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加拿大不是自由主义乌托邦

更新时间:2017-2-8 10:43:01 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Meanwhile in Canada … Things Are Just as Bad
加拿大不是自由主义乌托邦

TORONTO — When Justin Trudeau was elected prime minister of Canada — with a majority Liberal government, no less — it marked the hopeful end of nearly a decade of Conservative rule. “Sunny ways,” Mr. Trudeau said in his acceptance speech. “This is what positive politics can do.”

多伦多——当初,贾斯汀·特鲁多(Justin Trudeau)当选加拿大总理——而且还是一个自由党多数政府,标志着保守党将近十年的统治画上了一个令人心生希望的句号。“阳光的方式,”特鲁多在胜选演讲中表示。“这就是积极政治能做的事情。”

His victory received fawning international coverage: The son of another popular prime minister, and conventionally good-looking, he managed to say all the right things about climate change and feminism. Remember when he achieved gender parity with his cabinet appointments? Swoon.

关于这场胜利的国际新闻报道充斥着溢美之辞:身为另一位颇具声望的总理之子,有着公认的英俊面容,谈论气候变化和女性主义时总能说出人们爱听的话。还记得他通过对内阁成员的任命实现了性别平等吗?大赞!

The stereotype, inside and outside of Canada, is that Canadians are so polite and accepting that nothing like the bitter populism of Donald J. Trump could ever flourish here. Canadians say “sorry” all the time, but we say it “soary,” and we are happy to pay for our neighbor’s health insurance through higher taxes. We even add an extra “u” in neighbor. Canadians just are that generous.

在加拿大内外都存在一种刻板印象:加拿大人彬彬有礼,认为唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)那种激烈的民粹主义之类的东西绝不可能在这片土地上发扬光大。加拿大人总是在说“抱歉”,但我们会把“sorry”说成“soary”,而且我们愿意通过多交税来为邻居的医保买单。我们甚至给“neighbor”(邻居)一词多加了一个“u”。加拿大人就是慷慨。

This impression is so widely accepted that the Canadian immigration website crashed in the hours after America’s presidential election, thanks to a fivefold spike in the number of visitors. But the belief that Canada is a liberal utopia holds only if you have no concept of Canadian history and little knowledge of current events, and only if you walk through its cities and towns without speaking to anyone who isn’t white, middle class or male.

大家普遍抱有此种印象,以至于美国总统大选刚结束没多久,加拿大移民局的网站就因为访问量激增至原来的五倍而崩溃了。但除非你对加拿大的历史和时事一点儿都不了解,除非你在它的城镇之中穿行时不跟白人、中产阶级或男性以外的人交谈,否则加拿大是自由主义乌托邦这种观点根本就站不住脚。

On Jan. 29, six people were killed in a Quebec City mosque by a gunman. The suspect’s social media use suggests support for white supremacist ideas and the Trump movement. That event, though jarring and terrifying, was neither new nor unpredictable, especially for Canada’s Muslim citizens. The idea that Canada is a safe space is a lie — and an easy one to catch for anyone who has actually lived here as part of a minority group and watched how the country chooses to forget about you.

1月29日,一名枪手在魁北克城(Quebec City)的一座清真寺杀害了六人。嫌疑人在社交媒体上发的信息表明此人是白人至上主义理念和特朗普运动的支持者。这一事件既令人震惊又透着恐怖,但绝不新鲜或出人意料,对加拿大的穆斯林公民来说尤为如此。加拿大乃安全之地的说法是一个谎言——如果你是真正住在这里的少数群体的一员,眼瞅着国家将你选择性遗忘,那你很容易就能看穿。

At least Mr. Trump’s presidency will rip that falsehood open. Canada has two Trump-like candidates running for the federal Conservative leadership on platforms very similar to those that have nudged the United States and parts of Europe into the embrace of white nationalism.

特朗普入主白宫至少会揭开这个谎言。加拿大有两名类似特朗普的候选人正竞选联邦保守党领袖之职,其竞选纲领和推动美国以及欧洲部分地区拥护白人民族主义的那些十分相似。

After the American election, a member of Parliament named Kellie Leitch sent out an email blast calling Mr. Trump’s win “an exciting message and one that we need delivered in Canada as well.” Before this, she attempted to establish a tip line for “barbaric cultural practices,” a blatant attempt to curry favor with racists and Islamophobes under the guise of protecting women and children. Ads for Ms. Leitch run on our version of Breitbart, the adorably named The Rebel, a site that traffics in hate speech. Earlier this week, The Rebel wondered if the Quebec City shooter was actually a Muslim extremist rather than a white nationalist.

美国大选结束后,加拿大国会议员凯莉·里奇(Kellie Leitch)群发了一封电子邮件,说特朗普的胜利是“一个振奋人心的讯息,我们也应该在加拿大传递这样的讯息”。此前,她曾尝试开设一条让民众举报“野蛮文化行为”的热线,公然企图以保护妇女儿童为幌子讨好种族主义者和恐伊斯兰者。刊登里奇竞选广告的网站有一个讨人喜欢的名字——“反叛”(The Rebel),是加拿大版的布莱巴特新闻(Breitbart),上面充斥着煽动仇恨的言论。本周早些时候,反叛网站怀疑魁北克城的枪手其实是一名穆斯林极端主义者,而非白人民族主义者。

Meanwhile, Kevin O’Leary, a fame-hungry “Shark Tank” judge who has been living in Boston and refers to himself as “Mr. Wonderful,” is the latest to announce he’s running for the Conservative leadership. He has also argued that the 85 wealthiest people in the world having as much money as the 3.5 billion poorest is a good thing.

与此同时,极度渴望出名的《创智赢家》(Shark Tank)评委凯文·奥利里(Kevin O’Leary)成为最新一个宣布竞选保守党党魁的人。奥利里长期居住在波士顿,自称“奇妙先生”(Mr. Wonderful)。他还表示,世界上85个最富有的人的身家与35亿最贫穷的人相当是一件好事。

“It inspires everybody to get some motivation,” he said. “Of course I applaud it.”

“这会激发出每个人的斗志,”他说。“我当然会为之喝彩。”

Finally, a reality show narcissist with too much money and zero government experience of our very own!

终于,加拿大本地也有了一位自恋的真人秀明星,腰缠万贯但毫无政府工作经验。

And then there’s Mr. Trudeau himself, a colossal disappointment for liberals and conservatives alike, despite his Superman-style coiffure. He has made no attempt to publicly condemn Mr. Trump’s race-baiting and politics of fear, presumably because he’d worry that calling your largest trade partner a racist would hurt the aforementioned trade. In November, our eco-friendly prime minister approved the expansion of the Kinder Morgan Trans-Mountain pipeline, a big step backward for the environment. Worse, last month he shouted down activists who were protesting the pipeline development. He was upset that they were interrupting him; they were upset that indigenous people across Canada continue to live in third-world conditions.

再说说特鲁多本人,尽管有着超人式的发型,但他却让自由派和保守派都大失所望。他无意公开谴责特朗普煽动种族主义、搞恐惧政治之举,或许是因为担心把最大的贸易伙伴斥为种族主义者,会损害两国的贸易关系。去年11月,我们这位生态友好型总理批准了金德摩根跨山输油管道(Kinder Morgan Trans-Mountain pipeline)扩建计划,这是环保领域的一大退步。更糟糕的是,上个月,他朝着抗议输油管道开发项目的活动人士大呼小叫。他很生气,因为他们打扰了他;他们也很生气,因为加拿大各地的土著依然像是生活在第三世界。

As Toronto’s crack-smoking former mayor Rob Ford once said, “Everything is fine.”

正如多伦多那位吸食可卡因的前市长罗伯·福特(Rob Ford)曾经说过的,“一切正常。”

This wave of political reaction is nothing new. Toronto has a history of police performing street-checks on black men at far higher rates than they do on white men. Quebec in particular has a lamentable record of anti-Muslim rhetoric and policies. In 2013, the province proposed banning the wearing of religious symbols — namely, hijabs, turbans, kippas and niqabs — by people who work in the public sector. In September, the University of Alberta was plastered with posters that read “[Expletive] Your Turban.”

政坛的这波反应没什么新鲜之处。多伦多警方对黑人男性进行街头临检的比例向来远高于白人男性。魁北克尤其有着关于反穆斯林言论和政策可悲记录。2013年,该省提议禁止公共部门工作人员的穿戴中出现宗教符号,比如希贾布头巾、特本头巾、犹太小圆帽和尼卡布面纱。去年9月,有人在阿尔伯塔大学(University of Alberta)贴出了写有“[脏话]你的特本头巾”的海报。

On criminal justice, as well, Canada is hardly a progressive champion. In Ontario, Adam Capay, a 24-year-old First Nations man, has been kept in solitary confinement for the last four years. Charged with killing a fellow inmate in a prison altercation, he has still not gone to trial.

加拿大在刑事司法领域也算不上什么进步的正义捍卫者。在安大略省,现年24岁的第一民族(First Nations)男子亚当·卡佩(Adam Capay)过去四年间一直被单独监禁着。他被控在一次监狱打斗中杀死了另一名囚犯,至今仍未接受审判。

Comparing Canada with the United States is reasonable — we’re close enough, and share a similar history and geography — but suggesting that Canada has figured something out that other nations haven’t is not. True, everything the United States does is louder than in Canada: America’s food is radioactive, its television is more aggressive (and, well, objectively better), so it makes sense that America’s politics are more overtly noxious. But that hardly makes Canada a refuge.

把加拿大和美国相比是可以理解的——两国足够接近,而且有着相似的历史和地理环境——但认为加拿大解决了其他国家尚未解决的某些问题,就没什么道理了。比起加拿大,美国发生的每件事的确都更引人瞩目。美国的食物里有放射性物质,美国的电视节目更激进(唔,客观来说也更好),因此其政坛更具破坏性也是合情合理。但这并不意味着加拿大就是避难所。

There’s a meme circulating on Twitter and Facebook that you see more than ever now that people are arguing that Canada’s politics are such a stark contrast to America’s. It involves posting a link to a goofy Canadian story — often involving a moose, why not? — with accompanying text that reads, “Meanwhile in Canada.” While America burns, Canadians calmly shovel their driveways and buy bagged milk for their kids.

Twitter和Facebook上流传着一个米姆,显示如今认为加拿大政坛与美国政坛天差地别的人空前之多。人们会贴出一个傻傻的加拿大故事的链接——其中常常包含一只驼鹿,为什么不呢?——还要配上“与此同时在加拿大”这样的文字。当美国处于水深火热之中的时候,加拿大人平静地铲掉自家车道上的积雪,去给孩子买袋装牛奶。

It’s like being considered the gentler, kinder sibling. In reality, we’re just more passive-aggressive, too frightened to acknowledge how we fail our citizens day after day.

感觉似乎自己被想象成了一个温和亲切的同胞手足。现实中的我们则更具消极攻击性,不敢承认我们日复一日地辜负着自己的国民。

There is no Canadian exceptionalism. What’s happening here now has been happening for decades: Bias and discrimination are rooted in our history and government. All that’s true about America’s broken system is true, too, of Canada’s. The only real difference is the illusion that Canada is intrinsically better.

根本没有什么加拿大例外主义。这里发生着多年来一直都在发生的事情:偏见和歧视根植于我们的历史和政府之中。对美国支离破碎的体制适用的一切描述,也适用于加拿大的体制。唯一真正的区别是加拿大在本质上更好的错觉。

America has elected a dangerous demagogue to its highest office. In Canada, we’re just one election away from falling into the same trap.

美国把一名危险的煽动家选作了自己的最高领导人。而加拿大只要再开展一场选举,就有可能跌入同样的陷阱。

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