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日本的“无性别男孩”:男女的概念过时了?

更新时间:2017-1-8 11:17:14 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

With Manicures and Makeup, Japan’s ‘Genderless’ Blur Line Between Pink and Blue
日本的“无性别男孩”:男女的概念过时了?

东京——佐佐木托曼(Toman Sasaki)以绘制瓷娃娃的手艺人的精巧,在自己纤细的脸上打上粉底,给鼻子两侧打上腮红,用小刷子调整嘴唇的颜色。在东京初台社区自己的小公寓里精心打扮40分钟后,他看着手镜中的自己,满意地点了点头。

Along with his manicured nails, bobbed hair and high-heeled shoes, the makeup made Sasaki, 23, appear more typically feminine than male, a striking choice in a society where men and women tend to hew strictly to conventional gender dress codes.

再加上做过美甲的手指、波波头和高跟鞋,这个妆容让23岁的佐佐木看起来更像典型的女性,而非男性,这在日本社会是个惊人的选择,日本的男人和女人们往往严格遵守传统的性别着装规范。

Sasaki, a model and pop band member who goes simply by Toman, does not regard his look as feminine so much as genderless. As one of a small but growing group of “genderless danshi” — “danshi” means young men in Japanese — he is developing a public identity and a career out of a new androgynous style.

佐佐木是一名模特和流行乐团成员,艺名就是简单的托曼,他不认为自己的造型像女性,而更多地认为它是无性别。作为一个不断发展的小群体“无性别男孩”的一员,他在从一种无明显性别特征的新风格中发展出一种公共身份和事业。

“At heart, I am a man,” said the petite-framed Sasaki, whose wardrobe of slim-fit tank tops, baggy jackets and skinny jeans evokes the fashion of a preadolescent girl. The concept of gender, he said, “isn’t really necessary.”

“我的内心是个男人,”体型娇小的佐佐木说。他的衣橱里充满紧身背心、宽松上衣和紧身牛仔裤,很像青春期前女孩的衣橱。他说,性别的概念“真的没必要”。

“People should be able to choose whatever style suits them,” said Sasaki, who has a large following as Toman on social media and regularly appears on television and radio programs. “It’s not as if men have to do one thing, and women have to do another. I don’t find that very interesting. We’re all human beings.”

“人们必须能够选择任何适合自己的风格,”佐佐木说。他以托曼的艺名在社交媒体上拥有众多追随者,经常出现在电视和电台节目中。“并不是好像男人必须这样做,女人必须那样做。我觉得那样不是很有趣。我们都是人类。”

Just as some American men have embraced makeup, young Japanese men are bending fashion gender norms, dyeing their hair, inserting colored contacts and wearing brightly colored lipstick.

就像有些美国男人开始接受化妆一样,年轻的日本男性也在更改着装的性别规范——染头发,戴彩色隐形眼镜,涂颜色鲜艳的口红。

Men like Ryuji Higa, better known as Ryucheru, his signature blond curls often pulled back in a headband, and Genki Tanaka, known as Genking, who rocks long platinum tresses and often appears in miniskirts, have made a leap from social media stardom to TV celebrity.

伊加隆二(Ryuji Higa,更为人知的名字是Ryucheru)标志性的金色卷发经常用发带束起来;田中元季(Genki Tanaka,艺名Genking)留着白金色飘逸长发,经常穿迷你裙——这些男人从社交媒体明星一举成为电视名人。

“It’s about blurring the boundaries that have defined pink and blue masculinity and femininity,” said Jennifer Robertson, a professor of anthropology at the University of Michigan who has researched and written extensively about gender in Japan. “They are trying to increase the scope of what someone with male anatomy can wear.”

“这是为了模糊分别用粉色和蓝色代表女性和男性的界限,”密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的人类学教授詹妮弗· 罗伯逊(Jennifer Robertson)说。她对日本的性别文化进行过广泛的研究和写作。“他们在努力扩大具有男性生理结构的人可穿服装的范围。”

Japanese culture has long had a formal tradition of cross-dressing in theater, from classic forms like Kabuki and Noh, where men dress as both men and women, to Takarazuka, where women play both genders.

日本文化长期以来都有在戏剧中穿着异性服装的正式传统,从由男人扮演男女两种角色的歌舞伎和能剧等古典艺术形式到由女人扮演两种性别的宝冢。

The unisex look for men has also been popularized in the Japanese cartoon form called anime, and by members of popular boy bands.

由于日本动漫和男孩流行乐团,男性的这种性别特征不明显的造型变得更为流行。

The term “genderless danshi” was coined by a talent agent, Takashi Marumoto, who has helped develop Toman’s career. Marumoto recruits other androgynous men for fashion shows and contracts as potential models, capitalizing on their social media followings to market to fans.

“无性别男孩”这个说法是星探丸本隆志(Takashi Marumoto)造出来的,他帮助发展了托曼的事业。丸本在招募其他一些性别特征不明显的男孩参加服装秀,并签订未来做模特的合同,利用他们在社交媒体上的人气向粉丝们做推广。

Unlike in the West, where cross-dressing tends to be associated with sexuality, in Japan it is mostly about fashion.

在西方社会,穿着异性服装往往与性有关,但在日本,它主要是一种时尚。

“I think Japanese people react to these men who look quite feminine differently from how people in Euro-American societies react,” said Masafumi Monden, who researches Japanese fashion and culture at the University of Technology Sydney and is on a fellowship at Tokyo University. “In Japan, how people look and their sexual identities can be separated to a certain extent.”

“我认为,日本人对这些看起来非常女性化的男人的反应与欧美人不同,”在悉尼科技大学(University of Technology Sydney)研究日本服装和文化的门田正文(Masafumi Monden,音)说。他也是东京大学(Tokyo University)的研究员。“在日本,人们的外貌与性取向在一定程度上是分离的。”

Toman Sasaki said that when he first began dressing in the genderless danshi fashion, people frequently asked him whether he was gay. (He says he is heterosexual.)

佐佐木托曼说,他刚开始以无性别男孩的方式着装时,人们经常问他是不是同性恋(他说自己是异性恋)。

He said that he wore makeup to conceal his flaws. “There are many things I’m insecure about; I really don’t like my face,” he said. “But I also feel that who I am changes when I wear makeup.”

他说,他化妆是为了掩盖自己的缺陷。“我对自己的很多地方不自信,我真的不喜欢我的脸,”他说,“但我也感觉,化妆后,我的身份变了。”

Several men who consider themselves genderless danshi said in interviews that they did not see a connection between their appearance and their sexual identities — or even their views on traditional gender roles.

几个认为自己是无性别男孩的人在采访中说,他们认为自己的外貌和性取向没有关系——甚至与他们对传统性别角色的看法也无关。

“It’s just that you use makeup and dress how you want,” said Takuya Kitajima, 18. Kitajima, who goes by the name Takubo, said he believed men and women were fundamentally different despite any blurring of style distinctions. “I think men should protect women, and that principle won’t change,” he said. “Men are stronger than women, and a man should work because the women are weaker.”

“你只是化妆,以你想要的方式着装,”18岁的北岛卓也(Takuya Kitajima)说。他的艺名是Takubo。他认为,就算男人和女人的着装风格变得有些模糊,他们从根本上讲是不同的。“我认为男人应该保护女人,那个原则不会变,”他说。“男人比女人更强壮,男人应该工作,因为女人更脆弱。”

But Yasu Suzuki, 22, who organizes events for other genderless danshi to meet with their social media fans, said his explorations in fashion have broadened his views on sexuality. When he began to experiment with makeup as a teenager, he said, he sometimes attracted the romantic attention of other men.

不过,为其他无性别男孩组织社交媒体粉丝见面会的22岁的铃木安江(Yasu Suzuki,音)说,他在着装上的探索扩展了他对性的看法。他说,他十几岁时开始尝试化妆时,有时会引起其他男人的爱慕。

“I thought that I would want to throw up when a man said to me, ‘I love you,'” said Suzuki, who wears baggy trousers popular among Japanese women and tweezes his facial hair because he cannot yet afford the laser hair removal treatments popular among better-known genderless danshi.

“我觉得,过去当一个男人对我说‘我爱你’时,我会想吐,”铃木说。他穿着在日本女性中很流行的宽松裤子,用镊子去除了脸上的细毛,因为他还负担不起在更为出名的无性别男孩中很流行的激光脱毛术。

“But now that I began wearing this genderless fashion, I think I shed my prejudice,” he said. “Before, I didn’t like boys or men who love each other, but I have started to accept them. Beautiful people are just beautiful.”

In Japan, where a walk through a train station during the commuter rush highlights the dark-suited conformity of most males, young men disillusioned by corporate stagnation may be using fashion to challenge the social order.

在通勤高峰期的日本地铁站,你会看到大部分男人都穿着深色西装。对公司的呆板感到幻灭的年轻男人可能正在用服装挑战这种社会秩序。

“In my generation, women were jealous of men because they could work and do whatever they wanted,” said Junko Mitsuhashi, 61, a professor of gender studies at Chuo University and a transgender woman. “But in the younger generation, men are jealous of women because they can express themselves through fashion.”

“在我那一代,女人们嫉妒男人,因为男人可以工作,可以做他们想做的任何事,”61岁的三桥顺子(Junko Mitsuhashi,音译)说。她是东京中央大学(Chuo University)的性别研究教授,也是一个变性女人。“但在年轻一代中,男人们嫉妒女人,因为女人可以通过时尚来表达自己。”

She added, “Men feel like they don’t have a sphere in which they can express themselves, and they envy girls, because girls can express themselves through their appearance.”

她还说,“男人感觉没有表达自己的领域,他们嫉妒女人,因为女人可以通过外貌来表达自己。”

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