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就业问题上,民主党应该比特朗普更聪明

更新时间:2017-1-30 10:20:18 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Smart Approaches, Not Strong-Arm Tactics, to Jobs
就业问题上,民主党应该比特朗普更聪明

LONDON — I’ve actually been watching the early Trump presidency from London. (I would have gone to the moon, but I couldn’t get a ride.) Even from here I have vertigo.

伦敦——特朗普上任的最初几天,我其实是从伦敦进行观察的。(我倒想去月亮,可惜没人载我去。)就算身在这里,我都觉得头晕目眩。

My head is swirling from “alternative facts,” trade deals canceled, pipelines initiated, Obamacare in the Twilight Zone and utterly bizarre rants about attendance on Inauguration Day and fake voters on Election Day. Whatever this cost Vladimir Putin, he’s already gotten his money’s worth — a chaos president. Pass the vodka.

“另一种事实”、贸易协议取消、输油管项目启动、奥巴马医改生死未卜,关于就职日当天出席人数和选举日伪造投票者的怪异咆哮,这一切都是我感到晕眩的原因。无论弗拉基米尔·普京(Vladimir Putin)付出了什么样的代价,他的投入真是物有所值——一个乱七八糟的总统。快给我来点伏特加吧。

But moderate Republicans, independents and Democrats who opposed Donald Trump need to beware. He can make you so nuts — he can so vacuum your brains out — that you can’t think clearly about the most important questions today: What things are true even if Trump believes them, and therefore merit support? And where can Democrats offer smarter approaches on issues, like jobs, for instance — approaches that can connect to the guts of working-class voters as Trump did, but provide a smarter path forward.

但是反对唐纳德·特朗普的温和派共和党人、无党派人士和民主党要小心了。他能把你逼疯——他可以抽空你的大脑——让你没法清楚地思考今天最重要的问题:到底有什么事情,就算连特朗普都相信,它们也是真的,并且值得支持?民主党在哪些事情上——比如工作方面——可以提供更聪明的方法,既能像特朗普那样鼓起工人阶层选民的勇气,又能提供一条更聪明的前进之路。

Where I think Democrats should focus their critique, and fresh thinking, is how we actually bring back more middle-class jobs. A day barely goes by without Trump threatening some company that plans to move jobs abroad or build a factory in Mexico, not America.

我认为,民主党人应该把他们的批评和创新思维集中在如何真正为中产阶级带回更多工作这方面。特朗普几乎每天都在威胁那些计划把工作岗位移到海外,或是在墨西哥而不是美国建立工厂的公司。

If Trump’s bullying can actually save good jobs, God bless him. But what Trump doesn’t see is that while this may get him some short-term jobs headlines, in the long-run C.E.O.s may prefer not to build their next factory in America, precisely because it will be hostage to Trump’s Twitter lashings. They also may quietly replace more workers with robots faster, because Trump can’t see or complain about that.

如果特朗普的霸凌真的可以为美国人留住好的工作,上帝保佑他。但特朗普看不到的是,虽然这种做法在短期内可能会给他带来一些和工作岗位相关的媒体报道,但是长期来看,首席执行官们可能不喜欢在美国建立他们的下一个工厂,恰恰是因为它将成为特朗普的人质,成为他在Twitter上斥责的对象。他们也可以暗地里加快用机器人替换掉更多的工人,因为特朗普看不到这些,也没法抱怨。

“Trump wants to protect jobs,” explained Gidi Grinstein, who heads the Israeli policy institute Reut. “What we really need is to protect workers.”

“特朗普想保护工作岗位,”以色列政策研究所乌特(Reut)的负责人吉迪·格林斯坦(Gidi Grinstein)解释道。“我们真正需要的是保护工人。”

You need to protect workers, not jobs, because every worker today will most likely have to transition multiple times to multiple jobs as the pace of change accelerates. So the best way you help workers is by ensuring that they are flexible — that they have the skills, safety nets, health care and lifelong learning opportunities to make those leaps and that they live in cities open to innovation, entrepreneurship and high-I.Q. risk-takers.

你需要保护的是工人,而不是工作岗位,因为随着变革速度的加快,如今每个工人都很可能不得不换好几份工作。因此,你帮助工人的最好办法是确保他们具有灵活性——让他们拥有找到下一份工作的技能、安全保障、医疗保健,以及帮助他们完成那些跨越的终身学习机会,并确保他们居住的城市包容创新精神、创业精神,以及高智商的冒险者。

The societal units protecting workers best are our healthy communities — where local businesses, philanthropies, the public school system and universities, and local government come together to support a permanent education-to-work-to-life-long-skill-building pipeline.

保护工人最有效的社会结构就是健康的社区——本地企业、慈善机构、公立学校系统和大学,以及地方政府携手合作,扶持一个永久性的教育—工作—终生技能培养渠道。

Businesses signal to schools and colleges, in real time, the skills they need to thrive in the global economy, and philanthropies fund innovative programs for supplemental education and training. Schools also serve as adult learning and social service centers — and local and state governments support them all, including reaching out globally for investors and new markets.

企业实时向学校和学院发出信号,它们在全球经济中茁壮成长需要哪些技能,慈善事业为补充教育和培训创新计划提供资金。学校成为成人学习和社会服务中心——地方和州政府提供支持,包括主动接触全球各地的投资者和新市场。

Eric Beinhocker, executive director of the Institute for New Economic Thinking at Oxford, calls this the “new progressive localism.” For too long, he argues, “progressives have been so focused on Washington, they’ve missed the fact that most of the progress on the issues they care about — environment, education, economic opportunity and work-force skills — has happened at the local level. Because that is where trust lives.” Trust is what enables you to adapt quickly and experiment often, i.e., to be flexible. And there is so much more trust on the local level than the national level in America today.

牛津大学新经济思想研究院(Institute for New Economic Thinking)的执行董事埃里克·贝因霍克(Eric Beinhocker)把这称为“新的进步型地方主义”。他认为,“进步派把重点放在华盛顿已经太久了,他们没有认清这样一个事实:在他们关心的问题上,不管是环境、教育、经济机会还是工作技能,大部分进展都是在地方一级发生的。因为那个层级存在着信任感。”有了信任,你可以快速适应情况,经常进行实验,也就是具有灵活性。和当今美国的国家层级相比,地方层级的信任感强烈得多。

When Trump strong-arms a company to retain jobs, but kills Obamacare without a credible alternative, he is saving jobs but hurting workers, because he is making workers less secure and less flexible.

特朗普强制企业把工作岗位留在美国,同时撤销奥巴马医改方案,又不推出一个可信赖的替代方案,这样做拯救的是工作岗位,危害的却是工人,因为他正在削弱工人的安全性和灵活性。

Another of Trump’s jobs fallacies is that regulation always holds companies back. In some cases it does, and thoughtful deregulation can help. But Trump’s argument that we must ignore climate science because steadily upgrading clean energy standards for our power, auto and construction companies kills jobs is pure nonsense.

特朗普有关工作岗位的另一个谬论是,管制总是会妨碍公司的发展。有些时候的确是这样,经过缜密思考的放松管制能起到帮助作用。但特朗普认为持续升级电力、汽车和建筑公司的清洁能源标准会影响工作岗位,所以我们必须忽视气候科学的观点,纯属胡说八道。

Fact: California has some of the highest clean energy standards for cars, buildings and electric utilities in America. And those standards have kept California one of the world’s leaders in clean-tech companies and start-ups, and its jobs and overall economy have grown steadily since 2010.

事实是:加利福尼亚州针对汽车、建筑和电力公用事业的部分清洁能源标准是全美最高的。那些标准使加利福尼亚成为了全球清洁能源科技企业和创业公司的领导者之一。自2010年以来,该州的就业和整体经济稳定增长。

“The Golden State has more than half a million advanced energy jobs,” says Energy Innovation C.E.O. Hal Harvey. “That’s 10 times more — in this state alone — than total U.S. coal jobs.” Trump’s strategy is to “make America last” on clean energy and to double down on coal. Insane.

“黄金州(加州的别称——译注)提供了50多万个高级能源工作岗位,”能源创新(Energy Innovation)的首席执行官哈尔·哈维(Hal Harvey)说道。“仅在这个州,就是美国总的煤炭行业工作岗位的十倍。”特朗普的战略是在清洁能源领域“让美国落到最后”,而把赌注押在煤炭行业。这简直是疯了。

In sum, Democrats should and can take the language of “strength” away from Trump and own it themselves. They should be for strong workers, not strong walls; for building strong communities, not relying on a strongman to strong-arm employers; and for strong standards to create strong companies. Those would be my fightin’ words.

总而言之,民主党应该也有能力和特朗普争夺有关“强大”的话语权,并将其握在自己手中。他们应该支持强大的劳动者,而不是坚固的墙;应该支持建立强大的社区,而不是依赖一个铁腕人物去强迫雇主;应该支持用严格的标准去创造强大的公司。我的这些话可能会引起争议。

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