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特朗普要美国制造

更新时间:2017-1-5 11:15:44 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

With Choice of Trade Negotiator, Trump Prepares to Confront Mexico
特朗普要美国制造

WASHINGTON — President-elect Donald J. Trump on Tuesday named as his chief trade negotiator a Washington lawyer who has long advocated protectionist policies, the latest sign that Mr. Trump intends to fulfill his campaign promise to get tough with Mexico and other trading partners.

华盛顿——候任总统唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)于周二任命一名长期提倡保护主义政策的华盛顿律师担任自己的首席贸易谈判代表,这是特朗普决定履行自己竞选期间的承诺,以强硬姿态对待墨西哥和其他贸易伙伴的最新迹象。

Mr. Trump also renewed his episodic campaign to convince American companies to expand domestic manufacturing, criticizing General Motors via Twitter on Tuesday morning for making in Mexico some of the Chevrolet Cruze hatchbacks it sells domestically. Hours later, Mr. Trump claimed credit after Ford said it would expand vehicle production in Flat Rock, Mich.

特朗普还再次发起了一场时断时续的行动:说服美国公司扩大国内制造,他周二上午通过Twitter批评通用汽车(General Motors)在墨西哥制造若干在国内销售的雪佛兰科鲁兹掀背车。几小时后,特朗普称,由于他的努力,福特公司表示将扩大在密歇根州弗拉特罗克的汽车生产。

The choice of Robert Lighthizer to be the United States’ trade representative nearly completes Mr. Trump’s selection of top economic advisers and, taken together with the president-elect’s running commentary on Twitter, underscores Mr. Trump’s focus on making things in America. That is causing unease among some Republicans who regard Mr. Trump’s views on trade as dangerously retrograde, even as they embrace the bulk of his economic agenda.

选择罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)作为美国贸易代表后,特朗普挑选高级经济顾问的工作已经接近完成,这个人选与候任总统在Twitter上的评论综合在一起,强调了特朗普对发展美国制造的关注。这使一些共和党人感到不安,虽然他们接受特朗普的大部分经济议程,但认为他对贸易的看法是危险的倒退。

Mainstream economists warn that protectionist policies like import taxes could impose higher prices on consumers and slow economic growth.

主流经济学家警告说,进口税等保护主义政策可能会令消费者承担更高的价格,减缓经济增长。

But some Democrats are signaling a readiness to support Mr. Trump. Nine House Democrats held a news conference Tuesday with the A.F.L.-C.I.O. president, Richard Trumka, to urge renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement with Mexico and Canada.

但是一些民主党人表示愿意支持特朗普。九位众议院民主党议员周二与美国劳工联合会-产业工会联合会(American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations,简称AFL-CIO)主席理查德·特拉姆卡(Richard Trumka)举办了联合新闻发布会,敦促与墨西哥和加拿大就北美自由贸易协定(North American Free Trade Agreement)重新展开谈判。

“We wanted him to know that we’ll work with him on doing that,” Mr. Trumka said. “I don’t think he has enough Republican support to do it, and rewriting the rules of trade is a necessary first step in righting the economy for working people.”

“我们希望他知道,我们会和他一起努力完成这项工作,”特拉姆卡说。“我认为他没有得到足够的共和党支持来进行这项工作,重写贸易规则是令经济有利于劳动人民的第一步。”

Mr. Trump and his top advisers on trade, including Mr. Lighthizer, share a view that the United States in recent decades prioritized the ideal of free trade over its own self-interest. They argue that other countries are undermining America’s industrial base by subsidizing their own export industries while impeding American importers. They regard this unfair competition as a key reason for the lackluster growth of the economy.

特朗普和他的高级贸易顾问,包括莱特希泽在内,都认为美国近几十年来让自由贸易的理想凌驾于自身利益之上。他们认为,其他国家正在补贴自己的出口行业,阻碍美国进口商,从而破坏美国的工业基础。他们认为这种不公平竞争是经济增长乏力的关键原因。

In picking Mr. Lighthizer, who has spent much of the last few decades representing American steel producers in their frequent litigation of trade disputes, Mr. Trump is seeking to hire one of Washington’s top trade lawyers to enforce international trade agreements more vigorously. He must be confirmed by the Senate.

莱特希泽在过去十几年里代表美国钢铁生产商进行频繁的贸易纠纷诉讼,特朗普希望雇佣一个华盛顿的顶级贸易律师,从而更加有力地执行国际贸易协议,因此选择了他。他的任命必须得到参议院确认。

“He will do an amazing job helping turn around the failed trade policies which have robbed so many Americans of prosperity,” Mr. Trump said in a statement.

“他将会出色地帮助我们扭转失败的贸易政策,这些政策从众多美国人手中抢走了富足的生活,”特朗普在一份声明中说。

Mainstream Republicans have sought common ground with Mr. Trump, emphasizing, for example, the importance of enforcing trade rules, but they have not abandoned the party’s longtime advocacy for trade. Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, which will hold hearings on Mr. Lighthizer’s nomination, issued a cautiously supportive statement Tuesday.

主流共和党人与特朗普找到了一些共同点,比如说,他们都强调执行贸易规则的重要性,但他们没有放弃该党长期以来对贸易的倡导。周二,即将主持莱特希泽提名听证会的参议院财政委员会主席,犹他州参议员奥文·哈奇(Howin Hatch)发表了谨慎的支持声明。

“As the world and our economic competitors move to expand their global footprints, we can’t afford to be left behind in securing strong deals that will increase our access to new markets for American-made products and services,” Mr. Hatch said in a statement. “I look forward to a vigorous discussion of Bob’s trade philosophy and priorities.”

“随着世界和我们的经济竞争对手纷纷在全球扩张,为了获得有利的待遇,为美国制造的产品与服务谋取新市场,我们不能落后,”哈奇在声明中说。“我期待着对鲍勃的贸易哲学和优先事项进行积极的讨论。

Mr. Trump has named a number of advisers on trade, leaving some ambiguity about the division of responsibilities. The president-elect named the economist Peter Navarro to lead a new White House office overseeing trade and industrial policy. Mr. Trump also said Wilbur Ross, the billionaire investor and choice for commerce secretary, will play a key role. Mr. Lighthizer, however, is the only member of the triumvirate with government experience.

特朗普已经提名了一些贸易顾问,在职责划分方面留下了一些模棱两可的地带。候任总统提名了经济学家彼得·纳瓦罗(Peter Navarro)领导白宫的一个监督贸易和工业政策的新办公室。特朗普还说,作为亿万富翁的投资者、商务部长人选威尔伯·罗斯(Wilbur Ross)将发挥关键作用。然而,莱特希泽是这三人小组中唯一有政府工作经验的一位。

“Those who say U.S.T.R. will be subordinated to other agencies are mistaken,” said Alan Wolff, another former senior American trade official who was the steel industry’s co-counsel on trade with Mr. Lighthizer for nearly 20 years, citing Mr. Lighthizer’s encyclopedic knowledge of trade law. “He’ll be a dominant figure on trade, in harmony with Wilbur Ross and Navarro.”

“那些说美国贸易代表办公室(Office of the United States Trade Representative)将会从属于其他机构的说法都是错的,”前任美国高级贸易官员艾伦·伍尔夫(Alan Wolff)说,他曾与莱特希泽共同为钢铁行业担任了将近20年的贸易顾问,他说莱特希泽对贸易法无所不知。“他将成为贸易的主导人物,与威尔伯·罗斯和纳瓦罗和谐共处。”

There is also an ideological divide between the people Mr. Trump has named to oversee trade policy and his broader circle of advisers, which is populated by longstanding trade advocates like Gary D. Cohn, president of Goldman Sachs, who will lead the National Economic Council; Rex W. Tillerson, the chief executive of Exxon Mobil, tapped for secretary of state; and Gov. Terry Branstad of Iowa, Mr. Trump’s choice for ambassador to China.

受特朗普委派负责监督贸易政策的人,与他的整个顾问团队当中的一些成员还存在着意识形态分歧,其中包括几位长期的贸易倡导者,如即将领导国家经济委员会(National Economic Council)的高盛集团总裁加里·D·科恩(Gary D. Cohn);他提名出任国务卿的埃克森美孚公司(Exxon Mobil)首席执行官雷克斯·W·蒂尔森(Rex W. Tillerson);以及被他选为驻华大使的特里·布兰斯塔德(Terry Branstad)。

Proponents of trade hope the broader circle, and congressional Republicans, will exert a moderating influence.

自由贸易支持者希望这个更宽泛的圈子以及国会中的共和党议员能够起到缓冲作用。

“You’re seeing a pretty clear indication that there will be a focus on the enforcement of our trade agreements and on the letter of the law,” said Scott Lincicome, an international trade lawyer at White & Case. “But that doesn’t necessarily mean a significant turn toward protectionism. Even free trade guys like me support enforcement.”

“我们看到了相当清晰的迹象:重心将被放在我们那些贸易协议的履行以及法律条文上,”伟凯律师事务所(White & Case)的国际贸易律师斯科特·林西科姆(Scott Lincicome)说。“但这并不一定意味着会出现通往保护主义的重大转向。就连我这样的拥护自由贸易的人也支持加强执法。”

Trade opponents on the left and the right, meanwhile, are hoping Mr. Trump means to break with several decades of pro-trade policy.

与此同时,左翼和右翼的自由贸易反对者都希望,特朗普的确是想抛开已经实施了几十年的贸易促进政策。

“There’s going to be a war within the Trump administration on where they go with trade, and we’re hoping to energize the worker base he had to make sure they go in the right direction to benefit the American worker,” Mr. Trumka said.

“引领贸易走向何方的问题,会在特朗普政府内部引发一场战争。我们预计,为了激励工人选民,他必须确保他们朝着正确的方向前进,以惠及美国工人,”特拉姆卡说。

A broader shift in trade policy would unfold more slowly. Mr. Trump has promised to renegotiate Nafta; the original process took most of three years. He has promised to pursue enforcement actions against other nations, but it takes time to mount cases. He has threatened to impose new tariffs on imports, but sweeping changes most likely would require congressional legislation.

整体上的贸易政策转型将会更缓慢一些。特朗普承诺要重新就《北美自由贸易协定》进行谈判;但原来的协定用了差不多三年才谈成。他承诺要对其他国家采取执法行动,但处理案件需要时间。他扬言要制定新的进口关税税率,但彻底的改变很可能需要国会立法才行。

Mr. Trump already is seeking to exert influence by seizing the presidential bullhorn.

特朗普已然在通过紧握总统扩音器竭力施加影响了。

“General Motors is sending Mexican made model of Chevy Cruze to U.S. car dealers-tax free across border,” he wrote Tuesday on Twitter. “Make in U.S.A. or pay big border tax!”

“通用汽车正把在墨西哥生产的雪佛兰科鲁兹送到边境线另一边的美国汽车经销商手中,不用交税,”他于周二在Twitter上写道。“要么在美国生产,要么交一大笔边境税!”

General Motors announced in 2015 that it would make the Cruze in Coahuila, Mexico. American manufacturers are moving small-car production to Mexico to take advantage of lower labor costs and because of declining domestic demand. They continue to build more expensive vehicles in the United States.

通用汽车于2015年宣布,将在墨西哥的科阿韦拉生产科鲁兹。美国生产商正把小汽车的生产转移到墨西哥,这样做是为了利用那里人力成本低廉的优势,同时也是基于国内不断下降的需求作出的调整。

Ford’s announcement Tuesday does not reverse that trend. The carmaker said it still planned to move production of the compact Ford Focus from Michigan to Mexico. But it said it would invest in a different Michigan plant to expand production of higher-priced vehicles, including its F-150 pickup truck and the Mustang sports car, as well as a new battery-powered sport utility vehicle.

福特周二发布的消息并未让该趋势出现逆转。这家汽车生产商说,它依然打算把福克斯(Focus)紧凑型轿车的生产从密歇根州转移到墨西哥。但它表示,将在密歇根州新建一个工厂,扩大高价汽车的生产,包括它的F-150皮卡和野马(Mustang)跑车,以及一种新推出的电池动力运动型多用途车。

“We are encouraged by the pro-growth policies that President-elect Trump and the new Congress have indicated they will pursue,” said the company’s chief executive, Mark Fields.

“候任总统特朗普以及新国会表示,他们将推行促进经济增长的政策,这让我们受到了鼓舞,”该公司的首席执行官马克·菲尔茨(Mark Fields)说。

Mr. Lighthizer served as deputy United States trade representative in the Ronald Reagan administration, when he was involved in pressing Japan to reduce its restrictions on American imports and its subsidies for its own exports.

莱特希泽在罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)政府担任过美国副贸易代表,他曾和其他人一道向日本施压,敦促其减少对源自美国的进口商品的限制以及对本国出口商品的补贴。

Reagan is often remembered as an advocate for free trade, but his administration in its early hours imposed a quota on Japanese auto imports. It was the first in a long series of measures aimed at putting pressure on the nation that was then regarded as a threat to American prosperity.

在人们的记忆中,里根通常以自由贸易倡导者的形象出现,但他的政府在上台初期曾对进口自日本的汽车实施配额制。想当初,日本被认为威胁到了美国的繁荣昌盛,因此美国采取了一长串旨在向其施压的举措,进口汽车配额制是其中第一项。

“President Reagan’s pragmatism contrasted strongly with the utopian dreams of free traders,” Mr. Lighthizer wrote in a 2008 piece criticizing Senator John McCain, Republican of Arizona, for embracing “unbridled” free trade. Conservatives, he argued, “always understood that trade policy was merely a tool for building a strong and independent country with a prosperous middle class.”

“里根总统的实用主义和自由贸易倡导者的乌托邦梦想形成了强烈反差,”莱特希泽在2008年的一篇批评亚利桑那州共和党参议员约翰·麦凯恩(John McCain)支持“无节制的”自由贸易的文章中写道。他认为,保守派人士“一直都明白,贸易政策仅仅是一种工具,旨在建设一个有着富足中产阶层的强大而独立的国家。”

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