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中国全面暂停进口朝鲜煤炭

更新时间:2017-2-20 11:13:22 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

China Suspends All Coal Imports From North Korea
中国全面暂停进口朝鲜煤炭

SEOUL, South Korea — China said on Saturday that it was suspending all imports of coal from North Korea as part of its effort to enact United Nations Security Council sanctions aimed at stopping the country’s nuclear weapons and ballistic-missile program.

韩国首尔——中国周六表示暂停从朝鲜的所有煤炭进口,这是中国执行联合国安全理事会制裁措施努力的一部分,制裁旨在停止朝鲜的核武器和弹道导弹计划。

The ban takes effect on Sunday and will last until the end of the year, the Chinese Commerce Ministry said in a brief statement posted on its website on Saturday. Chinese trade and aid have long been a vital economic crutch for North Korea, and the decision strips North Korea of one of its most important sources of foreign currency.

中国商务部周六在其网站公布的一份简短声明中表示,禁令于周日生效,并持续到年底。中国的贸易和援助长期以来一直是朝鲜的重要经济支柱,中国的决定断绝了朝鲜最重要的外汇来源之一。

Coal has accounted for 34 percent to 40 percent of North Korean exports in the past several years, and almost all of it was shipped to China, according to South Korean government estimates.

根据韩国政府的估计,在过去几年里,煤炭占朝鲜出口的34%到40%,而且几乎所有的煤炭都出口到中国。

The ban comes six days after the North Korean test of a ballistic missile that the Security Council condemned as a violation of its resolutions that prohibited the country from developing and testing ballistic missile technology.

禁令是在朝鲜测试弹道导弹六天后发布的,安理会谴责朝鲜违反了禁止该国发展和测试弹道导弹技术的决议。

In the test, North Korea claimed that it had successfully launched a new type of nuclear-capable missile. It said its intermediate-range Pukguksong-2 missile used a solid-fuel technology that American experts say will make it harder to detect missile attacks from the North.

朝鲜声称在这次试验中成功地发射了一枚新型的能运载核弹头的导弹。朝鲜说,该国的中程“北极星-2”导弹使用了固体燃料技术,美国专家说,这种技术将让来自朝鲜的导弹袭击更难被发现。

In the resolution it adopted in November in response to the North’s fifth and most powerful nuclear test, the Security Council said that North Korea should not be allowed to export more than 7.5 million metric tons of coal a year or bring in more than $400 million in coal sales, whichever limit is met first. It was unclear whether that cap has already been reached for this year.

作为对朝鲜第五次、也是能量最大的一次核试验的响应,联合国安理会在去年11月通过的决议中说,朝鲜一年出售的煤炭不能超过750万公吨,或者销售额不能超过4亿美元,哪个指标先达到就采用哪个。目前尚不清楚这个限额今年是否已经达到。

Officials of the United States and its allies, including President Trump, have suggested that China, North Korea’s principal economic patron, should be more aggressive in enforcing sanctions. But while it does not approve of the North’s weapons program, China has also been seen as reluctant to inflict crippling pain on North Korea, for fear that it might destabilize its neighbor.

包括特朗普总统在内的美国官员及美国的盟友表示,朝鲜的主要经济资助者中国应该更积极地执行制裁。但是,虽然中国不赞成朝鲜的武器计划,但人们也看到,中国不太愿意给朝鲜造成严重的痛苦,因为担心那样会让自己的这个邻国不稳定。

In April, China announced that it would ban coal imports from North Korea as part of the United Nations’ efforts to squeeze the country’s ability to raise funds for its nuclear and missile programs. But it allowed exemptions for coal imports for “livelihood” reasons, and deliveries continued.

去年4月,中国曾宣布禁止从朝鲜进口煤炭,作为联合国抑制该国为其核计划和导弹计划筹集资金能力的努力的一部分。但中国把出于“生计”原因的煤炭进口作为例外,朝鲜的煤炭仍继续源源不断地进入中国。

The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not comment on the suspension after it was announced on Saturday. On Friday, the Chinese minister of foreign affairs, Wang Yi, said at a conference in Munich that the United Nations sanctions of North Korea “must continue to be strictly implemented.”

周六宣布暂停煤炭进口后,中国外交部没有发表评论。中国外交部长王毅周五在慕尼黑的一个会议上说,“当然要继续严格执行联合国安理会(对朝鲜制裁的)决议”。

But Mr. Wang also argued that only renewed negotiations would offer any hope of curtailing North Korea’s nuclear weapons development. China has hosted six-party talks — including itself, South Korea, North Korea, the United States, Japan and Russia — aimed at a negotiated settlement of the North Korean nuclear standoff. But those talks have stopped since 2009, and there seems little hope of them restarting anytime soon.

但王毅也指出,只有恢复谈判,才能为限制朝鲜的核武器发展带来任何希望。中国曾主持过六方会谈,包括中国、韩国、朝鲜、美国、日本和俄罗斯的六方会谈旨在通过谈判解决朝鲜的核武器僵局。但是,这些谈判自2009年起就停了下来,近期似乎没有多少希望恢复谈判。

“This situation cannot continue,” Mr. Wang said, “because the ultimate outcome may be intolerable to all sides.”

王毅说,“这一状况不应再继续下去了!因为其最终局面可能各方都无法承受。”

Last year, China imported 22.5 million metric tons of coal from North Korea, an increase of 14.5 percent on the amount in 2015, according to Chinese customs statistics. In December, China imported about 2 million tons of North Korean coal. Mysteel, a Chinese industrial analysis firm, estimated that under the limits imposed by the sanctions, the coal quota would be used up by April or May. In 2015, China’s cumulative imports of North Korean coal reached 7.5 million metric tons by May.

据中国海关统计,中国去年从朝鲜进口了2250万公吨煤,比2015年增加了14.5%。去年12月,中国从朝鲜进口了约200万吨煤。中国工业分析公司Mysteel估计,由于制裁的限制,朝鲜出口煤炭的配额将于4月或5月份用完。2015年,中国从朝鲜累计进口的煤炭到5月份就已达到了750万吨。

The coal suspension also followed the assassination of Kim Jong-nam, the estranged half brother of the North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, on Monday at an airport in Malaysia. The Malaysian authorities are continuing to investigate the case. South Korean officials have suspected North Korean involvement in the killing of Mr. Kim, who had been living in Macau.

暂停煤炭进口的宣布也是在金正男上周一在马来西亚机场被暗杀之后,金正男是朝鲜领导人金正恩的同父异母哥哥,两人的关系早已破裂。马来西亚当局正在继续调查该案。韩国官员怀疑朝鲜参与了杀害金正男,他曾住在澳门。

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