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更新时间:2017-1-11 18:28:32 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Talking to In-laws Can Be Hard. In Some Languages, It’s Impossible.

In-laws may be universally intimidating, but in some cultures, the deference paid them rises to a whole new level, at least linguistically.


A geographically widespread practice known as avoidance speech, or “mother-in-law languages,” imposes strict rules on how one speaks — or doesn’t — to the parents of a spouse, with daughters-in-law typically bearing the brunt of such limits.


In parts of Africa, Australia and India, some societies restrict the words a person can say after marriage. Some cultures have even barred all direct communication with parents-in-law.


Some married women who speak the Kambaata language of Ethiopia follow ballishsha, a rule that forbids them from using words that begin with the same syllable as the name of their father-in-law or mother-in-law.


This rule can complicate a conversation, but there are workarounds. Certain basic words in the vocabulary come in synonymous pairs. “One is the normal term, used by everybody; one is the term used by women who are not allowed to say that word,” said Yvonne Treis, a linguist at a French research institute, Languages and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa.

这项规定可能会给交谈增加困难,但有变通的办法。某些基础词汇是以同义词的形式成对出现的。“一个是正常的词,大家都可以使用,另一个是不得用那个词的女性使用的词,”法国研究机构撒哈拉以南非洲语言与文化(Languages and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa)的语言学家伊冯娜·特雷伊斯(Yvonne Treis)说。

Euphemisms are another frequent solution: If the word “ox” is taboo for a wife to say, she may refer to “the one that plows” instead. The Kambaata language also has a word akin to “whatchamacallit” in English, useful in a pinch as either a noun or verb when no other alternative is available.


Avoidance speech is also practiced by speakers of some of the Bantu languages of southern Africa, including Xhosa and Zulu. Married women are forbidden from using their father-in-law’s name, or any word that has the same root or similar sound.


Bantu speakers often get around this restriction by borrowing synonyms from other languages spoken nearby. Some linguists think that is how click consonants found their way into Bantu speech: in words borrowed from Khoisan languages, which use clicks extensively.


In parts of India, a daughter-in-law is not allowed to use words that begin with the same letters as her in-laws’ names, requiring her to use a parallel vocabulary.


Avoidance speech was a common feature of many aboriginal languages in Australia. The custom has largely faded in some areas, but it is still widely practiced in the Western Desert region and Arnhem Land, according to Claire Bowern, a professor of linguistics at Yale.

回避语言是澳大利亚很多土著语言的共同特征。这一习俗在部分地区基本上已经消失了,但据耶鲁大学的语言学教授克莱尔·鲍韦恩(Claire Bowern)介绍,在西部沙漠地区和阿纳姆地,该风俗仍广泛流传。

Avoidance speech can be more of a two-way street in Australia, with restrictions applying across genders and generations. There are aboriginal cultures where a man and his mother-in-law are forbidden to directly address each other.


“In my experience, the taboos between a man and a mother-in-law are a lot stronger than between a woman and her mother-in-law,” Professor Bowern said.


As in Africa and India, there are a number of rules in Australian languages about which words one can say in the presence of “tabooed kin,” Professor Bowern said. For example, in the Dyirbal language, spoken in northeast Queensland, water is “bana” in the everyday language but “jujama” in avoidance speech.


Of course, there isn’t a second word for everything, and one avoidance word often has to suffice for many related ordinary words. In the Guugu Yimithirr tongue, spoken in the far north of Queensland, the verb “bali-l,” meaning to travel, is the all-purpose substitute for more specific words like walk, crawl, limp, paddle or float.


Why did the custom of avoidance speech arise? Some experts on its use in Africa and India see it as a way to reinforce the inferior status of daughters-in-law. In Australia, the prohibitions might have been intended to reduce the chance of sexual relations between in-laws.