亚附近海底的新大陆。

There’s a reason you aren’t seeing these stories splashed across the news. Unlike old-school media, today’s media works according to social feedback loops. Every story that shows any signs of life on Facebook or Twitter is copied endlessly by every outlet, becoming unavoidable.

你没有看到这些故事闪现在新闻中是有原因的。与传统媒体不同,如今的媒体是根据社交网站的反馈来运作的。每个在Facebook或Twitter上显现出生命迹象的故事都会被所有新闻门户无止境地复制,变得不可回避。

Every new story prompts outrage, which puts the stories higher in your feed, which prompts more coverage, which encourages more talk, and on and on. We saw this effect before Trump came on the scene — it’s why you know about Cecil the lion and Harambe the gorilla — but he has accelerated the trend. He is the Harambe of politics, the undisputed king of all media.

每个新故事引发的愤慨推动它们在推送中上升到更高的位置,从而引发更多报道,促生更多讨论,如此循环。在特朗普出现之前,我们就见过这种效应——它是你知道狮子塞西尔(Cecil)和大猩猩哈兰贝(Harambe)的原因——但他加速了这种潮流。他是政治界的哈兰贝,无可争议的媒体之王。

The volume isn’t sustainable.

这种报道量是不可持续的。

It’s only been a month since Trump took office, and already the deluge of news has been overwhelming. Everyone — reporters, producers, anchors, protesters, people in the administration and consumers of news — has been amped up to 11.

特朗普刚上任一个月,新闻的洪水已经令人难以承受。所有人——记者、制片人、主播、抗议者、政府人士和新闻消费者——已经达到了极限。

For now, this might be all right. It’s important to pay attention to the federal government when big things are happening.

目前这可能还没问题。当重大事件发生时,关注联邦政府很重要。

But Trump is likely to be president for at least the next four years. And it’s probably not a good idea for just about all of our news to be focused on a single subject for that long.

但是至少在未来的四年里,特朗普很可能都会是总统。在那么长时间里,我们所有的新闻都只关注一个人很可能不是好事。

In previous media eras, the news was able to find a sensible balance even when huge events were preoccupying the world. Newspapers from World War I and World War II were filled with stories far afield from the war. Today’s newspapers are also full of non-Trump articles, but many of us aren’t reading newspapers anymore. We’re reading Facebook and watching cable, and there, Trump is all anyone talks about, to the exclusion of almost all else.

在以前的媒体时代,即使在重大事件主导整个世界时,新闻仍能找到合理的平衡。一战和二战时的报纸充满与战争无关的故事。如今的报纸也充满与特朗普无关的文章,但我们很多人不再读报纸了。我们看Facebook,看有线电视,在这些地方,每个人都在谈论特朗普,几乎不提其他任何事情。

There’s no easy way out of this fix. But as big as Trump is, he’s not everything — and it’d be nice to find a way for the media ecosystem to recognize that.

要改变这种现状并不容易。不过,就算特朗普这样的大人物也不是一切——要是想办法让媒体生态系统认识这一点就好了。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表