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强奸、大火和死亡:缅甸罗辛亚人的血泪控诉

更新时间:2017-1-11 18:23:15 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

‘There Are No Homes Left’: Rohingya Tell of Rape, Fire and Death in Myanmar
强奸、大火和死亡:缅甸罗辛亚人的血泪控诉

KUTUPALONG CAMP, Bangladesh — When the Myanmar military closed in on the village of Pwint Phyu Chaung, everyone had a few seconds to make a choice.

孟加拉国库图巴朗难民营——当缅甸军队逼近贝恩特漂羌时,所有人都只有几秒钟的选择时间。

Noor Ankis, 25, chose to remain in her house, where she was told to kneel to be beaten, she said, until soldiers led her to the place where women were raped. Rashida Begum, 22, chose to plunge with her three children into a deep, swift-running creek, only to watch as her baby daughter slipped from her grasp.

25岁的努尔·安基斯(Noor Ankis)选择了留在家里。她说,在家中,她被命令跪下并遭到殴打,直到士兵把她带去一个地方,在那里,很多女性遭到强奸。22岁的拉希达·别古姆(Rashida Begum)选择带着三个孩子跳进一条水流湍急的深河里,不料却眼睁睁地看着最小的女儿从自己手中滑脱。

Sufayat Ullah, 20, also chose the creek. He stayed in the water for two days and finally emerged to find that soldiers had set his family home on fire, leaving his mother, father and two brothers to asphyxiate inside.

20岁的苏法亚特·乌拉(Sufayat Ullah)也选择了这条小河。他在水里泡了两天,最后出来时,发现士兵已经把他家烧毁,他的母亲、父亲和两个兄弟在里面窒息而亡。

These accounts and others, given over the last few days by refugees who fled Myanmar and are now living in Bangladesh, shed light on the violence that has unfolded in Myanmar in recent months as security forces there carry out a brutal counterinsurgency campaign.

这些叙述和其他的一些描述都是在过去几天里逃离缅甸、现在生活在孟加拉国的难民所提供的。缅甸最近几个月在该国安全部队执行一场残忍的平叛期间出现的暴力可见一斑。

Their stories, though impossible to confirm independently, generally align with reports by human rights organizations that the military entered villages in northern Rakhine State shooting at random, set houses on fire with rocket launchers, and systematically raped girls and women. At least 1,500 homes were razed, according to an analysis of satellite images by Human Rights Watch.

他们的故事尽管无法独立证实,但总体上与各人权组织的报告一致。相关报告称,军队进入若开邦北部的村庄时随意开枪、用火箭筒点燃房屋,并有组织地强奸女童和妇女。从人权观察组织(Human Rights Watch)对卫星图片进行的分析来看,至少1500座房屋被夷为平地。

The campaign, which has moved south in recent weeks, seems likely to continue until Myanmar’s government is satisfied that it has fully disarmed the militancy that has arisen among the Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic group that has been persecuted for decades in majority-Buddhist Myanmar.

最近几周,这场运动已向南转移。它看上去可能会一直持续到缅甸政府感到满足,直至认为彻底消除了罗辛亚族的战斗精神为止。罗辛亚族是一个穆斯林民族,数十年来在佛教徒占多数的缅甸一直备受迫害。

“There is a risk that we haven’t seen the worst of this yet,” said Matthew Smith of Fortify Rights, a nongovernmental organization focusing on human rights in Southeast Asia. “We’re not sure what the state security forces will do next, but we do know attacks on civilians are continuing.”

“有一个危险是,我们还没看到最严重的情况,”重点关注东南亚人权状况的非政府组织巩固人权(Fortify Rights)的马修·史密斯(Matthew Smith)说。“我们不确定国家安全部队接下来会干什么,但我们的确知道对平民的攻击仍在继续。”

A commission appointed by Myanmar’s government last week denied allegations that its military was committing genocide in the villages, which have been closed to Western journalists and human rights investigators. Officials have said Rohingya forces are setting fire to their own houses and have denied most charges of human rights abuses, with the exception of a beating that was captured on video. Myanmar’s leader, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the recipient of a Nobel Peace Prize, has been criticized for failing to respond more forcefully to the violence.

缅甸政府上周任命的一个委员会否认了该国军队在相关村庄制造种族灭绝的指控。那些村庄已对西方记者和人权调查人士关闭。官员称罗辛亚族的部队自己点火烧房子,并否认了大部分侵犯人权的指控,仅被视频记录下来的一次殴打事件除外。缅甸领导人、诺贝尔和平奖获得者昂山素季(Daw Aung San Suu Kyi)因未能更有力地应对暴力而受到指责。

The crackdown began after an attack on three border posts in Rakhine State in October, in which nine police officers were killed. The attack is believed to have been carried out by an until-then-unknown armed Rohingya insurgent group.

镇压活动是在去年10月若开邦三个边防哨所遭到袭击后开始的。在那场袭击中,九名警察被杀。制造袭击的据信是一个那时尚不为人知的罗辛亚武装起义团体。

The military campaign, which the government describes as a “clearing” operation, has largely targeted civilians, human rights groups say. It has sent an estimated 65,000 Rohingya fleeing across the border to Bangladesh, according to the International Organization for Migration.

政府称这场军事行动是一场“清除”运动。人权团体称,该运动主要针对平民。据国际移民组织(International Organization for Migration)称,行动估计已导致6.5万罗辛亚人越过边境,进入孟加拉国。

“They started coming in like the tide,” said Dudu Miah, a Rohingya refugee who is chairman of the management committee at the Leda refugee camp, near the border with Myanmar. “They were acting crazy. They were a mess. They were saying, ‘They’ve killed my father, they’ve killed my mother, they’ve beaten me up.’ They were in disarray.”

“他们开始像潮水一样涌入,”缅甸边境附近的勒达难民营管理委员会主席、罗辛亚族难民杜杜·米亚赫(Dudu Miah)说。“他们跟疯了一样,狼狈不堪。他们说,‘他们杀了我父亲,他们杀了我母亲,他们打我。’他们乱成一团。”

Soldiers were attacking villages just across the Naf River, which separates Myanmar from Bangladesh, so close that Bangladeshis could see columns of smoke rise from burning villages on the other side, said Nazir Ahmed, the imam of a mosque that caters to Rohingyas.

遭到士兵袭击的村庄就在缅甸和孟加拉国的边界纳夫河的对面。一座罗辛亚人清真寺的伊玛目纳齐尔·艾哈迈德(Nazir Ahmed)说,距离近到孟加拉国的人能够看到对岸燃烧的村庄冒起的烟柱。

He said it was true that some Rohingya, enraged by years of mistreatment by Myanmar forces, had organized themselves into a crude militant force, but that Myanmar had dramatically exaggerated its proportions and seriousness.

他说,的确有一些罗辛亚人因多年遭受缅甸部队的虐待而感到愤怒,进而自发组成了一支简陋的激进部队,但缅甸严重夸大了它的比例和严重性。

Rohingyas are “frustrated, and they are picking up sticks and making a call to defend themselves,” he said. “Now, if they find a farmer who has a machete at home, they say, ‘You are engaged in terrorism.’”

罗辛亚人“感到不满,他们拿起棍棒,号召自卫”,他说。“现在,如果发现一个农民家里有一把大砍刀,他们就会说,‘你参加恐怖主义。’”

An analysis released last month by the International Crisis Group took a serious view of the new militant group, which it says is financed and organized by Rohingya émigrés in Saudi Arabia. Further violence, it warned, could accelerate radicalization among the Rohingya, who could become willing instruments of transnational jihadist groups.

国际危机组织(International Crisis Group)上月发布的一份分析报告很重视这个新出现的激进团体,称其得到流亡沙特阿拉伯的罗辛亚人的资助,接受他们的安排。报告警告称,进一步的暴力可能会加剧罗辛亚人的激进化,他们可能会心甘情愿地被跨国圣战组织利用。

In interviews in and around the Kutupalong and Leda refugee camps here, Rohingya who fled Myanmar in recent weeks said that military personnel initially went house to house seeking adult men, and then proceeded to rape women and burn homes. Many new arrivals are from Kyet Yoepin, a village where 245 buildings were destroyed during a two-day sweep in mid-October, according to Human Rights Watch.

在库图巴朗难民营和勒达难民营及周边地区进行采访时,最近几周逃离缅甸的罗辛亚人说,军事人员先是挨家挨户抓成年男性,然后再强奸妇女和烧房子。新来的难民中很多人都来自基耶特约彬村。据人权观察组织称,在10月中旬一场持续了两天的扫荡中,该村245栋建筑被毁。

Muhammad Shafiq, who is in his mid-20s, said he was at home with his family when he heard gunfire. Soldiers in camouflage banged on the door, then shot at it, he said. When he let them in, he said, “they took the women away, and lined up the men.”

二十五六岁的穆罕默德·沙菲克(Muhammad Shafiq)说,听到炮火声时他和家人正好在家里。他说,穿着迷彩服的士兵大声捶门,然后朝门开枪。他说,他让他们进门后,“他们把女的带走了,让男的排起队。”

Mr. Shafiq said that when a soldier grabbed his sister’s hand, he lunged at him, fearful the soldier intended to rape her, and was beaten so severely that the soldiers left him for dead. Later, he bolted with one of his children and was grazed by a soldier’s bullet on his elbow. He crawled for an hour on his hands and knees through a rice field, then watched, from a safe vantage point, as troops set fire to what remained of Kyet Yoepin.

沙菲克说,当一名士兵抓住他妹妹的手时,他向那名士兵扑过去,担心他会强奸她。他因此而惨遭毒打,士兵留下他等死。后来,他和自己的一个孩子逃脱,一名士兵射出的一颗子弹擦过他的胳膊肘。他用双手和膝盖在一片水稻田里爬了一个小时,然后从一个安全的有利位置看到部队将基耶特约彬剩下的东西付之一炬。

“There are no homes left,” he said. “Everything is burned.”

“没有房屋剩下,”他说。“都烧了。”

Jannatul Mawa, 25, who is from the same village, said she crawled toward the next village overnight, passing the shadowy forms of dead and wounded neighbors.

25岁的扬纳图尔·马瓦(Jannatul Mawa)也来自基耶特约彬。她说自己连夜爬向邻村,路上看到了遇难和受伤的邻居模糊的身影。

“Some were shot, some were killed with a blade,” she said. “Wherever they could find people, they were killing them.”

“一些人中枪,一些人是被用刀杀害的,”她说。“不管是在哪里找到的,他们都会杀了他们。”

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