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那天,克格勃塞给我一杯伏特加

更新时间:2017-1-17 18:36:31 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

That Time the K.G.B. Slipped Me Vodka
那天,克格勃塞给我一杯伏特加

For those of us who worked in the old Soviet Union as reporters or diplomats, all the talk of “kompromat” and “dezinformatsiya” that has emerged with the Trump dossier — unverified — has been a blast from what we thought was a distant past.

对我们当中曾在过去的苏联当过记者或外交官的人来说,和特朗普档案一同出现的未得到证实的“黑材料”和“虚假信息”传闻,勾起了对我们本以为是遥远的过去的回忆。

In the Soviet mind-set, foreigners were a permanent but inescapable danger to be isolated in guarded compounds, monitored with ubiquitous bugs, followed in the streets, restricted in their travels and manipulated through propaganda. To be on the safe side, the K.G.B. presumably compiled compromising materials (kompro-mat) on foreigners so they could be blackmailed or thrown out if necessary.

在苏联的思维模式中,外国人是一个永久性的,却又无法逃避的危险,要把他们隔离在有人看守的院子里、用无处不在的窃听器进行监视、在大街上跟踪他们、限制他们的出行,并通过宣传控制他们。保险起见地说,克格勃(KGB)编制外国人的不雅材料,大概是为了在必要的时候能敲诈或驱逐他们。

Like many another foreign correspondent, I was the target of a few such attempts — or at least there were a few I became aware of. One time at the bar of the hotel in Odessa run by Intourist, the agency that handled foreigners’ travels, a young woman jumped suddenly on my neck as flashbulbs went off. In Samarkand a colleague and I were surreptitiously given vodka at an outdoor teahouse and then arrested for drinking it. Another colleague, a strict teetotaler, was slipped a Mickey Finn meant to make him look totally drunk. In each such case, we promptly filed a formal protest and thought little more of it, accepting it as the price of being Western reporters in a paranoid police state.

和其他许多外国记者一样,我多次成为这类尝试的目标,或者说我发现的至少有好几次。一次是在敖德萨,在处理外国人旅行事务的苏联国际旅行社(Intourist)开办的酒店的酒吧里。闪光灯一闪,一名年轻女子突然抱住我的脖子。在撒马尔罕的一家室外茶馆,有人偷偷给我和一名同事伏特加。之后,我们因为喝伏特加被捕。另一名完全滴酒不沾的同事被人偷偷塞了混有麻醉药的饮料,为的是让他看上去像喝得烂醉。每当发生这样的事情,我们都会立即提出正式抗议,不作多想,把它当作西方记者在一个多疑的警察国家工作要付出的代价。

These tactics at times bore fruit. Diplomats, spies and reporters were occasionally compelled to leave over some sordid revelations. But as in the current case, these were usually unverified — kompromat, after all, ceases being useful once it is made public.

这些策略有时候会凑效。外交官、间谍和记者因为一些丑恶的爆料而被迫离开的事情偶有发生。但就像眼下这件事一样,它们通常都没有得到证实。毕竟一旦被公开,黑材料就没用了。

Even so, it had propaganda value, to demonstrate to the Soviet public how dangerous and immoral foreigners are. In fact, Soviet efforts to frighten their own citizens about the evils of the “imperialists” — and therefore to stay away from foreigners — were far more elaborate than anything we expats experienced. Vladimir Vysotsky, the great underground bard of the Soviet era, had a song about a simple Soviet worker who won a trip abroad and is then driven to total panic about the subversive temptations he will encounter in “that Polish Budapest.”

即便如此,它仍具有宣传价值,可用于向苏联民众证明外国人多么危险和堕落。事实上,苏联用“帝国主义者”的邪恶来恐吓自己的公民,进而让他们远离外国人的行动,远比我们外国人经历的任何事情周密。苏联时期伟大的地下诗人弗拉基米尔·维索茨基(Vladimir Vysotsky)有一首歌,说的就是苏联的一名普通工人赢得了出国旅行的机会,后来却被迫陷入了对自己会在“那个波兰布达佩斯”遇到的颠覆诱惑的极度恐慌中。

It should not be surprising that some of these tactics have survived or been resurrected. Today’s Russia is not the Soviet Union, but Vladimir Putin’s regime has similar instincts — like labeling any foreign enterprise a “foreign agent” or denying hard evidence of doping among Russian athletes as an international conspiracy.

我们不应对部分策略得到了保留或恢复感到惊讶。今天的俄罗斯不是苏联,但弗拉基米尔·普京(Vladimir Putin)领导的政权具有类似的本能,如给任何一家外国企业贴上“外国特工”的标签,或否认给俄罗斯运动员使用兴奋剂的铁证,称其是国际阴谋。

In the spy-vs.-spy game, which is not unique to Russia, kompromat no doubt has had its victims — a diplomat blackmailed into spying, a meddlesome journalist forced to leave, a politician discredited. But in the greater game of geopolitics, meddling in another country’s political processes runs the risk of doing far greater damage.

间谍大战的游戏并非俄罗斯所独有。在这种游戏中,黑材料毋庸置疑会伤害一些人:外交官被迫从事间谍活动、爱管闲事的记者被迫离开、政治人物名声扫地。但在更大的地缘政治游戏中,干涉他国政治进程面临的风险是,它造成的破坏会大得多。

The kompromat and dezinformatsiya of the Soviet era served largely to reveal the regime’s insecurity and weakness. It’s hard to see how it would help the Kremlin today.

苏联时代的黑材料和虚假信息主要暴露了该政权的不安和虚弱。我们很难看出它们会给今天的克里姆林宫带来什么帮助。

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