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中国将投资2.5万亿人民币发展可再生能源

更新时间:2017-1-7 10:46:14 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

China Aims to Spend at Least $360 Billion on Renewable Energy by 2020
中国将投资2.5万亿人民币发展可再生能源

China intends to spend more than $360 billion through 2020 on renewable power sources like solar and wind, the government’s energy agency said on Thursday.

中国政府的能源机构周四宣布,中国计划到2020年为止,在太阳能和风能等可再生能源上共投资2.5万亿元人民币。

The country’s National Energy Administration laid out a plan to dominate one of the world’s fastest-growing industries, just at a time when the United States is set to take the opposite tack as Donald J. Trump, a climate-change doubter, prepares to assume the presidency.

通过该计划,中国国家能源局希望能在这个全球增长最快的行业建立统治地位。与此同时,对气候变化持怀疑态度的唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)即将就任总统,美国正准备反其道而行之。

The agency said in a statement that China would create more than 13 million jobs in the renewable energy sector by 2020, curb the growth of greenhouse gasses that contribute to global warming and reduce the amount of soot.

国家能源局在一份声明中称,到2020年,中国将在可再生能源领域创造逾1300万个工作岗位、抑制导致全球变暖的温室气体的增长并减少煤烟。

China surpassed the United States a decade ago as the world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gasses, and now discharges about twice as much.

十年前,中国超过美国成为全球最大的温室气体排放国。现在,中国的排放量约是美国的两倍。

But even disregarding the threat of climate change, China’s announcement was a bold claim on leadership in the renewable energy industry, where Chinese companies, buoyed by a huge domestic market, are already among the world’s dominant players. Thanks in part to Chinese manufacturing, costs in the wind and solar industries are plummeting, making them increasingly competitive with power generation from fossil fuels like coal and natural gas.

但即便不考虑气候变化的威胁,中国宣布这一计划也是在大胆地谋求对可再生能源行业的领导权。在该领域,中国公司在巨大的国内市场的支持下,已经跻身全球主导力量之列。风能和太阳能行业的成本骤降在一定程度上是拜中国制造所赐,使得它们相较于煤炭和天然气等化石燃料发电越来越有竞争力。

Sam Geall, executive editor of Chinadialogue, an English- and Chinese-language website that focuses on the environment, said that the United States, by moving away from a focus on reducing carbon emissions, risked losing out to China in the race to lead the industry.

重点关注环境问题的英汉双语网站中外对话的主编萨姆·杰尔(Sam Geall)说,美国不再注重降低碳排放的做法,可能会在为领导该行业而展开的竞赛中输给中国。

Mr. Trump has in the past called the theory of human-cased global warming a hoax and picked a fierce opponent of President Obama’s rules to reduce carbon emissions, Scott Pruitt, the Oklahoma attorney general, to lead the Environmental Protection Agency.

特朗普过去称人为原因导致全球变暖的理论是一场骗局,并选择了俄克拉何马州检察长斯科特·普鲁特(Scott Pruitt)领导美国环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)。后者强烈反对奥巴马总统的减排规定。

The investment commitment made by the Chinese, combined with Mr. Trump’s moves, means jobs that would have been created in the United States may instead go to Chinese workers.

中国的投资承诺,加上特朗普的举动,意味着本可以在美国创造的就业机会可能会流向中国的劳动者。

Even the headline-grabbing numbers on total investment and job creation may understate what is already happening on the ground in China. Greenpeace estimates that China installed an average of more than one wind turbine every hour of every day in 2015, and covered the equivalent of one soccer field every hour with solar panels.

这些关于总投资和创造就业方面的数字已颇为引人瞩目,然而相对于中国已经在发生的情况,它们仍可能偏保守。绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)估计,2015年中国每天平均每小时安装风力涡轮机一台以上,每小时安装的太阳能组件覆盖的面积相当于一个足球场。

China may meet its 2020 goals for solar installation by 2018, said Lauri Myllyvirta, a research analyst at Greenpeace, who is based in Beijing.

绿色和平组织驻北京的研究分析师柳力(Lauri Myllyvirta)表示,中国也许到2018年便能达到其计划于2020年实现的目标。

But despite these impressive numbers, China’s push to clean its air and reduce its greenhouse gasses faces pressure from coal industry.

尽管有这些令人印象深刻的数字,但中国推动清洁空气和减少温室气体的行动,仍面临着在来自煤炭行业的压力。

Mr. Geall and Mr. Myllyvirta both said that Thursday’s announcement was missing any language on curtailment, or the amount of electricity generated by wind and solar that never finds its way to the country’s power grid. In China, wind power curtailment was 19 percent in the first nine months 2016, Mr. Myllyvirta said, many times higher than in the United States, where curtailment levels are often negligible.

杰尔和柳力均表示,周四的通告丝毫没提到限电问题,也就是无法进入中国电网的风能和太阳能电量。柳力说,2016年前九个月,中国的弃风限电比美国高出许多倍。美国的限电水平通常可以忽略不计。

The main reason for curtailment, he said, is that China is plagued by overcapacity in electricity generation and operators of China’s grid often favor electricity generated from coal.

他说,限电的主要原因是中国受制于发电产能过剩,并且中国电网的运营商通常更喜欢煤电。

In recent years the country has also been building coal-fired power plants at a furious pace, although that has recently slowed along with China’s economy. Another omission from Thursday’s announcements, Mr. Myllyvirta said, was the absence of any specific target to reduce coal consumption.

近年来,中国也在飞速修建煤电厂,不过最近已同中国的经济一起放缓了。柳力说,周四的通告中也没提到任何减少煤耗的具体目标。

But both Mr. Geall and Mr. Myllyvirta said Thursday’s announcement set the stage for still more power generation from renewable energy and a gradual shift away from coal.

但杰尔和柳力均表示,周四的通告为继续增加可再生能源发电和逐步弃用煤炭创造了条件。

“My experience with China is when a numeric target gets written down, it gets implemented,” Mr. Myllyvirta said. “It doesn’t always get implemented in the way you like, but it does get implemented.”

“我对中国的经验是,目标数字被写下来时,就会得到实现,”柳力说。“并不一定会按照你喜欢的方式实现,但的确会实现。”

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