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《小鹿斑比》的华裔美术设计师黄齐耀逝世

更新时间:2017-1-8 11:22:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Tyrus Wong, ‘Bambi’ Artist Thwarted by Racial Bias, Dies at 106
《小鹿斑比》的华裔美术设计师黄齐耀逝世

When Walt Disney’s “Bambi” opened in 1942, critics praised its spare, haunting visual style, vastly different from anything Disney had done before.

1942年,华特迪士尼(Walt Disney)的《小鹿斑比》(Bambi)上映时,评论家称赞了它令人难忘的简洁视觉风格,与迪士尼之前的所有作品都大为不同。

But what they did not know was that the film’s striking appearance had been created by a Chinese immigrant artist, who took as his inspiration the landscape paintings of the Song dynasty. The full extent of his contribution to “Bambi,” which remains a high-water mark for film animation, would not be widely known for decades.

但他们当时不知道的是,这部电影惊人的画面出自一位华裔移民艺术家之手,他的灵感来自宋代的山水画。他对《小鹿班比》的完整贡献在之后的几十年里并不广为人知。直到现在,《小鹿斑比》依然称得上一部高水准的动画影片。

“小鹿斑比”之父、华裔艺术家黄齐耀上周逝世,享年106岁。其创作受南宋山水画影响,并有着具个人风格的鲜明色彩。 “小鹿斑比”就这样诞生在他精致铺排的自然背景中。

Like the film’s title character, the artist, Tyrus Wong, weathered irrevocable separation from his mother — and, in the hope of making a life in the United States, incarceration, isolation and rigorous interrogation — all when he was still a child.

和该片的主人公一样,艺术家黄齐耀在很小的时候就经历了与母亲彻底的分离,为了获得在美国生活的机会,他还曾在童年时遭受监禁、隔离和严酷的审讯。

In the years that followed, he endured poverty, discrimination and chronic lack of recognition, not only for his work at Disney but also for his fine art, before finding acclaim in his 90s.

在之后的很多年里,他承受着贫穷和歧视,他在迪士尼的作品以及自己的美术作品长期得不到认可,直到他90多岁时才获得赞誉。

Wong died Friday at 106. A Hollywood studio artist, painter, printmaker, calligrapher, greeting-card illustrator and, in later years, maker of fantastical kites, he was one of the most celebrated Chinese-American artists of the 20th century.

黄齐耀于上周五去世,享年106岁。他是一名好莱坞电影艺术家、画家、版画家、书法家和贺卡插画师,晚年还做了很多美妙绝伦的风筝,他是20世纪最著名的华裔美国艺术家之一。

But because of the marginalization to which Asian-Americans were long subject, he passed much of his career unknown to the general public.

但是,由于华裔美国人长期遭受边缘化,在他事业的大部分时间,他并不为公众所知。

Artistic recognition, when Wong did find it, was all the more noteworthy for the fact that among Chinese immigrant men of his generation, professional prospects were largely limited to menial jobs like houseboy and laundryman.

黄齐耀的艺术作品最终获得的认可尤为可贵,因为他那一代男性华裔移民的职业前景大多仅限于做男仆或洗衣工等体力活。

Trained as a painter, Wong was a leading figure in the modernist movement that flourished in California between the wars. In 1932 and again in 1934, his work was included in group shows at the Art Institute of Chicago that also featured Picasso, Matisse and Paul Klee.

作为专业出身的画家,黄齐耀是两次世界大战之间在加利福尼亚兴盛的现代主义运动的一位领军人物。在1932年和1934年,他的作品曾在芝加哥艺术学院参加群展,同时展出的还有毕加索(Picasso),马蒂斯(Matisse)和保罗·克利(Paul Klee)的作品。

As a staff artist for Hollywood studios from the 1930s to the 1960s, he drew storyboards and made vibrant paintings, as detailed as any architectural illustrations, that helped the director envision each scene before it was shot.

1930年代到1960年代在好莱坞制片公司担任美术人员期间,他绘制分镜,创作充精彩的绘画,它们像建筑图纸一样详尽,帮助导演在拍摄前预见所有场景。

Over the years his work informed the look of animated pictures for Disney and live-action films for Warner Bros. and other studios, among them “The Sands of Iwo Jima” (1949), “Rebel Without a Cause” (1955) and “The Wild Bunch” (1969).

多年来,他的作品为迪士尼(Disney)的动画与华纳兄弟(Warner Bros)和其他制片公司的电影赋予特色,其中包括1949年的《硫磺岛浴血战》(1949年),1955年的《无因的反叛》和1969年的《日落黄沙》(The Wild Bunch)。

But of the dozens of films on which he worked, it was for “Bambi” that Wong was — belatedly — most renowned.

但在他参与的几十部电影里,是《小鹿斑比》(Bambi)为黄齐耀带来了最大的声誉,虽说来得有些迟。

“He was truly involved with every phase of production,” John Canemaker, an Oscar-winning animator and a historian of animation at New York University, said in an interview for this obituary in March. “He created an art direction that had really never been seen before in animation.”

“他确实参与了制片的每一个阶段,”奥斯卡获奖动画师,纽约大学动画历史学家约翰·卡内梅克(John Canemaker)在今年3月为这个讣告接受采访时说。“他创造了一个艺术方向,在以前的动画中从未出现过。”

In 2013 and 2014, Wong was the subject of “Water to Paper, Paint to Sky,” a major retrospective at the Disney Family Museum in San Francisco.

2013年和2014年,旧金山的迪斯尼家庭博物馆(Disney Family Museum)为黄齐耀举办了“水天一色”(Water to Paper, Paint to Sky)主题回顾展。

From the museum’s windows, which overlook San Francisco Bay, he could contemplate Angel Island, where more than nine decades earlier, as a lone 10-year-old, he had sought to gain admission to a country that adamantly did not want him.

从博物馆的窗户可以俯瞰旧金山湾,在这里,黄齐耀可能会想到天使岛,90多年前的他,一个孤独的10岁孩子,曾在那个地方试图获得许可,进入一个坚决不想要他的国家。

Wong Gen Yeo (the name is sometimes Romanized Wong Gaing Yoo) was born on Oct. 25, 1910, in a farming village in Guangdong province. As a young child, he exhibited a love of drawing and was encouraged by his father.

黄齐耀(Wong Gen Yeo,这个名字有时也写作Wong Gaing Yoo)于1910年10月25日出生在广东省的一个农村。他从小就表现出对绘画的爱好,并受到父亲的鼓励。

In 1920, seeking better economic prospects, Gen Yeo and his father embarked for the United States, leaving his mother and sister behind. Gen Yeo would never see his mother again.

1920年,为寻求更好的经济前景,黄齐耀随父前往美国,留下他的母亲和姊妹在家乡。后来,黄齐耀再也没有见到过母亲。

On Dec. 30, 1920, after a month at sea, the Wongs landed at Angel Island Immigration Station. The elder Wong was traveling as a merchant named Look Get; his son as Look Tai Yow.

1920年12月30日,经过一个月的海上航行后,黄家父子登陆天使岛移民站。黄齐耀的父亲化名为一个名叫陆吉(Look Get)的旅行商人;他的儿子化名为陆泰佑(Look Tai Yow,音)。

“Angel Island is considered to be the Ellis Island of the West Coast,” Lisa See, author of “On Gold Mountain” (1995), a nonfiction chronicle of her Chinese-American family, said in an interview this year. However, she continued:

“天使岛被认为是西海岸的埃利斯岛”,《百年金山》(On Gold Mountain,1995)一书的作者邝丽莎(Lisa See)在今年接受采访时说,该书是一本非虚构类书籍,讲述她的华裔美国人家庭史。然而,她还说:

“The goal was really very different than Ellis Island, which was supposed to be so welcoming. Angel Island opened very specifically to keep the Chinese out.”

“天使岛的目标与埃利斯岛非常不同,埃利斯岛应该是非常欢迎移民的。而天使岛是专门用来把中国人拒之门外的。”

Because Wong’s father had previously lived in the United States as Look Get, he was able to clear Immigration quickly. But as a new arrival, Gen Yeo was detained on the island for nearly a month, the only child among the immigrants being held there.

因为黄齐耀的父亲以前曾以陆吉为名在美国居住过,他很快就离开了移民局。但是作为新来者,黄齐耀在岛上被拘留了近一个月,是被关押在那里的移民当中唯一的孩子。

“I was scared half to death; I just cried,” Wong recalled in “Tyrus,” an award-winning documentary directed by Pamela Tom, which premiered in 2015. “Every day is just miserable — miserable. I hated that place.”

“我吓得半死;一个劲地哭,”黄齐耀在获奖纪录片《黄齐耀》(Tyrus)中说,该片由帕梅拉·汤姆(Pamela Tom)导演,于2015年首映。“每天都很悲惨——悲惨。我讨厌那个地方。”

On Jan. 27, 1921, in the presence of an interpreter and a stenographer, young Gen Yeo, posing as Look Tai Yow, was interrogated by three inspectors. His father had already been questioned.

1921年1月27日,在一名口译员和一名速记员的陪同下,年轻的黄齐耀以陆泰佑的身份,被三名检查员询问。他的父亲已经接受了询问。

Gen Yeo was well prepared and answered without error. In Sacramento, where he joined his father, a schoolteacher Americanized “Tai Yow” to “Tyrus,” and he was known as Tyrus Wong ever after.

黄齐耀准备充分,没有答错。在萨克拉门托,他与父亲重聚,一个学校教师把“Tai Yow”美国化为“Tyrus”,之后他就被称为“Tyrus Wong”。

From 1936-38, Wong was an artist for the Works Progress Administration, creating paintings for libraries and other public spaces.

从1936年至1938年,黄齐耀在公共事业振兴署(Works Progress Administration)担任艺术家,为图书馆和其他公共空间创作绘画。

With friends, including Japanese-American artist Benji Okubo, he founded the Oriental Artists’ Group of Los Angeles, which organized exhibitions of members’ work — an unheard-of level of exposure for Asian artists at the time.

他和包括日裔美国艺术家大久保勉二(Benji Okubo,音)在内的一些朋友创立了洛杉矶东方艺术家小组(Oriental Artists’ Group of Los Angeles),为其成员组织作品展——当时为亚洲艺术家提供了前所未有的公众曝光度。

Wong, newly married and needing steady work, joined Disney in 1938 as an “in-betweener,” creating the thousands of intermediate drawings that bring animated sequences to life.

新婚的黄齐耀需要稳定的工作,1938年他作为“中间画师”加入迪士尼,创作了成千上万张的中间图纸,为动画系列镜头带来生命。

Asians were then a novelty at Hollywood studios, and Wong was made keenly aware of the fact, first at Disney and later at Warner Bros. One co-worker flung a racial epithet at him. Another assumed on sight that he worked in the company cafeteria.

在当时的好莱坞制片公司,亚洲人是一个新鲜事物,先是在迪士尼,后来在华纳兄弟,黄齐耀敏锐地意识到了这个事实。一个同事对他说过带有种族歧视性质的词语。另一个同事第一次看到他时,以为他是在公司食堂工作。

Then there was the affront of the in-betweener’s job: Painstaking, repetitive and for Wong quickly soul-numbing, it is the assembly-line work of animation — “a terrible use of his talents as a landscape artist and a painter,” Canemaker said.

此外还有中间画师工作带来的羞耻:它是痛苦的、重复的,对于黄齐耀来说,这种动画领域的流水线工作会很快地让灵魂麻木——“他是一个风景艺术家和画家,这对他的才华来说是种浪费,”,卡内梅克说。

A reprieve came in the late 1930s, when Wong learned that Disney was adapting “Bambi, a Life in the Woods,” the 1923 novel by Austrian writer Felix Salten about a fawn whose mother is killed by a hunter.

1930年代后期,黄齐耀得到了一个暂时获得解脱的机会,当时他得知迪士尼正在改编奥地利作家费利克斯·萨尔腾(Felix Salten)1923年的小说《斑比:丛林生灵》(Bambi, a Life in the Woods) ,小说讲述一只母亲被猎人杀死的小鹿。

In trying to animate the book, Disney had reached an impasse. The studio had enjoyed great success in 1937 with its animated film “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,” a baroque production in which every detail of the backgrounds — every petal on every flower, every leaf on every tree — was meticulously represented.

在把这本书改编为动画时,迪士尼陷入了僵局。公司在1937年凭着动画电影《白雪公主和七个小矮人》(Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs)大获成功,在这部绮丽的片子里,每个背景的细节都被精心呈现,包括每朵花的每个花瓣、每棵树上的每片叶子。

In an attempt to use a similar style for “Bambi,” it found that the ornate backgrounds camouflaged the deer and other forest creatures on which the narrative centered.

迪士尼试图在《小鹿斑比》中使用类似的风格,结果它发现,华丽的背景掩盖了作为叙事中心的小鹿和其他森林生物。

Wong spied his chance.

黄齐耀感觉他的机会来了。

“I said, ‘Gee, this is all outdoor scenery,'” he recalled in a video interview years afterward, adding: “I said, ‘Gee, I’m a landscape painter!'”

“我说,‘嘿,这些都是户外风景,’”“他在若干年后的视频采访中回忆,并补充说:“我说,‘嘿,我是风景画家!’”

Invoking the exquisite landscape paintings of the Song dynasty (A.D. 960–1279), he rendered in watercolors and pastels a series of nature scenes that were moody, lyrical and atmospheric — at once lush and spare — with backgrounds subtly suggested by a stroke or two of the brush.

借鉴了宋代(公元960-1279)精致的山水画风格,他用水彩与蜡笔呈现了一系列自然场景,它们伤感、抒情、有很强烈的氛围感,既华丽又简约,只需笔刷画下一两笔便可以微妙地暗示出背景。

“Walt Disney went crazy over them,” said Canemaker, who wrote about Wong in his book “Before the Animation Begins: The Art and Lives of Disney Inspirational Sketch Artists” (1996). “He said, ‘I love this indefinite quality, the mysterious quality of the forest.'”

“沃尔特·迪士尼被它们迷住了,”卡内梅克在他1996年的著作《在动画开始之前:迪斯尼灵感草图艺术家的艺术与生活》(Before the Animation Begins: The Art and Lives of Disney Inspirational Sketch Artists)一书中写道。 “他说,我喜欢这种不确定的质感,森林的神秘质感。”

Wong was unofficially promoted to inspirational sketch artist.

黄齐耀被非正式晋升为灵感草图艺术家。

“But he was more than that,” Canemaker explained. “He was the designer; he was the person they went to when they had questions about the color, about how to lay something out. He even influenced the music and the special effects: Just by the look of the drawings, he inspired people.”

“但他的工作不仅于此,”卡内梅克解释道。“他也是设计师;他们有任何关于色彩、关于布局的问题就会去找他。他甚至影响了音乐和特效:他通过草图的样子启发了人们。”

Wong spent two years painting the illustrations that would inform every aspect of “Bambi.” Throughout the finished film — lent a brooding quality by its stark landscapes; misty, desaturated palette; and figures often seen in silhouette — his influence is unmistakable.

黄齐耀花了两年时间绘制表现《小鹿斑比》各个方面的图画。成品电影中,冷峻的风景、迷雾笼罩般的不饱和色彩,以及经常以剪影出现的角色形象为影片赋予了一种沉思般的质感,毫无疑问,他的影响贯穿全片。

But in 1941, in the wake of a bitter employees’ strike that year, Disney fired Wong. Though he had chosen not to strike — he felt the studio had been good to him, Canemaker said — he was let go amid the lingering climate of post-strike resentments.

但是,1941年,一场激烈的雇员罢工后,迪士尼解雇了黄齐耀。虽然他没有参加罢工——他觉得公司对他很好,卡内梅克说——但他在罢工后残余的怨恨气氛中被解雇了。

On “Bambi,” Wong’s name appears, quite far down in the credits, as a mere “background” artist.

在《小鹿斑比》中,黄齐耀的名字出现在演职人员字幕相当靠后的位置,仅仅作为“背景”艺术家出现。

Wong joined Warner Bros. in 1942, working there — and lent out on occasion to other studios — until his retirement in 1968.

1942年,黄齐耀加入华纳兄弟公司,在那里工作,有时也被借给其他制片公司,直到1968年退休。

The indignities he endured were not confined to the studios. Trying to buy a house, he and his wife, the former Ruth Kim, were told that each property they inquired about had just been sold. “Then in a month you’d go back there and the sign was still there,” Wong recalled in “Tyrus.”

他所经受的羞辱不仅限于制片公司。他和妻子试图买房子时,他和他的妻子(原名露丝·金[Ruth Kim,音])每一次都被告知,他们询问的不动产刚刚被出售。“一个月后你回到那里,出售的标志仍然还在,”黄齐耀在《黄齐耀》中回忆。

Wong, who became a U.S. citizen in 1946, also designed Christmas cards for Hallmark and painted elegant Asian-inflected designs on dinnerware, now sought after by collectors.

黄齐耀于1946年成为美国公民,还曾为贺曼公司(Hallmark)设计圣诞贺卡,在餐具上绘制优雅的亚洲风格图案,这些餐具现在备受收藏家追捧。

A longtime resident of Sunland, California, he became, in retirement, a renowned kitemaker, designing, building and hand coloring astonishing, airworthy creations — butterflies, swallows, whole flocks of owls, centipedes more than 100 feet long — that streaked the Southern California sky like paint on blue canvas.

他是加利福尼亚州桑兰市的长期居民,退休后,他成了著名的风筝制作师,设计、制作和手绘这些惊人的飞行物——蝴蝶、燕子、整群的猫头鹰,超过100英尺长的蜈蚣——它们在南加州的天空飞过,就像蓝色画布上的油画。

Wong’s death, at his home in Sunland, was confirmed by filmmaker Tom. His survivors include three daughters, Kay Fong, Tai-Ling Wong and Kim Wong; and two grandchildren.

黄齐耀在桑兰的家中去世,他的死讯获得了电影制片人汤姆的确认。他尚在世的亲人包括三个女儿,凯伊·方(Kay Fong,音),泰琳·黄(Tai-Ling Wong,音)和金·黄(Kim Wong,音),以及两个孙辈。

When his daughters were small, Wong encouraged them to make art, as his father had encouraged him. Yet he would not let them have coloring books.

当女儿们年纪还小的时候,他鼓励她们创作艺术,就像他的父亲曾经鼓励过他那样。但他不会给她们买涂色书。

The reason was simple: He did not want his children constrained, he said, by lines laid down by others.

原因很简单:他说,他不希望孩子们被他人画下的线条所束缚。

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